Kin 2504-FInal

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Among all age groups in America, about __ in _ people have CVD in some form
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1 3
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#1 killer is __ #2 is ___ #3 is ___
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heart attack cancer stroke
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_ % of people that have heart disease are under the age of 4
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15
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America’s biggest killer—more than any other single cause of death, for both women and men.
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CVD
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What Is Cardiovascular Disease (CVD)?
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All the diseases of the heart, blood vessels, restriction of blood blow (blood flow, atherosclerosis (plaque build up)
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CVD damages the heart and blood vessels, affecting
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blood oxidation and carbon dioxide waste removal.
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can lead to hypertension or high blood pressure; goes hand in hand with atherosclerosis
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Arterial stenosis
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most common form of CVD; a risk factor for other kinds of CVDs; it is a disease itself;
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Hypertension (sustained high blood pressure)
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what can cause hypertension
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too much sodium, kidney disease/abnormality, issue with heart muscle itself;
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pressure exerted on vessel walls; sending oxygen and nutrients to the body
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systolic
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systolic is the __ number and we look for
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top 120 or less is what we like to see (140 or more to diagnose)
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– pressure against artery walls when it is at relaxation phase
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diastolic
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diastolic is the __ number and we look for
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bottom less than 80 recommended (90 or more to diagnos
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Do one or both numbers of pressure have to be over to be diagnosed with hypertension?
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can be just one
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Plaque Build-up in the
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arteries
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CVD risk is __ % greater for a smoker than a non smoker
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70
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– bad cholesterol; low density; encourages plaque build up
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LDL
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good cholesterol; help to clean out the system and keep things flowing
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HDL
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diets high in saturated fats and transfats leads to higher levels of
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LDL
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being ___ is one of the greatest risk factors for CVD;
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inactive
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CVD Risk Factors You Cannot Control
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Heredity, age, gender, race
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__% of heart attacks occur in people over age 65
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75
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How Can I Avoid CVD?
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Don’t use tobacco Eat well Exercise regularly Manage your stress Control diabetes Avoid alcohol and drug abuse
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A medical condition that develops gradually and persists for months or years
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Chronic Disease
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Characterized as inadequate production of insulin or inadequate use
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Excessive urine production High amounts of sugar in blood and urine Often thirsty and thirsty Unexplained weight loss It is the fastest growing chronic disease in America
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Type 1 diabetes Considered an ____ disease
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autoimmune
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Type __ Diabetes: Destroys the pancreases ability to produce insulin
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1
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Develops in childhood or adolescence
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Type 1 diabetes
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Type __ Diabetes: Usually have to give themselves insulin
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1
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Type __ Diabetes: Have to pay close attention to what they eat and stress levels
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1
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5-10% of people w/ diabetes have
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Type 1 diabetes
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Type __ Diabetes: Loss of ability for body cells to respond to insulin
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2
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Type __ diabetes: Pancreas will overwork
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2
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Main cause: inactivity and obesity
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Type 2 Diabetes
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Type __ Diabetes: Referred to as adult onset
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2
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90-95% of cases of diabetes are
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Type 2 Diabetes
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Type __ Diabetes: They have to lose weight and medications
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2
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Chronic Conditions and College Students: leading condition is
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allergies
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What is diabetes?
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The inability to produce or use insulin (a pancreatic hormone needed to convert sugar and other substances into energy)
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Usually develops in women during pregnancy
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Gestational Diabetes
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May disappear after childbirth; creates a higher risk of mothers developing type 2 diabetes
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Gestational Diabetes
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Glucose enters the __ from the __
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bloodstream digestive organs
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COPD =
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Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease
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Asthma is a chronic disease in which the
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lungs’ airways swell, restricting airflow; it has a wide range of triggers.
