KIN 125//Exam 3 – Flashcards

question
Poisons may enter the body in 4 ways...
answer
Ingestion, Inhalation, Injection, Absorption
question
First Aid Care: Ingested Poisons
answer
Ask many questions when taking a history 1. Maintain the airway and monitor the victim's ABCD's 2. If poison was a corrosive (acid) or caustic (alkali): -Immediately give one or two 8-ounce glasses of cold water or milk to dilute the poison as instructed by Poison Control (cold absorbs heat better)‏ 3. Place the victim on his or her left side -Gravity will delay poison entering the small intestine, where most substances are absorbed into the bloodstream 4. Call Poison Control
question
Activated Charcoal
answer
-Odorless, tasteless powder or liquid -Used for Injested poisons -Absorbs poisons in stomach, preventing absorption by the body NEVER give if: - Victim is not fully conscious - Has swallowed acids or alkalies - Is unable to swallow Has taken Syrup of Ipecac
question
Pica
answer
The desire/action of eating inedible substances
question
First Aid Care: Inhaled Poisons
answer
1. Get the victim into fresh air as quickly as possible 2. Monitor the victim's ABCD's 3. If there are no contraindicating injuries and the victim is conscious, have the victim lie down with head elevated -Loosen all tight-fitting clothing, especially around neck and over the chest -If the victim is unresponsive, place the victim on his or her left side *CPR or Rescue Breathing as necessary *All victims of carbon monoxide poisoning must receive medical care
question
First Aid Care: Injected Poisons
answer
Activate EMS immediately, then: 1. Maintain the victim's airway 2. Be alert for vomiting -Keep sitting if possible to prevent vomit inhalation 3. In the case of an animal or insect bite or sting, protect yourself and the victim from repeated injection 4. Attempt to identify source and if possible send with victim to hospital 5. Assist with epi-pen, if applicable ANAPHYLACTIC SHOCK RISK
question
Urushiol
answer
The toxic element of poison ivy
question
First Aid Care: Absorbed
answer
1. Protecting your hands with gloves 2. Move victim from source of poison 3. Remove victim's contaminated clothing and jewelry 4. Brush any dry chemicals or solid poisons from the skin -Take extreme care not to scrape the skin 5. Irrigate the affected area with clean water for at least 20 minutes or until medical help arrives
question
First Aid Care: Absorbed (in contact with poisonous plant)
answer
1. If the victim has been in contact with a poisonous plant, clean the skin well with soap and water, and rinse well 2. To relieve the reaction from stinging nettle (Wash, rinse, apply cold wet compress) 3. If any reaction is severe, activate EMS or transport the victim to a medical facility
question
S/S of a Life Threatening Emergency
answer
1. Unconsciousness 2. Breathing difficulties 3. Fever 4. Abnormal or irregular pulse 5. Vomiting 6. Convulsions
question
Acute Intoxication
answer
- Drowsiness - Disordered speech and gait - Violence - May mimic insulin shock **Alchol is completely absorbed from stomach and intestine within 2 hours
question
4 General Stages of Alcohol Withdrawal Syndrome
answer
Stage 1: Occurs within about 8 hours of a cutback in alcohol (nausea, insomnia, sweating and tremors) Stage 2: Occurs within 8-72 hours Stage 3: Usually occurs within 48 hours, is characterized by major seizures Stage 4: Characterized by delirium tremens
question
Delirium Tremens
answer
Life threatening condition causing delirium that occurs within 5 days of an alcholic's last drink
question
General Guidelines for Managing a Drug/Alcohol Crisis
answer
1. Assure your own personal safety. 2. Provide a reality base. - Introduce yourself - Use victim's name, family/friends 3. Provide appropriate nonverbal support. 4. Encourage communication. 5. Foster confidence
question
Managing a Violent Drug/Alcohol Victim
answer
To prevent a victim from becoming violent, take these steps: 1. Do not invade the person's personal space (moving closer than 3 feet to the victim). Getting too close may seem threatening. 2. Use a calming voice and compassionate tone. 3. Do not place objects between the victim and the door or appear as if you are blocking his or her escape. 4. Move dangerous objects out of sight and reach of the victim.
