Introduction to Computing DSST

question

Shareware
answer

Software available at no cost on a trial basis.
question

Utilities
answer

Programs that help users monitor and configure the settings for computer hardware, application software, and the operating system. Includes setup wizards and antivirus software.
question

Microprocessor
answer

The CPU of most computers.
question

DDR-SDRAM
answer

The newest and most popular RAM chip. Other types of memory chips include ROM, CMOS, and Flash memory.
question

ROM
answer

Memory chips which contain fixed start-up instructions, are non-volatile and non-rewritable.
question

Booting
answer

Loading an operating system into the main memory of the computer.
question

Device Driver
answer

A specialized software program that enables peripheral devices to communicate with a computer system.
question

Spreadsheets
answer

Software that enables users to enter numerical data and formulas into rows and columns.
question

SQL
answer

A set of command words to instruct the computer to locate, sort or modify data.
question

Pseudocode
answer

An outline of a program written in a human language for the programmer to understand.
question

COBOL
answer

The oldest high-level programming language, still used in business, finance and administrative systems.
question

ARPANET
answer

The starting point for today’s Internet, created in 1969 by the US Department of Defense.
question

Node
answer

Any device attached to a network, such as a PC, storage device, or scanner.
question

Protocol
answer

A set of rules that govern the exchange of data between hardware and software components.
question

HTTP
answer

The communication rules enabling browsers to connect to Web servers.
question

Spoofing
answer

Forging the name of an e-mail sender.
question

Adware
answer

Also known as a pop-up generator; type of spyware that tracks Web surfing and online purchases in order to provide the user with relevant ads.
question

Cracker
answer

A malicious hacker.
question

Biometrics
answer

Use of physical attributes like fingerprints, voices, eyes or faces to confirm identity.
question

P2P
answer

A network where all workstations connect with each other without depending on the server.
question

Ethernet
answer

A popular network architecture where nodes are connected by wire or cable, which prevents messages from colliding along the transmission line.
question

Wireless Fidelity
answer

An Ethernet-compatible network that transmits data as radio waves.
question

URL
answer

A unique website address. It consists of four elements: Web protocol, domain name, directory name, and file name and extension.
question

Third Generation
answer

Procedural languages that allow the programmers to write in human language rather than abbreviations and numbers. Includes programs like FORTRAN, COBOL and Java.
question

Fourth Generation
answer

Problem-oriented languages that allow programmers to write programs with fewer commands, includes SQL and NOMAD.
question

Fifth Generation
answer

Natural languages that allow programmers to phrase questions and commands in conversational ways, and are associated with artificial intelligence. Prolog and Mercury are two examples.
question

OOP
answer

A method in which data and processing instructions are combined into objects, modules of programming code that can be used in other programs.
question

Machine Language
answer

The basic language of any computer as represented by binary digits, the first generation of computer languages.
question

Compiler
answer

A language which translates high-level languages into low-level languages which a computer can process. Needed for any third-generation language and beyond.
question

Second Generation
answer

Assembly languages, which are a set of abbreviations to use in place of binary code.
question

Switch
answer

A full-duplex device that connects computers to a network.
question

Gateway
answer

An interface that allows different types of networks to communicate.
question

Groupware
answer

Free software intended for collective use, a type of productivity software.
question

Malware
answer

Any kind of harmful computer program, including viruses, Trojan Horses, browser hijackers, key loggers, Denial-of Service attacks and worms.
question

Algorithm
answer

A step-by-step procedure for calculations.
question

Byte
answer

8 bits. There are 1024 bytes in a kilobyte (usually rounded to 1000), 1024 kilobytes in a megabyte, and so on through gigabytes and terabytes.
question

PAN
answer

The most geographically limited network, provides service for only one person. Between this and WAN (Wide Area Network) are, in increasing size, HAN, LAN, MAN and NAN.
question

Router
answer

Special computer that joins several networks together and directs communicating messages.
question

Packet-Switching
answer

The usual method of electronic data transfer across a network.
question

Software Life Cycle
answer

The steps taken by an organization when analyzing and designing a system. Typically, they include analysis, design, development, implementation and maintenance.
question

SRAM
answer

Static memory chip, the only one which is not dynamic: it does not need to be refreshed by the CPU to retain its contents.
question

Vacuum Tubes
answer

One of the first components of the digital computer, later replaced by transistors and integrated circuits.
question

Data Representation
answer

The format in which data is stored, processed and transmitted.
question

Phishing
answer

Sending forged e-mail with the intention of fooling users into revealing private information.
question

Pharming
answer

Redirecting users to fake Web sites.
question

Firewall
answer

System of hardware and/or software that shields a computer or network from intruders by analyzing, controlling, and filtering incoming and outgoing packets.
question

Domain Name
answer

The \”nickname\” for a Web site’s Internet location. The type is indicated by the last three letters: .gov (government), .com (commercial), .net (network), .org (nonprofit), .edu (educational), .mil (military), or .int (international organization).
question

Topology
answer

The arrangement of a network. Most have a central hub from which information is broadcast.
question

Bandwidth
answer

The data transmission capacity of a communications channel. High-capacity channels like DSL are called Broadband.
question

Modularization
answer

A step in program design. One develops and tests each sub-program or sub-routine separately.
question

Direct Implementation
answer

A step in the Software Life Cycle. User stops using old system and immediately begins with the new. Other types include parallel (both systems used until new is deemed reliable), phased (parts are used gradually), and pilot (a few users test the entire system before general use).
question

Open Source
answer

Proprietary software that includes source codes, so programmers can modify and improve it. Do not confuse this with public domain software, which is available to the public with no restrictions.
question

Cell
answer

A single \”box\” in a spreadsheet. Rows are horizontal, columns are vertical, ranges are clusters, and values are dates entered into cells.
question

User Interface
answer

The hardware and software which enable users and computers to interact.
question

Operating System
answer

The most important program on a computer; it manages booting, CPU, Files, tasks and security.

Get instant access to
all materials

Become a Member