Keeping the Republic Chapter 1 – Politics: Who Gets What, and How?

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politics
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who gets what, when, and how; a process of determining how power and resources are distributed in a society without recourses to violence.
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power
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the ability to get other people to do what you want
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social order
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the way we organize and live out collective lives
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legitimate
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accepted as \”right\” or Proper
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government
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a system or organization for exercising authority over a body of people
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authority
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power that is recognized as legitimate
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rules
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directives that specify how resources will be distributed or what procedures govern collective activity
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institutions
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organizations in which governmental power is exercised
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economics
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production and distribution of a society’s material resources and services
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capitalist economy
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an economic system in which the market determines production, distribution, and prize decision, and property is privately owned
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laissez-faire capitalism
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an economic system in which the market makes all decisions and the government plays no role
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regulated capitalism
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a market system in which the government intervenes to protect rights and make procedural guarantees
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procedural guarantees
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government assurance that the rules will work smoothly and treat everyone fairly, with no promise of particular outcomes.
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socialist economy
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an economic system in which the state determines production, distribution, and price decisions, and property is government owned
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substantive guarantees
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government assurance of particular outcome or results
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social democracy
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a hybrid system combining a capitalist economy and a government that supports equality
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authoritarian governments
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systems in which the state holds all power over the social order
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totalitarian
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a system in which absolute power is exercised over every aspect of life
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authoritarian capitalism
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a system in which the state allows people economic freedom but maintains stringent social regulations to limit noneconomic behavior
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anarchy
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the absence of government and laws
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democracy
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government that vest power in the people
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popular sovereignty
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the concept that the citizens are the ultimate source of political power
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elite democracy
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a theory of democracy that limits the citizens role to choosing among leaders
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pluralist democracy
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a theory of democracy that holds that citizen membership in groups is the key to political power
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participatory democracy
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a theory of democracy that holds that citizens should actively and directly control all aspects of their lives
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advanced industrial democracy
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a system in which a democratic government allows citizens a considerable amount of personal freedom and maintains a free market (though still usually regulated) economy
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communist democracy
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a utopian system in which property is communally owned and all decisions are made democratically
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subjects
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individuals who are obliged to submit to a government authority against which they have no rights.
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citizens
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members of a political community with both rights and responsibilities
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divine rights of kings
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the principle that earthly rulers receive their authority from god
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social contract
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the notion that society is based on an agreement between government and the governed in which people agree to give up some rights in exchange for the protection of others
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republic
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a government in which decisions are made through representative of the people

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