question
If a victim is violent...
answer
1. Leave the scene and notify law enforcement authorities. 2. Do not attempt restraint unless you are trained and authorized to do so and you have sufficient people to do so effectively. 3. Leave the scene at any time weapons of any type are used or threatened.
question
What type of drug is heroin?
answer
Narcotic
question
Drugs of Concern
answer
- Hallucinogens: Changes moods, alters perception of space and time - Stimulant: Affects CNS, physical & mental activity - Depressants: Affects CNS, physical & mental - Club Drugs:
question
Care for Drug Misuse or Abuse
answer
- Recognize abnormalities in victim level of consciousness, breathing circulation skin color behavior -You do not need to know the specific substance to provide initial care -If overdose has occurred treat it as a form of poisoning
question
Without glucose, the body uses what as fuel What is insulin?
answer
Glucose does not get delivered to cells and they resort to fats and proteins as fuel Insulin- a hormone that takes sugar from blood stream to the cells
question
Type 1 Diabetes
answer
-"Juvenile-onset" Begins during childhood -Victim has little or no ability to produce insulin -Require daily insulin injections
question
Type 2 Diabetes
answer
-"Adult-onset diabetes," -Victim produces insulin but either not enough insulin or the cells do not respond to it
question
Gestational diabetes
answer
-Develops during pregnancy and occurs when hormone in placenta causes body to resist action of insulin -Usually not permanent, ends when baby born -Usually treated with diet, occasionally meds -Babies tend to be very large
question
For diabetics, when in doubt...
answer
give sugar
question
Hyperglycemia/Hypoglycemia
answer
Hyper- not enough of insulin and too much sugar (Happens gradually) Hypo- too much insulin and not enough sugar in the blood (Instant onset)
question
Without glucose, the body uses what as fuel
answer
resorts to fat and proteins as fuel
question
Upper right abdominal quadrant
answer
Right Upper Quadrant: Liver, Right kidney, colon, pancreas, gallbladder
question
First Aid Care: Abdominal Injuries
answer
1. Secure and maintain the airway; be alert for vomiting and possible aspiration 2. Position the victim as comfortably as possible, and take steps to prevent shock -If no S/S of shock are present they may prefer the fetal position. 3. Comfort and reassure the victim 4. Never give anything by mouth. Never give the victim medications of any kind, and do not let the victim take medications on his or her own 5. Record signs and symptoms, including the victim's description of the condition, and continue to monitor until emergency help arrives
question
Gastroenteritis
answer
Inflammation of the stomach and intestines
question
Kidney Stones
answer
A sharp, cramping pain in the back and side area of the kidney or in the lower abdomen.
question
Peptic Ulcers
answer
Deep ulcer in the stomach or duodenum
question
Labor
answer
The process that begins with the first uterine contraction and ends with delivery of the baby and placenta 3 stages: Dilation, delivery of baby delivery of the placenta, recovery
question
Stage 1: Dilation
answer
From the first contraction until the cervix is completely dilated longest stage!
question
Stage 2: Delivery of the baby
answer
Head becomes visible (crowning) The emergence of the baby's head at the vaginal opening
question
Stage 3: Delivery of the Placenta
answer
Occurs within 30 minutes after birth Placenta separates from uterine wall and exits through vagina
question
Stage 4: Recovery
answer
Recovery and stabilization of the mother Lasts approx 1 hour uterus contracts to control bleeding monitor vital signs
question
Care of a Newborn
answer
1. Immediately dry the infant, paying particular attention to the head, which has a large surface area. 2. Repeat suctioning with the bulb syringe, making sure the infant's nostrils and mouth are clear. 3. Assess the infant, evaluating the infant's color, pulse, grimace. 4. Stimulate the newborn if it is not breathing or the heart rate is less than 100 per minute.
