Intro to Psych Final

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Nature vs. Nurture
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The controversy over the relative contributions of genes and experience on psychological traits is known as the
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Margaret Floy Washburn
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The first woman to receive a Ph.D. in psychology later wrote an influential book The Animal Mind. Her name was
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Cognitive Neuroscience
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The interdisciplinary study of the brain activity linked with mental activities such as perception, memory, and language is called
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Thought processes and brain functions
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Cognitive neuroscience studies relationships between
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Nature vs. Nature
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Efforts to discover whether the intelligence of children is more heavily influenced by their biology or by their home environments are most directly relevant to the debate regarding
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William James
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Who was the American philosopher-psychologist who authored a textbook in 1890 for the emerging discipline of psychology?
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Behaviorism
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The view that psychology should be an objective science that studies observable human activity without reference to mental processes is known as
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Adaptive value of conscious thoughts and emotions
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Functionalism was a school of psychology that focused attention on the
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Observable behavior
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From the 1920s into the 1960s, American psychologists emphasized the study of
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Neuroscience
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Which psychological perspective is most likely to examine how group membership influences individual attitudes and behaviors?
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Developmental
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Dr. Winkle conducts basic research on the systematic changes in intelligence associated with aging. It is most likely that Dr. Winkle is a(n) ________ psychologist.
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Positive Psychology
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To balance historic psychology’s focus on human problems and negative emotions, Martin Seligman called for the development of
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Community Psychology
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Which branch of psychology is most likely to study how social institutions affect the well-being of individuals and groups?
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The experiment
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Which of the following methods is most helpful for clarifying cause-effect relationships?
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Operational definitions
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Replication of a research study is most likely to be facilitated by
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Vary together
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Correlation is a measure of the extent to which two factors
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Naturalistic observation
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University of Texas students were fitted with belt-worn tape recorders for up to four days so that researchers could sample their daily activities. The researchers employed a scientific method known as
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Critical thinking
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When you question whether anecdotal evidence can be generalized to all people, you are applying
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Wording effects
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Surveys indicate that people are less likely to support \”welfare\” than \”aid to the needy.\” These somewhat paradoxical survey results best illustrate the importance of
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Hindsight bias
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Formulating testable hypotheses before conducting research is most directly useful for restraining a thinking error known as
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The experiment
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Which research method provides the best way of assessing whether cigarette smoking boosts mental alertness?
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Curiosity, skepticism, and humility
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Three key attitudes of scientific inquiry are
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2
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Approximately 95 percent of the cases represented by the normal curve fall within ________ standard deviation(s) from the mean.
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Bar graph
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The average price for different brands of toothpaste could be visually displayed in a
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Discerning human similarities and differences
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Studying people of all races and cultures is most helpful for
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Positively correlated
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If psychologists discovered that poor people are more satisfied with their marriages than wealthy people are, this would indicate that wealth and marital satisfaction are
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Naturalistic observation
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Professor Ober carefully observes and records the behaviors of children in their classrooms in order to track the development of their social and intellectual skills. Professor Ober is most clearly engaged in
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Biological
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A focus on the links between brain activity and behavior is most characteristic of psychologists who work from a ________ perspective.
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Sensory cortex
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Which part of your brain receives information that you are moving your legs?
