Japenise internment america Essay

essay A+

Get Full Essay

Get access to this section to get all the help you need with your essay and educational goals.

Get Access

Senior Exhibition Draft #2

Why do cigarettes remain a legal form of substance abuse, when scientific evidence gathered from around the world has proven how addictive and dangerous they are? Tobacco dependence is a global epidemic that affects more than one billion people worldwide. tobacco causes 3.5 million deaths each year or about 10,000 deaths each day.In addiction, it is estimated that passive smoke kills 50,000 adults every year in the United States. httpWhile it would not be practical for the government to ban tobacco use- – as that would throw too many people into withdrawal and be too difficult to enforce. The tobacco industry should continue to be systematically dismantled through protests, lawsuits, regulations, and educational programs targeted toward children.

For centuries, tobacco has been used in many forms. It was first used by the pre-Columbian Americans and was seen has having special or even healing powers. As long as 2000 B.C., Indians in South America discovered tobacco as a wild plant and used the smoke from its leaves in religious ceremonies. The Aztecs and Mayans, in Central America, would put the dried leaves in the hollow stems of reeds to smoke.Later Brazilians used coursed paper, instead, and cigarettes were invented. While crude forms of cigarettes have been around since the early 1600s, they did not become widely popular in the United States until after the Civil War, with the spread of bright tobacco (a unique, cured, yellow leaf in Virginia and North Carolina). Health dangers from the use of tobacco were not initially known; infact, most early European physicians subscribed to the Native American belief that tobacco could be effective medicine. In 1930, researchers in Cologne, Germany, made a statistical correlation between cancer and smoking. Eight years later Dr. Raymond Pearl, of John Hopkins University, reported that smokers do not live as long as nonsmokers. By 1944 the American Cancer Society began to warn people about the possible effects of smoking, although it admitted that no definite evidence exists linking smoking and lung cancer.While the general public knew little of the growing body of statistics, this soon changed. It is now widely known that tobacco is addictive, dangerous to health, and can be deadly.

Without a doubt, facts revealing the direct relationship between smoking and health-related issues have been established for some time.

In 1952, Readers Digest published Cancer by the Carton, an article about the dangers of smoking.

In 1954, the major U.S. tobacco companies had formed the Tobacco Industry Researchers Council to counter growing health concerns.

In 1964, the Surgeon Generals Advisory Committee released a 387-page report entitled Smoking and Health.

In 1990, smoking was banned on all interstate buses and all domestic airline flights lasting six hours or less.

In 1998, Surgeon General C. Everett Koop declared that cigarettes are as addictive as any other drug.

Although the public has become aware of the harmful effects of tobacco use, people continue to ignore the warnings. Today people, are taking notice of the number of smoking-related illnesses and, for this reason, the public is being educated about the health risks surrounding tobacco use.

Why are cigarettes addictive? A key part of the idea of addiction is the notion of withdrawal. Withdrawal is what happens physically to people when they stop getting the substance they have been addicted to, as well as psychological symptoms such as depression, anxiety or anger to the loss.It is now common knowledge that nicotine, the key substance in tobacco, is addictive. In addition, tobacco smoke contains at least 43 carcinogenic (cancer-causing) substances. It causes many different kinds of cancer besides lung cancer, including cancer of the mouth, larynx, pharynx, esophagus, kidney, bladder, pancreas, and uterine cervix. Cigarette smoke as a complex mixture of organic and inorganic compounds generated by the combustion (burning) of tobacco. It also contains tar (which is made up of 4000 chemicals, including 43 known to cause cancer), in addition to poisonous gases, nitrogen, oxide, and carbon monoxide. Shockingly, this is what flows through the body when inhaling cigarette smoke. The Center for Disease Control and Prevention (cdc) has actually rated nicotine number one on its list most addictive substance, with heroin addicts, even though the withdrawal symptoms are not nearly as severe. Of equal concern is that tobacco destroys the smokers health, as well as those exposed to second-hand smoke.

