Intro to Sociology, Ch. 3 & 4

question

About how many adults in the United States speak a language other than English at home?
answer

55 million
question

Cultural universals are elements of culture that:
answer

are part of every known culture.
question

Standards by which people who share culture define what is desirable, good, and beautiful are called:
answer

values.
question

The United States and Canada are both _______; however, Canadian culture is more _______ than U.S. culture.
answer

multicultural; collectivist
question

The intangible world of ideas created by members of a society is referred to as:
answer

nonmaterial culture.
question

Counterculture refers to:
answer

cultural patterns that oppose those that are widely held.
question

The United States is the most _______ of all countries.
answer

multicultural
question

What is the term for the application of cultural knowledge to the task of living in an environment?
answer

technology
question

An act of kindness, such as opening the door for an elderly man, illustrates conforming to:
answer

folkways.
question

Compared to college students of the late 1960s, more of today’s college students are concerned with:
answer

making money.
question

Weber traced the origins of the capitalist economy in Europe to:
answer

the Protestant Reformation.
question

Which of the following concepts was used by Durkheim to name a condition in which society provides little moral guidance to individuals?
answer

anomie
question

When Weber used the concept “rationality,” he had in mind:
answer

deliberate, matter-of-fact calculation of the most efficient way to accomplish any task.
question

Weber could see the advantages of industrial capitalism,
answer

but he was pessimistic about the future.
question

The social standing of women and men in hunting and gathering societies is:
answer

fairly equal, with men and women making a vital contribution to survival.
question

The Roman Empire at its peak power was what type of society?
answer

agrarian
question

Of the following sociologists, which one was most interested in how society is divided?
answer

Karl Marx
question

The first type of society to generate a material surplus is:
answer

horticultural and pastoral.
question

According to Lenski, the term sociocultural evolution refers to:
answer

changes that occur as a society acquires new technology.
question

Karl Marx used a philosophical approach called _____, Max Weber followed an approach called _____.
answer

materialism; idealism

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