Kinesiology 201 Exercise Section. Endurance exercise, regular activity, body reduce effect

What does the latest version of the Physical Activity and Exercise Guide lines for Americans recommend?
getting 150 minutes of moderate-intensity aerobic exercise per week
What is another name for cycle training?
periodization
Which statement is correct regarding physical activity?
a little physical activity is better then none
What is one way t develop a higher degree of fitness?
vary the program from time to time
The physical activity and exercise recommendations for promoting General Health, Fitness, and Weight Management suggest which action to achieve or maintain weight loss?
exercise moderately for 60 to 90 minutes per day on most days of the week.
How does cooling down help those who exercise?
it restores circulation to its normal resting condition.
What term is defined as the ability of the body to perform prolonged, large-muscle, dynamic exercise at moderate to high levels of intensity?
cardiorespiratory endurance
When do overuse or over training injuries occur?
when a person increases the intensity of exercise before increasing the time (duration) of exercise
what is one effect of increasing one’s cardiorespiratory endurance?
the resting heart rate decreases
Which combination of activities develops healthy body composition?
stable diet, resistance training, and cardiorespiratory endurance exercise
What is the definition of muscular strength?
the amount of force a muscle can produce with a single maximum effort
What is a key to improving fitness?
exercise consistently
Which change to muscle cells causes older adults to lose muscular strength?
the cells get smaller in size
Which activities best develop muscular strength and endurance?
activities that involve working with resistance such as weights or performing callisthenic exercise.
What is muscular endurance?
the ability to resist fatigue and to sustain muscular tension over time
Which activities are on the bottom level of the physical activity pyramid?
walking, climbing stairs, and yard work
What characterizes healthy body composition?
high proportion of muscle, bone, and water and an acceptably low proportion of fat.
what characteristic helps make goals long lasting and attainable?
Goals should be clear and important to you personally.
Which ability is a skill-related fitness component?
agility
What is the first step in creating a successful fitness program?
assess your current fitness level
Which is one of the functions of the cardiorespiratory system?
transport nutrients
which is included in the guidelines for preventing exercise injuries?
avoiding or minimizing high impact activities
which organ is part of the cardiorespiratory system?
the lungs
What should a beginner do during the initial phase of an exercise program?
exercise at the low end of the target heart rate range
Which circulation does the right side of the heart provide?
pulmonary
Why is cooling dwn after exercise important?
it restores circulation to its normal resting condition
To where does pulmonary circulation carry blood?
the lungs
Which statement refers to a warm-up session?
It can enhance performance and reduce injuries.
Which is the largest artery in the body?
Aorata
On what does the recommended time (duration) of an endurance training workout depend?
Intensity
What is the state of the heart during systole?
contracting
In addition to pulse counting, who can one monitor exercise intensity?
rating of perceived exertion
Which small blood vessels distribute blood throughout the body?
Capillaries
Which is the most important exercise factor for achieving tainning effects?
intensity
What functions does the alveoli serve in the lungs?
They allow for the exchange of carbon dioxide and oxygen
What percentage of the maximum heart rate is an appropriate target heat rate zone for an average individual?
between 65% and 90%
Which large blood vessels branch off the aorta and supply the heart muscle with oxygenated blood?
right and left coronary arteries
How does regular endurance exercise contribute to better control of body fat?
It can increases daily energy expenditure
What is a typical resting heart rate for a healthy individual?
60 bpm
How does regular endurance exercise reduce the risk of Type 2 Diabetes?
It improves control of blood sugar
How is muscular strength assessed?
by measuring the most force a muscle can produce in one effort
Which approach is recommended for strength training safety?
rest between sets of exercises
How is muscular endurance assessed?
by measuring the ability to exert a sub maximal force repeatedly over time
Which defines an antagonist muscle?
a muscle that is stretched when an agonist muscle contracts, opposing the agonist
What makes up a motor unit?
one motor nerve connected to muscle fibers
For overall fitness, how many different exercises should a weight-training program include?
8-10
Which describes a muscle fiber?
an individual muscle cell
According to the NSCA guidelines, which exercise program is an example of a weight-training program focused on building muscular endurance?