Recently, the issue of second hand smoke, also known as environmental tobacco smoke (ETS). A number of public health groups claim that second-hand smoke (the smoke from a persons cigarette that is inhaled by people nearby) is almost as bad for you as the smoke that a person inhales from his or her own cigarette. For example, a nonsmoker married to a smoker has a greater risk of developing lung cancer than the spouse of a nonsmoker. When smoke is inhaled, nicotine is carried deep into the lungs where it is absorbed quickly into the blood stream and carried to the heart, brain, liver, and spleen. Nicotine affects many parts of the body, such as the heart and blood vessels,the hormonal system, body metabolism, and the brain. Nicotine is also found in breast milk and in cervix mucus secretions. It has become evident that cigarettes dont just kill people who smoke; they also kill people who choose not to smoke. Gradually, the public has come to realize it has a responsibility to protect children and adults from involuntary exposure to other peoples smoke, while also looking at alternative treatment programs for people wanting to quit their habit.

In spite of increased awareness of the risks, statistics reveal increasing consumption. Approximately 50 million Americans smoke and each year over 400,00 Americans die due to smoking. Worldwide, nearly one-third of the adult population smokes cigarettes: 47 percent of men smoke and 12 percent of women smoke. In developing countries, 48 percent of men smoke and 7 percent of women smoke, compared with developed countries in which 42 percent of men smoke and 24 percent of women smoke.These statistics on tobacco use are staggering and are taking a deadly toll on our society. In the United States, smoking has been identified as the single most preventable cause of death and disease. With every puff on a cigarette on a cigarette, young people are taking a tremendous health risk that cannot be ignored.

As a teenager, I know tht a lot of teens are introduced to cigarettes at a very young age. Out of all the people who smoke , 80 percent started before the age of 21. According to a study done in 1986, teenagers who started smoking were at a much higher risk for other drug abuse (including cocaine and marijuana)than those who did not start smoking. Of new smokes, approximately 4.5 million people are between the ages of 12 and 17, up from 1.3 million in 1996. If current patterns of smoking continue, an estimated five million people, under 18 years of age, will die prematurely from tobacco-related illness such as heart attack, stroke, lung cancer, chronic bronchitis, and chronic emphysema. As teen smoking rates climb higher, they are not alone.

Of course, lots of adults smoke too. Nevada has the highest number of adult smokers (30.3%) and Utah has the lowest number of adult smokers (15.1%). The highest overall percentage of smokers (25.9%) are people between the ages of 25-44 years, with people 65 years or older at a percentage of about 23.4%. Fortunately it seems that adults, as they grow older, dont smoke as often as they did when they were younger.Smokers between the ages of 35 and 70 have death rates three higher than those who have never smoked.Because of the addictive nature of smoking and the young age at which people start, many people were unaware of the consequences of their decision to begin smoking and are now unable to quit. Left unchecked, smoking destroys lives.

Every single day tobacco companies want 5,000 people to start smoking to replace the 3,500 Americans who quit smoking and 1,200 who die from smoking-related illnesses that day.Cigarette companies spend over three billion dollars a year advertising and promoting cigarettes. This advertising is so effective that it entices 3000 new young people tp become regular smokers each day.Tobacco companies know that almost everyone (89% of adults) who smoke regularly started smoking as a teenager, which makes teens a perfect target. They use attractive images of youth, success, and wealth to try and attract young people to smoking, while creating the impression that smoking is very acceptable, a way to be independent, a rite of passage to adulthood, something popular people do, and that tobacco use is safe and healthful (falsely using words such as light, mild, clean, fresh, soft, and natural). The tobacco industry does a disservice to all through their advertising. Getting coupons, special offers, glossy advertisements, and even actual cigarettes right on their doorstep again reinforces the notion among teenagers that smoking is normal, cool, convenient, and inexpensive. What does all this tell us about the tobacco industry? So, should advertising be further regulated?