question
Breech Birth
answer
1. When the buttocks or lower extremities are the first to present 2. Support the baby 3. If the baby has not delivered w/in 10 min place one hand in the vagina and form a V with your fingers around the babies nose 4. Get to the hospital -keep the mother in a gravity dependent position
question
Meconium
answer
Feces of a newborn -Indicates that the baby had a bowel movement in the uterus before delivery
question
What happens when the amniotic sac ruptures?
answer
Amniotic sac- A plastic-like sac of fluid in which the baby floats... time to push!
question
General Assessment procedure for a child
answer
Special Assessment Techniques -Difficult to pin point pain -Lack of body awareness -Lack of vocabulary to describe pain Does the child look sick? Is the child in shock? Is the child in extreme pain? How is the child breathing? Take vital signs- child: radial
question
Croup and Epiglottitis
answer
Croup- upper airway viral infection Epiglottitis- bacterial infection
question
5 ways the body loses heat
answer
1. radiation 2. convection 3. conduction 4. evaporation 5. respiration
question
Heat cramps
answer
Lest severe: Muscle spasm caused by electrolyte imbalance - usualy from excessive sweating - low calcium levels - too much water and not enough electrolytes - can be caused by supplementes or medications
question
First aid care: Heat cramps
answer
-Remove victim from hot environment immediately, rest in a cool place -Administer sips of salt water -Half a glass every 15 minutes -Dilute 1 tsp salt or 1 bouillon cube in 1 qt of water -Apply moist towels to victim's forehead and over cramping muscles -To relieve pain, try gently stretching the involved muscles -Ice resultant soreness afterward
question
Heat Exhaustion vs. Heat stroke
answer
Heat exhaustion- Caused by excessive loss of water and salt through sweating -Profuse Sweating -Pale, cool, ashen skin -weak, rapid pulse Heatstroke- most dangerous, body's temp regulation system shuts down -Body temperature of 105°or more -Hot, red skin -Initially rapid, strong pulse
question
Heatstroke (what needs to happen?)
answer
- remove from source of heat to cool the victim until mental status returns to normal
question
Heatstroke treatment
answer
1. Establish an airway 2. Remove victim from source of heat when possible 3. Remove as much of victim's clothing as possible, down to his or her underwear 4. Elevate victim's head and shoulders slightly 5. Use a combination of methods to cool the victim until mental status returns to normal 6. Never give the victim stimulants or hot drinks
question
first aid care: general hypothermia
answer
1. Check victim's vital signs -Measure for 1 full minute, vital signs are slowed in hypothermia -If there is no pulse, open airway and begin CPR -AED - deliver only one shock If no correction in rhythm, continue CPR, do not deliver additional shocks -Handle victim very gently -Don't let victim walk around or move much on own -Keep victim in a supine position -Prevent shock and increase blood flow to the brain.
question
Frostbite
answer
Damage to tissues resulting from prolonged exposure to extreme cold - ice crystals form between cells of skin
question
First aid care frostbite
answer
-Immediately remove victim from cold environment -Keep tissue frozen until you can initiate care -Never thaw tissue if there is any chance of it refreezing -Protect injured tissue from friction or pressure -Never poke or squeeze the tissue -Remove constricting clothing or jewelry that is not sticking to the skin -Thaw frostbitten tissue in water 100-110°F- Do not allow extremity to touch sides or bottom of container -Keep re-warming until skin color no longer improves -This may take as long as 40 minutes -Once skin is thawed, any solution that comes in contact with it must be sterile -Cover thawed parts with loose, dry, sterile dressings and elevate extremities -Place sterile gauze between fingers and toes to reduce the risk of increased injury -Monitor vital signs and keep the victim warm until EMS arrives -Do not let victim walk if feet are involved -Do not let the victim smoke
question
Severity of a snakebite
answer
-Location of bite - size of victim - weight of victim - whether disease causing organisms are in the venom - general health/physical activity right after
question
First aid care: snakebite
answer
never - cut the skin, use a tourniquet, apply ice Do the following: - clean with soap/water, cover with dressing, seek medical advice
question
Insect bites/stings: medical help is needed if..
