Kinesiology Study Guide 1

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Kinesiology
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study of motion or human movement
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Anatomical kinesiology
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study of human musculoskeletal system and musculotendinous system
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Biomechanics
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application of mechanical physics to human motion
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Structural kinesiology
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study of muscles as they are involved in science of movement
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Superior
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closer to head or higher than another structure
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Inferior
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closer to feet or lower than another structure
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Anterior
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front side
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Posterior
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back side
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Medial
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closer to midline
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Lateral
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away from midline
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Distal
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farther from trunk
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Proximal
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closer to trunk
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Superficial
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closer to surface
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Profundus (deep)
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farther from surface
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Central
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towards central axis
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Ipsilateral
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of the same side
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Contralateral
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opposite side
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Palmar (hand)
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anterior surface
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Dorsal (hand)
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posterior surface
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Plantar (foot)
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lower surface
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Dorsal (foot)
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upper surface
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Radial
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towards outer border of upper limb
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Ulnar
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towards innder border of upper limb
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Fibular
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towards outer border of lower limb
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Tibial
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towards innder border of lower limb
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Anatomical position
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forearm is supinated 90
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Fundamental position
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forearm is 0
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Valgus
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knees in, ankles out
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Varus
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knees out, ankles in
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Sagittal
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divides body into left and right
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Frontal
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divides body into anterior and posterior
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Transverse
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divides body into cranial and caudal
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Sagittal plane
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mediolateral axis
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Frontal plane
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anterioposterior axis
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Transverse plane
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longitudinal axis
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Mechanics
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study of physical actions of forces
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Statics
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study of systems in states of constant motion
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Dynamics
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study of systems not in steady-state motion
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Kinematics
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description of motion and includes consideration of time, displacement, velocity, acceleration, and space factors f a system’s motion
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Kinetics
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study of forces associated with motion of a body
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Linear kinematics
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movement along a line with all points moving in the same direction at the same speed
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Angular kinematics
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involves rotation about axis or point
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Linear motion
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motion along a line
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Rectilinear motion
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motion along a straight line
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Curvilinear motion
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motion along a curved line
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Angular motion
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rotation about a point
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Newton’s first law of inertia
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a body at rest will stay at rest
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Newton’s second law of acceleration
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the greater the mass, the more force required to accelerate it
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Centric forces
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result in linear (translational) motion only
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Eccentric forces
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always result in rotational motion (sometimes linear motion too)
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Torque
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product of force and perpendicular distance from the force’s line of action
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Moment arm
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special name given to the perpendicular distance from force’s line of action and the axis of rotation
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Newton’s third law of action-reaction
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for every action, there is an equal and opposite reaction
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Static friction
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the amount of friction between 2 objects that have not begun to move
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Kinetic friction
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friction occurring between 2 objects that are sliding upon one another
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Equilibrium
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state of acceleration where there is no change in speed or direction of the body
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Static equilibrium
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body is at rest or completely motionless
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Balance
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ability to control equillibrium
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Dynamic equilibrium
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all applied and internal forces acting on the moving body are in balance, resulting in movement with unchanged speef or direction
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Stability
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resistance to a disturbance of the body’s equilibrium
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First class lever
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FAR
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Second class lever
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ARF
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Third class lever
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AFR
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Brachialis muscle
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true 3rd class lever

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