Unfortunately, the tobacco companies have put profits before health by concealing vital health information from the public. It is really sad to see such young children and teenagers addicted to cigarettes. It has become apparent that regulation at the local state, and federal levels is necessary. From 1980 to 1989, the number of nonsmoking laws passed by various cities increases tenfold; and by 1989, 44 states had passed some form of smoking control legislation.Cigarettes still remain the second most heavily advertised product in the United States, behind automobiles. (All broadcast advertisment was previously banned in 1971) The Merican Medical Association is among the many institutions that have recommended a ban on all cigarettes advertisements and promotional activities. Approximtely 80-90- percent of regular smokers start at the age of 18. To influence smoking-related public health outcomes, efforts must be subbest to limit the availability of cigarettes to minors. These data suggest that our society is a remarkably passive about the illegal sale of addictive and dangerous tobacco products to children.The laws have gotten a lot better than they used to be. The government really needs to enforce additional regulations on the tobacco industry, especially as they relate to young people.

Timing is critical at this point. More publicity is currently being given to the fact that so many people are dying and/or suffering from smoke-related disease. Even so, there is evidence that the tobacco industry had deliberately tried to control or manipulate the amount of nicotine in their product. A group of criminal investigators, for the Food and Drug Administration (FDA), have quietly crisscrossd the country, piecing together evidence (even discovering that specially bred high-nicotine tobacco was secreted from Brazil into U.S. cigarettes) that forever has changed how society views tobacco.Additionally discovered were internal industry documents stating, We are in the business of selling nicotine, an addictive drug. And revealed theindustry targeted its advertising toward children as potential new smokers. Under th direction of former Food and Drug Administration Commissioner Dr. David Kessler, his agency uncovered proof that tobacco companies manipulated nicotine to hook smokers and targeted minors to take up the habit. They had underestimated the enormous power of the tobacco industry. During an interview, Dr. Kessler stated I dont think that people know the extent to which their tentacles really reachedDr kessler envisions establishing a special corporation to sell cigarettes without advertising or making any profit, thus removing the incentive to hook new smokers, feeling it has become apparent that nothing else will work. Ultimatley, he stated, Cigarettes should be sold in brown paper wrappers, with only the brand name and the warning label.However the story does not end.

Dr. Kessler left the FDA in 1997 and now is Yales universitys Dean of Medicine. In his book he wrote about a White House meeting. Pesident Clinton had read some of those internal documents and Dr. Kessler quotes him as exclaiming: I want to kill them. I just read all those documents and I just want to kill them.Subsequently, the Clinton Administration had sued the tobacco industry in 1999, acussing it of putting profits before health by concealing data that showed nicotine is addictive and smoking sauses disease. Government lawyers also contended the industry targeted its advertising toward children as potential new smokers. The tobacco industry made a fatal decision to conceal the dangers of tobacco use that can last as well as shorten a lifetime. One industry leader, the Philip Morris company (who once bitterly fought the FDAs regulations) has now commented, Tough and sensible FDA regulation of the industry is needed and should focus on such things as preventing kids from smoking. So Basically what the industry did was , they knew that tobacco was an addictive drug and continued on selling the product just so that they could keep their sales up.

The American Lung Association Nicotine Replacement Therapy (NRT), provides products that help relieve some of the withdrawal symptoms people experience when they quit smoking. Three nicotine replacement products that are over-the-counter in the United States, including two nicotine patches and nicotine gum. Nicotine inhaler and nasal spray are only by prescription. There is also a new non-nicotine pill, used as a smoking cessation treatment option. The nicotine patch releases a constant amount of nicotine in the blood. The nicotine dissolves right into the skin and enters the body. Also available in different sizes. A larger patch delivers more nicotine through the skin. The patch contains less nicotine than in cigarettes. It also does not contain any other tars or poisonous gases found in cigarette. Study have shown that the patch is much easier to give up then cigarettes, for two reasons: One, people usually develop cravings for things that provide immediate satisfaction(such as chocolate), with the patch, the nicotine level in the body stays relatively constant day after day. Second, anything people do often, such as smoking, becomes a habit; since you apply the patch only once a day, there is no strong habit to break.Once breaking the smoking habit you will get into the habit of wearing the patch, which will help you lose cravings for satisfaction, and lose the craving for a cigarette. If someone is truly addicted to tobacco, there are many ways that the American Lung Association can help.