answer
itching last longer than 2 days - signs of infection develop - signs of an allergic reaction develop - the insect is poisonous
question
Brown recluse spider bite symptoms
answer
A brown poisonous spider identified by a violin-shaped mark on its back Bites do not heal and require surgical grafting Serious medical condition Hone
question
what bee can only sting once?
answer
honeybees can only sting once, as they lose their stinger
question
Scorpion stings
answer
rarely fatal - severe paint, nausea, difficulty breathing/swallowing, irregular heart beat call 911, clean wound, apply ice
question
Removing a tick/care for a tick bite
answer
1. Using fine-tipped tweezers, grasp the tick as close as possible to the point where it is attached to the skin 2. Pull slowly, firmly, and steadily until the tick is dislodged 3. Wash the bite area thoroughly with soap and water and apply an antiseptic or antibiotic ointment to the area 4. Apply a cold pack or use Calamine lotion to relieve any pain and swelling 5. Encourage the victim to report the tick bite to a doctor
question
Siezures vs Epilepsy
answer
Seizures: Involuntary Sudden change in sensation, behavior, muscle activity, or level of consciousness Caused by irritation or over activity of brain cells Epilepsy:Chronic brain disorder characterized by recurrent seizures not caused by acute problems, with or without loss of consciousness
question
Types of Seizures
answer
Simple partial (Jacksonian) seizure- -Simple, partial seizure characterized by jerking in the fingers and toes Jerking may spread to involve the entire arm or leg, or even the entire body -Victim stays awake and aware Complex partial (psychomotor) seizure -Starts with a blank stare, then progresses into chewing and random activity -Victim seems dazed Myoclonic seizure -Sudden, brief, massive muscle jerks that involve part or all of the body Atonic seizure -"Drop attack," a seizure in which the legs of a child suddenly and temporarily collapse Absence (petit mal) seizure Characterized by a blank stare that lasts only a few seconds Most common in children Absence seizures do not involve convulsions
question
Generalized Tonic Clonic Seizures
answer
Grand Mal
question
First Aid care seizures
answer
1. Do not move the victim unless he or she is near a dangerous object that cannot be moved. Otherwise, move objects away from the victim. Place padding under the victim's head to prevent injury. 2. Maintain an open airway. 3. Stay calm; if the victim is responsive, reassure him or her; reassure others who are with the victim. 4. Stay with the victim until the seizure has passed; if you need to get help, send someone else. 5. Never try to force anything between the victim's teeth, and never give the victim anything by mouth. 6. Remove or loosen any tight clothing, especially around the neck; remove eyeglasses. 7. Turn the victim on his or her left side with the face pointed downward so secretions and vomitus can drain quickly out of the mouth and so the tongue will not fall back and block the airway. 8. If the victim stops breathing, open the airway, remove anything that might impair breathing, and provide artificial ventilation. 9. Do not try to restrain the victim unless he or she is in danger from objects that cannot be moved. 10. Cover the victim with a blanket to preserve warmth. 11. Keep the victim from becoming a spectacle; ask bystanders to leave. 12. Following the seizure, reassure and reorient the victim; speak slowly and calmly in a normal tone of voice. Allow the victim to rest; help the victim be as comfortable as possible. ***IF SEIZURE LASTS +5 MINUTES CALL EMS***
question
Central Vertigo
answer
Central Vertigo -Least common -Mimics transient ischemic attach or stroke -Victims do NOT experience nausea, vomiting, hearing loss or a whirling sensation Signs and Symptoms -Dysfunction of the eye muscles -Unequal pupil size -Facial droop
question
Labyrinthine Vertigo
answer
most common
question
Preventing Syncope
answer
If the victim has not yet fainted, prevent him or her from falling by having the victim sit down with head between the knees or have the victim lie on the floor with legs elevated 8 to 12 inches.
