Introduction to Social Work and Social Welfare ch 2 – Charles Zastrow

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The 6 steps to the problem-solving approach are:
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1) Identify the problem or problems. 2) Generate possible alternative solutions. 3) Evaluate the alternative solutions. 4) Select a solution or solutions to be used and set goals. 5)Implement the solution. 6) Follow up to evaluate how the solutions worked.
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Generalist social workers trained to use the ‘problem-solving process’
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assess and intervene with the problems confronting individuals, families, groups, organizations, and communities.
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MSW
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Master of Social Work
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Macro practice
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A type of social work that involves working with organizations and communities or seeking changes in statutes and social policy.
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Mezzo practice
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A type of social work that includes working with families and other small groups.
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Micro practice
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A type of social work that involves working on a one-to-one basis with an individual.
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Case manager
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1) the person designated to assume primary responsibility for assessing the needs of a client, arranging and coordinating the delivery of essential goods and services provided by other resources, and working directly with the client to ensure that the goods and services in a timely manner. 2) must maintain close contact with clients and with other service providers to ensure that plans for service delivery are in place and are subsequently delivered as planned.
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Group therapy
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work that is aimed at facilitating the social, behavioral, and emotional adjustment of individuals through the group process.
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Group work
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social work that seeks to facilitate the intellectual, emotional, and social development of individuals through group activities.
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Family therapy
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a type of group therapy aimed at helping families with interactional, behavioral, and emotional problems.
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Community organization
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work that is aimed at stimulating and assisting the local community to evaluate, plan, and coordinate efforts to provide for the community’s health, welfare, and recreational needs.
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Administration
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work that involves directing the overall program of a social service agency. Also called management.
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Medical Model
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An approach that views clients as patients. Patients’ problems are viewed as being inside the patient; views emotional and behavioral problems as mental illness, comparable to physical illness.
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Sigmund Freud
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developed the medical model.
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Reform Approach
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Social Work model in the 1960s that wanted to change systems to benefit clients.
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Systems Approach
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A social work process that emphasizes looking beyond the client’s presenting problems to assess the complexities and interrelationships of the client’s life situation,
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Systems Perspective
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emphasizes looking beyond the clients’ presenting problems to assess the complexities and interrelationships of the clients life situation.
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3 key concepts of general systems theory are
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1) wholeness, 2) relationship, 3) homeostasis
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Homeostasis
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suggests that most living systems seek a balance to maintain and preserve the system.
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Ecological Approach
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An approach to human behavior that integrates both treatment and reform by conceptualizing and emphasizing the dysfunctional transactions between people and their physical and social environments.
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Ecological Model
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tries to improve coping patterns so that a better match can be attained between an individual’s needs and the characteristics of his or her environment.
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NASW
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National Association of Social Workers
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5 goals of social work practice as conceptualized by the NASW
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1) Enhance the problem-solving, coping, and developmental capacities of people. 2) Link people with systems that provide them with resources, services, and opportunities. 3) Promote the effectiveness and humane operation of systems that provide people with resources and services. 4) Develop and improve social policy. 5) Promote human community and well-being.
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Strengths Perspective
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Seeks to identify, use, build, and reinforce the abilities and strengths that people have, in contrast to the pathological perspective, which focuses on their deficiencies.
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Empowerment
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The process of helping individuals, families, groups, organizations and communities to increase their interpersonal, personal, political, and socioeconomic strengths so they can improve their circumstances.
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The 5 principles that guide the strengths perspective, according to Saleeby
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1) Every individual, group, family and community has strengths. 2) Trauma and abuse, illness and struggle may be injurious, but they may also be sources for challenge and opportunity. 3) Assume that you do not know the upper limits of the capacity to grow and change for the individual 4) We best serve clients by collaborating with them. 5) Every environment is full of resources.
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During the 2008-2018 decade, employment if social workers
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is expected to increase by 16%.
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EPAS
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The Educational Policy and Accreditation Standards.
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IASSW
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International Association of Schools of Social Work
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IASSW is
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the focal point for social work education around the world.
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The key skill needed to me a competent social worker is
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the capacity to relate and counsel individuals.
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Virginia Satir
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developed \”Family Sculpting.\”
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Identity Formation
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The process of determining who you are and what you want out of life.
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Generalist Practice
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1) is grounded in the liberal arts and the person-in-environment construct 2) promotes human and sotecial well-being
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Generalist Practitioners
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1) use a range of prevention and intervention methods in their practice with individuals, families, groups, organizations and communities 2) identifies with the social work profession and applies ethical principles and critical thinking in practice 3) incorporate diversity in their practice and advocate for human rights and social and economic justice 4) recognize, support, and build on the strengths and resiliency of all human beings 5) engage in research informed practice and are proactive in responding to the impact of context on professional practice
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8 skills of conceptualization needed by professional social workers
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1) engaging clients in an appropriate working relationship 2) identifying issues, problems, needs, resources, and assets 3) collecting and assessing information 4) planning for service delivery 5) using communication skills, supervision, and consultation 6) identifying, analyzing, and implementing empirically based interventions designed to achieve client goals 7) applying empirical knowledge and technological advances 8) evaluating program outcomes and practice effectiveness
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The Council on Social Work Educational Policy states that
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social workers use empathy and other skills.
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The Council on Social Work Education and Policy of Intervention believes
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a key factor is negotiation and mediation.
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The final phase of the evaluation is
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termination.
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Mediator
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A worker who provides intervention in disputes between parties to help them find compromises, reconcile differences, or reach mutually satisfactory agreements.
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Increasing anonominity is not a benefit of
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group therapy.
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Knoph characterized a trademark of a bureaucratic system as
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being highly depersonalized.
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A social worker is a
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multi-skilled professional.
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A social worker should acquire
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a wide range of skills and intervention techniques.
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A social worker has the responsibility and mandate to
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provide social services.
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The most basic skill a social worker needs is
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the ability to counsel clients effectively.
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2ND in importance is probably the
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ability to interact effectively with other groups, professionals in the community.
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Individuals were first hired as social workers around
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1900.
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Formalized training in social work was first offered at
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universities in the early 1900s.
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The social worker helps people increase their
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capacities for problem solving and coping and obtain needed resources.
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The social work facilitates interactions between individuals
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and between people and their environment.
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Social workers help make organizations
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responsible to people.
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Social workers influence
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social policies.
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There are several types of professional social work activities:
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1) casework 2) case management 8) research 9) consulting 10) planning 11) supervision 12) teaching 3) group work 4) group therapy 5) family therapy 6) community organization 7) administration 8) research 9) consulting 10) planning 11) supervision 12) teaching
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The person-in-environment conceptualization views
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the client as part of an environmental system.
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The person-in-environment perspective view encompasses
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the reciprocal relationship and other influences between an individual, the relevant other, or others, and the physical and social environment.
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Strengths Perspective
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it is essential that social work include clients’ strengths in the assessment process
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Social work focuses on the
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strengths and resources of clients to help them resolve their difficulties.
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Social workers must identify
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a clients strengths to utilize them.
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Social workers believe that clients have the right
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to develop their potentials fully, and should be encouraged to do so.
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Focusing on a clients weaknesses (pathology) often
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undermines the value commitment.
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Social workers must have a
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high level of self-awareness and a sense of who they are.
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The growing interconnectedness on an international level means
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that the crises and problems experienced by one country often affects other countries.
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SWE:
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The (Council) on Social Work Education

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