Although once wearing the patch, it can actually leave you with some short term side effects, that include, headaches, dizziness, upset stomache, weakness, blurred vision, vivid dreams, mild itching and burning on the skin, and diarrhea. Wearing the patch will lesson the chance of of suffering from several major smoking withdrawal symptoms like, tenseness, irritability, drowsiness and lack of concentration. Nicotine gum is also offered over- the-counter, and contains enough nicotine to reduce the urge to smoke. It is a temporary aid that reduces symptoms of nicotine withdrawal after quitting smoking. The nicotine gum must be used properly in order to be effective steps for nicotine gum users to follow include:

Stop all smoking when beginning the gum therapy

Do not eat or drink for fifteen minutes before using, or while chewing the gum

Chew gum on and off for thirty minutes to release the most of the nicotine. Keeping the gum between the cheek and gum allows the absorption of nicotine into the lining of the cheek.

Chew enough gum to reduce withdrawal symptoms(19-15 but nomore pieces than that in a day)

Use the gum everday for about a month or so, then start to reduce the number of pieces you chew a day, chewing only what you need to avoid withdrawal symptoms

Discontinue use of gum for three months

The patch and chewing the nicotine gum are very effective when quitting. There is always the nasal spray that you can use as well. Nicotine spray is dispensed from a pump bottle, and relieves cravings for cigarettes. It delivers nicotine to the nasal membreanes and reashes the bloodstream faster than any other NRT products, available by prescription. There is also the nicotine inhaler. Which is a plastic cylinder containing a cartridge that delivers nicotine when you puff on it. The inhaler delivers nicotine to the mouth, not the lung, and enters the body much more slowly than nicotine in cigarettes. Now as of 1997 a non-nicotine pill, bupropion hydrochloride (zyban) was approved to help smokers to quit. Also sold as an antidepressant.It is also necessary that you follow all the doctors orders and use these products only as prescribed with all types of nicotine replacement therapy. If not then the treatment will not be effective and symptoms may occur if not used correctly.

The Supreme Court rules FDA cannot regulate tobacco as an addictive drug. Clintons administrations claim that the Food and Drug Administration has the authority to regulate tobacco as an adiictive drug, was rejected, In theis case, we believe that Congress has clearly precluded the FDA from asserting jurisdation to regulate tobacco products, Justice Sandra Day OConnor wrote in the 39-page opinion. The courts rulling meant that Congress will have to act to give the FDA the power to regulate tobacco. The 1996 regulations, supported by President Clinton, would have restricted the sale of tobacco products to minors and put limits on tobacco company marketing and advertising.

The FDA recently in 1996, had said that it lacked the authority to regulate tobacco as long as manufactures did not claim smoking provided health benefits. The regulating agency reversed itself saying tobacco could be regulated because of evidence that the industry intended its products to feed consumers nicotine habits. Sales to anyone under the age of eighteen are already in all fifty states. The FDA egulations took the measure a step further requiring all stores to ask for a photo I.D. from anyone under 27-year-old purchasing tobacco products. The agency also sought to limit all vending machine cigarette sales to adult-only locations, such as bars.Also in 1998 the tobacco companies sued, the 4th United States Circuit Court of Appeals ruled the federal agency could not regulate tobacco. Sandra Day OConnor opinion recognized the public health issue facing the nation was, By no means do we question the seriousness of the problem that the FDA has sought to address, the agency has amply demonstrated that tobacco use particularly among children and adolescents, poses perhaps the single most significant threat to public health in the United States. The FDA concluded that cigarettes are unsafe, and as a result it should require the FDA to remove them from the market entirely. To protect our society cigarettes and all tobacco sales should be ban or regulated with the help of more people and more regulations against tobacco.


Get instant access to
all materials

Become a Member