3 sets, 12-15 repetitions, 65% of 1 RM
Which is a definition of hypertrophy?
an increase in muscle fiber size
According to the NSCA guidelines, how long should the rest interval between sets last when focusing on general fitness?
30 to 90 seconds
What characterizes slow twitch muscle fivers?
fatigue resistance
In weight training, what is the definition of a set?
group of repetitions followed by a rest period
What characterizes fast twitch muscle fibers?
rapid contraction
what is the best way to improve muscular endurance?
use light resistance with many repetitions
Which activities predominantly use slow-twitch muscle fibers?
walking and jogging
What is the best way to build individual muscle strength and muscle size?
use heavy resistance with few repetitions for multiple sets
properly aligning the spine and the strong muscles in which area can reduce such injuries as low back pain?
abdomen and hips
What determines training intensity for weigh training?
amount of weight lifted
How does strength training improve body composition?
primarily by increasing muscle mass
What is the MINIMUM number of training days per week for gaining strength?
2
Upon which does static flexibility depends?
structure of a joint
When should a person perform stretching exercise?
after a warm-up or workout
What is a disadvantage of active stretching?
may not produce a sufficient stretch
What are joint capsules
semi-elastic structures that surround major joints
What does successful management of body composition require?
long-term, consistent coordination of many aspects of a wellness prgram
Which association is accurate for people with a waist-to-hip ratio above 1.0?
associated with a significantly increased risk of disease
Why do women have a higher proportion of essential fat than me?
women have essential fat deposited in the breasts, uterus, and other sex specific sites
Which approach helps avoid errors in bioelectrical impedance analysis?
avoiding under hydration prior to the measurement
Which is a definition of essential fat?
fat incorporated into the organs and tissues
Which is an essential component of safe passive stretching?
good communication with partner
what are the yellow fibers that make connective tissue flexible?
elastin
Which type of stretching usually requires a partner?
PNF
What are the two principla types of connective tissue in a muscle?
elastin and collagen
what type of stretching features contracting a muscle prior to stretching?
proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation
Which statement about skin-fold measurements is true?
they are a practical way to assess body composition
What is one possible explanation for he increase in obesity among Americans over the past 40 years?
increased portion sizes
Hydrostatic weighing uses which statistic to predict the percentage of body fat?
body density
What condition do obese people develop at three times faster rate of non-obese people?
diabetes
What is the error range fro skin-fold measurements?
+- 4%
What does a personal contract for behavior change include?
it is objective and gives details of a person’s plan for behavior change
Which dimension of wellness includes optimism, trust, and self-confidence?
emotional wellness
How does setting realistic , specific goals help a persons change unwanted behavior?
it makes the ultimate goal seem more manageable
Which best describes spiritual wellness?
possession of a set of guiding beliefs that give meaning to life
What is the key to a successful behavior change program?
a plan that sets goals
which characteristic helps improve interpersonal and social wellness?
a network of caring people
According to the “stages of change” model of changing behavior which stage includes people who begin to make small changes in their behavior?
preparation stage
What is a characteristic of the U.S. government’s Healthy People Reports?
it seeks to achieve a better quality of life for Amercians
How has the average life expectancy changed in the past 100 years?
life expectancy has nearly doubled in length
What is true about the factors involved in wellness?
they often interact with each other
what is the best definition for self-efficacy?
a person’s belief she or he can take action and perform a specific task
which condition can result from a diet high in calories, fat and low in fiber?
high blood pressure
When choosing a target behavior to change, how can one maximize her chances of success?
start with something simple
Which condition is associated with tobacco use?
the top causes of death int he United States
What are the three leading causes of death in the United States?
heart disease, cancer, and chronic lower respiratory diseases
What i the most effective way of dealing with disease?
prevention
What is the key to successful behavior change program?
a plan that sets goals
Which activity best demonstrates specificity of training?
doing push-ups to develop chest and shoulder endurance
Which condition can an exercise stress test determine?
symptoms of heart disease
The body adapting to a gradual increase in the amount of exercise is the definition of which stage of exercising?
progressive overload
What determines the amount of overload needed to maintain or improve one’s fitness level?
duration
What is the maximal improvement in the body’s ability to transport and use oxygen that people can expect…
5 to 30%
What can one expect to experience with exercise intensity?
fitness benefits occur when a person exercises harder then his or her normal level of activity
If one must temporarily stop exercising regularly, which factor should be maintained while the others are curtailed?
intensity
What principle forms the base of the time component of the FITT principle for overload for a muscular strength program?
the number of sets and repetitions of specific exercises
What is the recommended duration for cardiorespriratory endurance exercise?