question
Seizure during pregnancy is indicative of
answer
Endocrine changes during pregnancy or menstruation
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question
Poisons may enter the body in 4 ways...
answer
Ingestion, Inhalation, Injection, Absorption
question
First Aid Care: Ingested Poisons
answer
Ask many questions when taking a history 1. Maintain the airway and monitor the victim's ABCD's 2. If poison was a corrosive (acid) or caustic (alkali): -Immediately give one or two 8-ounce glasses of cold water or milk to dilute the poison as instructed by Poison Control (cold absorbs heat better)‏ 3. Place the victim on his or her left side -Gravity will delay poison entering the small intestine, where most substances are absorbed into the bloodstream 4. Call Poison Control
question
Activated Charcoal
answer
-Odorless, tasteless powder or liquid -Used for Injested poisons -Absorbs poisons in stomach, preventing absorption by the body NEVER give if: - Victim is not fully conscious - Has swallowed acids or alkalies - Is unable to swallow Has taken Syrup of Ipecac
question
Pica
answer
The desire/action of eating inedible substances
question
First Aid Care: Inhaled Poisons
answer
1. Get the victim into fresh air as quickly as possible 2. Monitor the victim's ABCD's 3. If there are no contraindicating injuries and the victim is conscious, have the victim lie down with head elevated -Loosen all tight-fitting clothing, especially around neck and over the chest -If the victim is unresponsive, place the victim on his or her left side *CPR or Rescue Breathing as necessary *All victims of carbon monoxide poisoning must receive medical care
question
First Aid Care: Injected Poisons
answer
Activate EMS immediately, then: 1. Maintain the victim's airway 2. Be alert for vomiting -Keep sitting if possible to prevent vomit inhalation 3. In the case of an animal or insect bite or sting, protect yourself and the victim from repeated injection 4. Attempt to identify source and if possible send with victim to hospital 5. Assist with epi-pen, if applicable ANAPHYLACTIC SHOCK RISK
question
Urushiol
answer
The toxic element of poison ivy
question
First Aid Care: Absorbed
answer
1. Protecting your hands with gloves 2. Move victim from source of poison 3. Remove victim's contaminated clothing and jewelry 4. Brush any dry chemicals or solid poisons from the skin -Take extreme care not to scrape the skin 5. Irrigate the affected area with clean water for at least 20 minutes or until medical help arrives
question
First Aid Care: Absorbed (in contact with poisonous plant)
answer
1. If the victim has been in contact with a poisonous plant, clean the skin well with soap and water, and rinse well 2. To relieve the reaction from stinging nettle (Wash, rinse, apply cold wet compress) 3. If any reaction is severe, activate EMS or transport the victim to a medical facility
question
S/S of a Life Threatening Emergency
answer
1. Unconsciousness 2. Breathing difficulties 3. Fever 4. Abnormal or irregular pulse 5. Vomiting 6. Convulsions
question
Acute Intoxication
answer
- Drowsiness - Disordered speech and gait - Violence - May mimic insulin shock **Alchol is completely absorbed from stomach and intestine within 2 hours
question
4 General Stages of Alcohol Withdrawal Syndrome
answer
Stage 1: Occurs within about 8 hours of a cutback in alcohol (nausea, insomnia, sweating and tremors) Stage 2: Occurs within 8-72 hours Stage 3: Usually occurs within 48 hours, is characterized by major seizures Stage 4: Characterized by delirium tremens
question
Delirium Tremens
answer
Life threatening condition causing delirium that occurs within 5 days of an alcholic's last drink
question
General Guidelines for Managing a Drug/Alcohol Crisis
answer
1. Assure your own personal safety. 2. Provide a reality base. - Introduce yourself - Use victim's name, family/friends 3. Provide appropriate nonverbal support. 4. Encourage communication. 5. Foster confidence
question
Managing a Violent Drug/Alcohol Victim
answer
To prevent a victim from becoming violent, take these steps: 1. Do not invade the person's personal space (moving closer than 3 feet to the victim). Getting too close may seem threatening. 2. Use a calming voice and compassionate tone. 3. Do not place objects between the victim and the door or appear as if you are blocking his or her escape. 4. Move dangerous objects out of sight and reach of the victim.