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COPD includes two lung diseases that disrupt airflow and create breathing problems: __ & __ IN __ % of both of these smoking is the primary trigger
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Emphysema Chronic Bronchitis 83
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where irritant (tobacco smoke) has irritated and damaged cells that line the alveoli (air sacks in lungs) as they become inflames cells die and patient feels short of breath or that they are suffocating; some will develop congestive heart failure
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Emphysema
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some kind will cause bronchial tubes to become inflamed and cause them to produce mucus (can impair breathing and puts them at high risk for infection bc extra fluid)
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Chronic Bronchitis
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What Is Osteoporosis?
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A chronic, degenerative disease marked by thinning, brittle bones
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Over half of Americans over 50 have the disease or early signs of it
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Osteoporosis
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Osteoporosis common in your
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hip, spine, and in wrist
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Osteoporosis Typically diagnosed through
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medical history and bone density test (DXA)
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There are four groups of risk factors for osteoporosis:
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Genetic Hormonal Nutritional Lifestyle
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women and men of what race generally get Osteoporosis
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caucasian and asian
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A group of joint diseases characterized by acute or chronic inflammation of joints
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Arthritis
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Causes stiffness, aching, and sometimes permanent deformation and dysfunction
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Arthritis
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Breakdown of cartilage; mainly due to injury, use, obesity
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Osteoarthritis
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Usually affects hips, knees, spine, fingers, toes
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Osteoarthritis
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Most common type of arthritis, but if you have another type you are at high risk to develop
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Osteoarthritis
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Because bones rub together causing inflammation they can develop
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bone spur or fluid build up
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2nd most common arthritis considered an autoimmune disease
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Rheumatoid arthritis
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Typically will occur in both sides of the body (both hands, both knees) Can affect skin, eyes, lungs, heart, blood vessels, and nerves
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Rheumatoid arthritis
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Chronic, painful joint inflammation; genetically determined
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Rheumatoid arthritis
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very common; misunderstood and misdiagnoses because most common complaint is joint and muscle pain and fatigue, depression and socially isolated more women than men to get disease (10% more likely) age range 25-60+ in older adult females; treating it with medication; respond well to aquatic therapy
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Fibromyalgia
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– autoimmune disease, some people only suffer minor inconveniences or can have life long disability, will attack joint areas (pain, swelling, inflammation), blood vessels can be affected, heart, lungs, not one single factor that causes research thinks combo of heredity environment, immune system factors, and hormonal. Treatment medications, physical activity,
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Lupus
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Osteoarthritis is __ times more likely to develop than rheumatoid arthritis.
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10
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A group of diseases characterized by the uncontrolled growth and spread of abnormal cells
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cancer
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The second most common cause of U.S. deaths
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cancer
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Tobacco use cause at least _% of cancer deaths
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30
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Cancer is characterized by
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damaged genes that mutate, forming a tumor.
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considered not cancerous; potentially harmless unless growth gets in the way of normal functioning
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Benign tumors
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considered cancerous; will grow rapidly, invade surrounding structures and tissues; will disrupt normal physiologic function
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Malignant tumors
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mass of damaged mutated cells
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tumor
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Both kinds of tumors start from Cells stick together in __ tumors
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one singe cell benign
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____ is the spread of cancer.
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Metastasis
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___ occurs when malignant cells produce growth factors that induce capillaries (blood vessels) to supply the tumor with oxygen, helping it to grow.