20 to 60 minutes
Which element is an energy-containing nutrient?
fat
What effect does regular moderate endurance exercise have on a person?
it reduces the risk of dementia
Into what substance do most carbohydrates break down during digestion?
glucose
How does the VO2 max of a sedentary college student compare to an older athlete?
the sedentary student has about the same VO2 max
What is the storage form of carbohydrate in the liver, muscles, an kidneys?
Glycogen
What of the following does endurance exercise reduce?
high blood pressue
If glycogen stores are full and the body’s immediate need for energy is met, what happens to the remaining glucose?
It is converted to fat and stored in the body’s fatty tissues
What happens to the resting heart rate as a result of regular endurance exercise?
It beats 10 to 20 beats per minute lower
Which activity primarily uses the immediate energy system?
weight lifting
What is long-term effect of regular cardiorespiratory exercise
increased heart size
When does the metabolic rate increase?
when muscle mass increases
Which describes a type of body weight exercise that emphasize control of movement?
Pilates
How much boost to the resting metabolic rate can strength training provide?
15%
Which is true when comparing free weights and weight machines?
Free weights adapt to real life motion
Which essential hormone do men have in higher amounts than women…
testosterone
What is the best description of isokinetic exercise?
applying force at a constant speed
Which is a result of inactivity and aging?
loss of bone mass
Which type of exercise is an individual performing when she/he jumps from a platform to the ground and then jumps back up on the platform?
plyometrics
At what age do people typically begin to lose muscle mass?
30
What is a good resistance training technique for developing explosive strength?
plyometrics
What is an outcome of good flexibility?
lower risk of sport injury
Which stretching technique is most commonly associated with injury?
ballistic streching
which benefit comes with flexibility?
prevention of muscle strains
according to the american college of sports medicine, how many day a week should one perform stretching exercises?
2 or 3
which stretching program conforms to ACSM
3 days per week, 20 seconds per stretch 4 repetitions of each stretch
which is a symptom of metabolic syndrome
resistance to the effects of insuin
how is a person with a body mass index of 31.2 classified?
obese
for which group of people does metabolic syndrome increase the risk of heart disease?
men and women
since 1970, how much has the daily calorie intake among Americans risen?
500 calories
which is true about type 1 diabetes?
it accounts for 5 % to 10% of all cases of diabetes
why are ballistic stretches considered dangerous?
they may stimulate a muscular contraction during a stretch
which statement describes an appropriate goal for flexibility?
it depends on individual fitness goals and choice of sports and activities
How is a person with a body mass index of 26.5 classified?
overweight
which is true for type 2 diabetes
it is best prevented through a healthy diet and regular physical activity
which condition are people who tend to gain weigh in the abdominal area at a greater risk for developing?
diabetes
what makes up the condition called the “female athlete triad”?
abnormal eating patterns, premature osteoporosis and amenorrhea
which technique for evaluating health risks associated with body weight is based on the concept that a person’s weight should be proportional to his or her height ?
body mass index
how long does the nonoxidative energy system typically provide energy?
10-120 seconds
What is the immediate effect of cardiorespiratory endurance exercise?
increase blood pressure
which structure in the oxidation energy system produces ATP?
mitochondria
which response occurs immediately when one exercises?
increased heart rate
when does the body utilize fat efficiently as a fuel?
during periods of mild, low-intensity activity
How is maximal oxygen consumption (VO2 max) defined?
The highest rate of oxygen consumption that an individual is capable of during maximum physical effort
which is one of the functions of the cardiorespiartory system?
transport nutrients
what should a beginner do during the initial phase of an exercise program?
exercise at the low end of the target heart rate range
which circulation does the right side of the heart provide?
pulumonary
why is cooling down after exercise important?
it restores circulation to its normal resting condition
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