question
If a victim is violent...
answer
1. Leave the scene and notify law enforcement authorities. 2. Do not attempt restraint unless you are trained and authorized to do so and you have sufficient people to do so effectively. 3. Leave the scene at any time weapons of any type are used or threatened.
question
What type of drug is heroin?
answer
Narcotic
question
Drugs of Concern
answer
- Hallucinogens: Changes moods, alters perception of space and time - Stimulant: Affects CNS, physical & mental activity - Depressants: Affects CNS, physical & mental - Club Drugs:
question
Care for Drug Misuse or Abuse
answer
- Recognize abnormalities in victim level of consciousness, breathing circulation skin color behavior -You do not need to know the specific substance to provide initial care -If overdose has occurred treat it as a form of poisoning
question
Without glucose, the body uses what as fuel What is insulin?
answer
Glucose does not get delivered to cells and they resort to fats and proteins as fuel Insulin- a hormone that takes sugar from blood stream to the cells
question
Type 1 Diabetes
answer
-"Juvenile-onset" Begins during childhood -Victim has little or no ability to produce insulin -Require daily insulin injections
question
Type 2 Diabetes
answer
-"Adult-onset diabetes," -Victim produces insulin but either not enough insulin or the cells do not respond to it
question
Gestational diabetes
answer
-Develops during pregnancy and occurs when hormone in placenta causes body to resist action of insulin -Usually not permanent, ends when baby born -Usually treated with diet, occasionally meds -Babies tend to be very large
question
For diabetics, when in doubt...
answer
give sugar
question
Hyperglycemia/Hypoglycemia
answer
Hyper- not enough of insulin and too much sugar (Happens gradually) Hypo- too much insulin and not enough sugar in the blood (Instant onset)
question
Without glucose, the body uses what as fuel
answer
resorts to fat and proteins as fuel
question
Upper right abdominal quadrant
answer
Right Upper Quadrant: Liver, Right kidney, colon, pancreas, gallbladder
question
First Aid Care: Abdominal Injuries
answer
1. Secure and maintain the airway; be alert for vomiting and possible aspiration 2. Position the victim as comfortably as possible, and take steps to prevent shock -If no S/S of shock are present they may prefer the fetal position. 3. Comfort and reassure the victim 4. Never give anything by mouth. Never give the victim medications of any kind, and do not let the victim take medications on his or her own 5. Record signs and symptoms, including the victim's description of the condition, and continue to monitor until emergency help arrives
question
Gastroenteritis
answer
Inflammation of the stomach and intestines
question
Kidney Stones
answer
A sharp, cramping pain in the back and side area of the kidney or in the lower abdomen.
question
Peptic Ulcers
answer
Deep ulcer in the stomach or duodenum
question
Labor
answer
The process that begins with the first uterine contraction and ends with delivery of the baby and placenta 3 stages: Dilation, delivery of baby delivery of the placenta, recovery
question
Stage 1: Dilation
answer
From the first contraction until the cervix is completely dilated longest stage!
question
Stage 2: Delivery of the baby
answer
Head becomes visible (crowning) The emergence of the baby's head at the vaginal opening
question
Stage 3: Delivery of the Placenta
answer
Occurs within 30 minutes after birth Placenta separates from uterine wall and exits through vagina
question
Stage 4: Recovery
answer
Recovery and stabilization of the mother Lasts approx 1 hour uterus contracts to control bleeding monitor vital signs
question
Care of a Newborn
answer
1. Immediately dry the infant, paying particular attention to the head, which has a large surface area. 2. Repeat suctioning with the bulb syringe, making sure the infant's nostrils and mouth are clear. 3. Assess the infant, evaluating the infant's color, pulse, grimace. 4. Stimulate the newborn if it is not breathing or the heart rate is less than 100 per minute.