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Angiogenesis
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Metastasis tumor cancer cells invade __ & enter ___. They aren’t __
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normal tissue blood and lymph held together
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solid tumors happen in epithelial tissue (skin, lining of body tissues)
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carcinomas
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arise in muscles, bones, and other connective tissues
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Sarcomas
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malignant growth of WBC lymphocytes; happen within lymph nodes, can be in infection fighting organs
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Lymphomas
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nonsolid cancers characterized by an increase in WBC (not tumors); can happen within blood forming tissues in bone marrow and possibly the spleen
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Leukemias
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______ (cancer specialists) recognize 4 stages of cancer Based on
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Oncologists size of tumor, number of lymph nodes if involved, extent of the metastasis
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Male site with the highest number of cancer cases
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prostate
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Female site with the highest number of cancer cases
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breast
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Male and Female site with the highest number of deaths from cancer
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lung & bronchus
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Is the Most Common Cancer
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Skin Cancer
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5 % of all skin cancer are this case
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Malignant melanoma
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Guidelines to catch skin cancer earliest form (moles/skin tags)
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ABCD Asymmetry, border irregularity, color that is not uniformed, diameter (greater than 6mm)
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Most cases of lung cancer are not detected until stage
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3-4
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female Reproductive Tract Cancers Include
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ovarian, uterine, and cervical cancer
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Works by destroying malignant cells or inhibiting their growth Still one of the most effective forms of treatment
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radiation
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Administered via intravenous drugs Often causes hair loss, nausea, and nutritional deficiencies Along with radiation treatment, it may also cause long-term damage to the heart, brain, and other organs
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chemotherapy
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New treatments that may enhance the immune system Also includes gene therapies and potential stem cell treatments
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Immunotherapies
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Smoking and tobacco use and alcohol increase cancer risk b/c
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when you break down alcohol, it increases your levels of estrogen and blocks ability to absorb nutrient
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Being overweight increase cancer risk b/c __ produce an __ amount of __ also, obese people have ___, which can lead to ___
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fat cells increased estrogen increased insulin tumor growth
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Many people going through cancer treatment try to get as __ as possible before, to help with their symptoms and treatment of cancer
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active
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An Acronym for Cancer Prevention
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C-A-U-T-I-O-N Change in bowel or bladder habits A sore that does not heal Unusual bleeding or discharge Thickening or lump in the breast or elsewhere Indigestion or difficulty in swallowing Obvious change in a wart or mole Nagging cough or hoarseness
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Average life expectancy:
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77.4 years
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Characteristics of addiction include
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denial
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Benefits of quitting smoking
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improved circulation, oxygen levels return to normal, improved sense of smell
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Condoms protect against the transmission of
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HIV, gonorrhea, syphilis
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Syphilis is transmitted via
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direct contact with sexual organs
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syphilis is or is not an untreatable STI
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is not
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The most common trait to successful relationships
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good communication
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most people with chlamydia have
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no symptoms
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Several days after engaging in unprotected sex, John begins to experience painful urination & a foamy yellow discharge. His symptoms suggested he had
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trichomoniasis
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Sue is a 40 year old women who smokes, frequently uses tanning beds, & drinks 2-3 alcoholic drinks a day. she has increased her risk for
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breast, lung, and skin cancer
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People without access to health care are more likely to
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wait to seek attention for serious symptoms
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During their 20’s and 30’s most people reach their peak in
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strength, cardiovascular funct., bone mass
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knowing your body, paying attention to its signals, and taking appropriate action to stop illness or injury
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self-care
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tolerance to nicotine develops
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immediately
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using a drug for a purpose in which it is not intended is
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drug misuse
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the prodromal stage of herpes is characterized by __ at the site of the infection
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burning and tingling
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A fit & well lifestyle integrates
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exercise, nutrition, stress reduction, healthy relationships, & spiritual wellness
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Factors influencing environmental wellness
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climate changes, pollution, secondhand smoke
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smoking contributes to heart disease by
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weakening tissues by oxygen deprivation, platelet adhesiveness, buildup of fatty deposit in the artery walls
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most skin cancer deaths are caused by
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melanomas
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a non-cancerous mole is
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symmetrical
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if a person quits smoking, their risk of heart disease decreases by 50% in approx
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1 year
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crabs in another name for
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pubic lice
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leukemia cause an increase in
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white blood cell
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a decline in the max functional level of individual cells, organs, and organisms
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aging
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HIV is transmitted via
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semen, blood, vaginal secretions
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cervical cancer is caused by
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HPV
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in order to grow a malignant tumor needs
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oxygen and nutrients
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new approaches to treating cancer focus on
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treating cancer as a genetic disease caused by a mutation
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Alcohols effects on the CNS?