question
Breech Birth
answer
1. When the buttocks or lower extremities are the first to present 2. Support the baby 3. If the baby has not delivered w/in 10 min place one hand in the vagina and form a V with your fingers around the babies nose 4. Get to the hospital -keep the mother in a gravity dependent position
question
Meconium
answer
Feces of a newborn -Indicates that the baby had a bowel movement in the uterus before delivery
question
What happens when the amniotic sac ruptures?
answer
Amniotic sac- A plastic-like sac of fluid in which the baby floats... time to push!
question
General Assessment procedure for a child
answer
Special Assessment Techniques -Difficult to pin point pain -Lack of body awareness -Lack of vocabulary to describe pain Does the child look sick? Is the child in shock? Is the child in extreme pain? How is the child breathing? Take vital signs- child: radial
question
Croup and Epiglottitis
answer
Croup- upper airway viral infection Epiglottitis- bacterial infection
question
5 ways the body loses heat
answer
1. radiation 2. convection 3. conduction 4. evaporation 5. respiration
question
Heat cramps
answer
Lest severe: Muscle spasm caused by electrolyte imbalance - usualy from excessive sweating - low calcium levels - too much water and not enough electrolytes - can be caused by supplementes or medications
question
First aid care: Heat cramps
answer
-Remove victim from hot environment immediately, rest in a cool place -Administer sips of salt water -Half a glass every 15 minutes -Dilute 1 tsp salt or 1 bouillon cube in 1 qt of water -Apply moist towels to victim's forehead and over cramping muscles -To relieve pain, try gently stretching the involved muscles -Ice resultant soreness afterward
question
Heat Exhaustion vs. Heat stroke
answer
Heat exhaustion- Caused by excessive loss of water and salt through sweating -Profuse Sweating -Pale, cool, ashen skin -weak, rapid pulse Heatstroke- most dangerous, body's temp regulation system shuts down -Body temperature of 105°or more -Hot, red skin -Initially rapid, strong pulse
question
Heatstroke (what needs to happen?)
answer
- remove from source of heat to cool the victim until mental status returns to normal
question
Heatstroke treatment
answer
1. Establish an airway 2. Remove victim from source of heat when possible 3. Remove as much of victim's clothing as possible, down to his or her underwear 4. Elevate victim's head and shoulders slightly 5. Use a combination of methods to cool the victim until mental status returns to normal 6. Never give the victim stimulants or hot drinks
question
first aid care: general hypothermia
answer
1. Check victim's vital signs -Measure for 1 full minute, vital signs are slowed in hypothermia -If there is no pulse, open airway and begin CPR -AED - deliver only one shock If no correction in rhythm, continue CPR, do not deliver additional shocks -Handle victim very gently -Don't let victim walk around or move much on own -Keep victim in a supine position -Prevent shock and increase blood flow to the brain.
question
Frostbite
answer
Damage to tissues resulting from prolonged exposure to extreme cold - ice crystals form between cells of skin
question
First aid care frostbite
answer
-Immediately remove victim from cold environment -Keep tissue frozen until you can initiate care -Never thaw tissue if there is any chance of it refreezing -Protect injured tissue from friction or pressure -Never poke or squeeze the tissue -Remove constricting clothing or jewelry that is not sticking to the skin -Thaw frostbitten tissue in water 100-110°F- Do not allow extremity to touch sides or bottom of container -Keep re-warming until skin color no longer improves -This may take as long as 40 minutes -Once skin is thawed, any solution that comes in contact with it must be sterile -Cover thawed parts with loose, dry, sterile dressings and elevate extremities -Place sterile gauze between fingers and toes to reduce the risk of increased injury -Monitor vital signs and keep the victim warm until EMS arrives -Do not let victim walk if feet are involved -Do not let the victim smoke
question
Severity of a snakebite
answer
-Location of bite - size of victim - weight of victim - whether disease causing organisms are in the venom - general health/physical activity right after
question
First aid care: snakebite
answer
never - cut the skin, use a tourniquet, apply ice Do the following: - clean with soap/water, cover with dressing, seek medical advice
question
Insect bites/stings: medical help is needed if..
answer
itching last longer than 2 days - signs of infection develop - signs of an allergic reaction develop - the insect is poisonous
question
Brown recluse spider bite symptoms
answer
A brown poisonous spider identified by a violin-shaped mark on its back Bites do not heal and require surgical grafting Serious medical condition Hone
question
what bee can only sting once?
answer
honeybees can only sting once, as they lose their stinger
question
Scorpion stings
answer
rarely fatal - severe paint, nausea, difficulty breathing/swallowing, irregular heart beat call 911, clean wound, apply ice
question
Removing a tick/care for a tick bite
answer
1. Using fine-tipped tweezers, grasp the tick as close as possible to the point where it is attached to the skin 2. Pull slowly, firmly, and steadily until the tick is dislodged 3. Wash the bite area thoroughly with soap and water and apply an antiseptic or antibiotic ointment to the area 4. Apply a cold pack or use Calamine lotion to relieve any pain and swelling 5. Encourage the victim to report the tick bite to a doctor
question
Siezures vs Epilepsy
answer
Seizures: Involuntary Sudden change in sensation, behavior, muscle activity, or level of consciousness Caused by irritation or over activity of brain cells Epilepsy:Chronic brain disorder characterized by recurrent seizures not caused by acute problems, with or without loss of consciousness
question
Types of Seizures
answer
Simple partial (Jacksonian) seizure- -Simple, partial seizure characterized by jerking in the fingers and toes Jerking may spread to involve the entire arm or leg, or even the entire body -Victim stays awake and aware Complex partial (psychomotor) seizure -Starts with a blank stare, then progresses into chewing and random activity -Victim seems dazed Myoclonic seizure -Sudden, brief, massive muscle jerks that involve part or all of the body Atonic seizure -"Drop attack," a seizure in which the legs of a child suddenly and temporarily collapse Absence (petit mal) seizure Characterized by a blank stare that lasts only a few seconds Most common in children Absence seizures do not involve convulsions
question
Generalized Tonic Clonic Seizures
answer
Grand Mal
question
First Aid care seizures
answer
1. Do not move the victim unless he or she is near a dangerous object that cannot be moved. Otherwise, move objects away from the victim. Place padding under the victim's head to prevent injury. 2. Maintain an open airway. 3. Stay calm; if the victim is responsive, reassure him or her; reassure others who are with the victim. 4. Stay with the victim until the seizure has passed; if you need to get help, send someone else. 5. Never try to force anything between the victim's teeth, and never give the victim anything by mouth. 6. Remove or loosen any tight clothing, especially around the neck; remove eyeglasses. 7. Turn the victim on his or her left side with the face pointed downward so secretions and vomitus can drain quickly out of the mouth and so the tongue will not fall back and block the airway. 8. If the victim stops breathing, open the airway, remove anything that might impair breathing, and provide artificial ventilation. 9. Do not try to restrain the victim unless he or she is in danger from objects that cannot be moved. 10. Cover the victim with a blanket to preserve warmth. 11. Keep the victim from becoming a spectacle; ask bystanders to leave. 12. Following the seizure, reassure and reorient the victim; speak slowly and calmly in a normal tone of voice. Allow the victim to rest; help the victim be as comfortable as possible. ***IF SEIZURE LASTS +5 MINUTES CALL EMS***
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Central Vertigo
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Central Vertigo -Least common -Mimics transient ischemic attach or stroke -Victims do NOT experience nausea, vomiting, hearing loss or a whirling sensation Signs and Symptoms -Dysfunction of the eye muscles -Unequal pupil size -Facial droop
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Labyrinthine Vertigo
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most common
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Preventing Syncope
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If the victim has not yet fainted, prevent him or her from falling by having the victim sit down with head between the knees or have the victim lie on the floor with legs elevated 8 to 12 inches.
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Seizure during pregnancy is indicative of
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Endocrine changes during pregnancy or menstruation