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pulse rate decreases
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addiction
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continued involvement with or use of a substance despite negative consequences
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Fatty liver is also known as
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cirrhosis
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Pot warnings of cancer
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nagging cough change in bladder or bowl movements a sore that doesn’t heal
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__ cancer most common for males between the ages of 20 and 34
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testicular
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cancer is localized and often treatable when it is in
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stage 1
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T/F STIs can be transmitted via an infected mother to her infant
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true
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T/F untreated STIs can cause infertility
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true
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T/F there is no cure for viral STIs
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true
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a tumor that is non-cancerous is
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benign
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prostate cancer is most common in men
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over 50
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A STI Is a ___ infection
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microbial
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Hepatitis B can be transmitted via
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sharing needle with an infected person infected mother to a newborn sexual contact
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side stream smoke contains more __ then mainstream
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ammonia carbon monoxide
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Which STIS are bacterial infected
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chlamydia, gonorrhea, & syphilis
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teens and young adults are more likely to contact an STI b/c
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multiple partners condoms inconsistently safe sex inconsistently
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most common type of cancerous tumor
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Carcinoma
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Smoking accounts for _____% of lung cancer deaths?
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78
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Drinking increases _______ cancer in females.
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breast
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is the leading killer of both men & women
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lung cancer
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the A in ABCD stands for…?
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asymmetrical
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an example of a sensory deficit caused by aging is
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going deaf
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over time we have a cummulation of damage from internal sources(what we eat, do or don’t do) and external sources( environmental sources) that wears body out, what to do on day to day basis, what we exposed too, anything happens to body
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wear and tear theory
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from birth our cells are genetically program to divide replicate and multiple a limited number of times, once we reach peak level: cells and organs begin to deteriate, no control
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cellular theory
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Female vs Male Avg age to live
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81 74
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the number of cells that will exhibit and give into mutations increases with change
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Genetic theory
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What segment of population is fastest growing today?
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Older adults 65 and older, because of baby boom, bigger than ever is, largest by 2030 and even greated by 2050
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Thee Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act of 2010 extended to age ___ the time students can remain on their parents’ health plan and removed lifetime caps on benefit payouts for student health coverage.
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26
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What are the three Major Types of Bacteria STIs that we discused?
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Chlamydia, Gonorrhea, Syphillis
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Major Types of Viral STIs we discussed?
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Herpes, Human Papilloma Virus (HPV), Hepatits B, HIV/AIDS
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Most commonly reported STI in the United States
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Chlamydia
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Louisiana has consistently had the highest rates of Louisiana has the 2nd highest rate of Louisiana has the 3rd highest rate of
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Syphilis Gonorrhea Chlaymdia
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Primary phase Syphilis
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usually painless chancres on/in the sex organs, mouth, breasts, anus, or fingers;
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secondary phase Syphilis
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flu-like symptoms, skin rash all over body, hair loss;
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increased gray discharge with unusual odor
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Bacterial Vaginosis (Gardnerella)
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Most commonly sexually transmitted virus in US Approximately ___ Americans are infected
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Human Papillomavirus Virus 20 million
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sudden loss of function in brain caused by blockage or rupture of blood vessel
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stroke
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blockage in blood vessel and oxygen and nutrients can’t get through to brain (blood supply gets cut off)
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ischemic
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blood vessel bursts- blood supply can’t get where it needs to go
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Hemorrhagic
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warning signs for stroke; brief interruption of blood supply than can cause numbness or dizziness
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TIAS
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defect or heart disease present at birth
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Congenital heart disease
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Heart muscle is damaged or overworked and heart is too weak to keep blood circulating through the body Can cause congestion in the body tissues and fluid in the lungs (making it difficult to breathe)
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Congestive heart failure (CHF)
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irregular heart beat; can be extremely fast (more than 100 beats for minute) or slow heart rate
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Arrhythmias
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can kill you within minutes because heart is not contracting and not sending out blood Is potential and could be fatal
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Fibrillation
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chest pain happens as a warning sign because there is reduced blood supply and oxygen People will have chest pain at rest or while doing activity
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Angina Pectoris
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– leads to Coronary heart disease; happens in the coronary arteries (supply blood to the heart)
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Atherosclerosis
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hardening of the arteries
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Atherosclerosis

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