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Neurons
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Dendrites are branching extensions of
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Myelin sheath
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The speed at which a neural impulse travels is increased when the axon is encased by a(n)
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Cerebrum
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The cerebral cortex is the covering layer of the
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Playing his guitar
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After Kato’s serious motorcycle accident, doctors detected damage to his cerebellum. Kato is most likely to have difficulty
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Constraint-induced therapy
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By restraining the use of his left hand, doctors helped Bruce to use and improve the coordination skills of his right hand. The doctors employed a technique known as
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Cognitive neural prosthetics
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Using a brain-computer interface, some paralyzed people may be able to move a robotic limb simply by thinking about moving it. This best illustrates
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Endorphins
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José has just played a long, bruising football game but feels little fatigue or discomfort. His lack of pain is most likely caused by the release of
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Positively charged ions are pumped back outside a neural membrane
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With regard to the process of neural transmission, a refractory period refers to a time interval in which
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Brainstem
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The reticular formation is located in the
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Amygdala
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To demonstrate that brain stimulation can make a rat violently aggressive, a neuroscientist should electrically stimulate the rat’s
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Phrenologist
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The person most likely to suggest that the shape of a person’s skull indicates the extent to which that individual is argumentative and aggressive would be a
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Sympathetic nervous system
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You come home one night to find a burglar in your house. Your heart starts racing and you begin to perspire. These physical reactions are triggered by the
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Pychoactive
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Chemical substances that alter perceptions and moods are called ________ drugs.
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Increase, decrease
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Traffic accident rates have been found to ________ after the spring change to daylight savings time and to ________ after the fall change back to standard time.
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90 minutes
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The human sleep cycle repeats itself about every
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Physical dependence
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Physical pain and intense cravings indicate
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Sleep
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A periodic, natural, reversible loss of consciousness that involves distinct stages is known as
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Drink a glass of wine 15 minutes before bedtime
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Which of the following is bad advice for a person trying to overcome insomnia?
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Blindsight
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A condition in which a person can respond to a visual stimulus without consciously experiencing it is known as
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REM sleep
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Evidence suggests that we consolidate our memories of recent life events through
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A biopsychosocial approach
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Professor Smith emphasizes that gender similarities and differences are products of a continuous interplay among genetically predisposed traits, culturally shaped roles, and personally constructed expectations and assumptions. The professor’s emphasis best illustrates
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Children are more likely to be valued by their biological fathers than by their stepfathers
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Evolutionary psychologists would be most likely to predict that
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Natural selection
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Evolutionary psychology studies the evolution of behavior and the mind using principles of
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Molecule
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DNA is a complex
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Reproductive success
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Evolutionary psychologists are most likely to emphasize that human adaptiveness to a variety of different environments has contributed to human
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Gender typing
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Migdalia insists on wearing very feminine-looking outfits because she wants to be treated like a woman. This best illustrates the impact of
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A fearful temperament
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One form of a gene that regulates the neurotransmitter serotonin contributes to the development of
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Increase in the incidence of depression and an increase in work hours
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Since 1960, Americans have experienced a(n)
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Role
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Behaviors expected of those who occupy a particular social position define a
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Teens
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Men in their ________ are most likely to be sexually attracted to women who are several years older rather than several years younger than themselves.
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Molecular geneticist
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Assessing possible links between specific chromosome segments and alcohol dependence would be of greatest interest to a(n)
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Individualism
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A willingness to switch jobs and move from one part of the country to another best illustrates one of the consequences of
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Person-to-person differences within cultural groups are larger than differences between groups
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Cross-cultural research on human development indicates that
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Form a lifelong attitude of trust toward the world
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Marlys is a sensitive, responsive parent who consistently satisfies the needs of Sara, her infant daughter. According to Erikson, Sara is likely to
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Social mentoring
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Piaget emphasized how the child’s mind grows through interaction with the physical environment. Vygotsky emphasized how the child’s mind grows through
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Alzheimer’s disease
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During the last few years, 75-year-old Mrs. Yamaguchi has gradually become so mentally disoriented that she can’t find her way around her own house and often fails to recognize her husband. It is most likely that Mrs. Yamaguchi is suffering the effects of
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Stability and change
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The fact that many happy and well-adjusted adults were once rebellious and unhappy as adolescents is most relevant to the issue of
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Ratio of positive to negative interactions with each other
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The best predictor of a couple’s marital satisfaction is the
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Human infants do not have well-defined critical periods for the formation of a mother-infant attachment
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Carol is distressed because post-childbirth complications prevented her from being in close physical contact with her child during its first few hours of life. Carol should be told that
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Peer relationships
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In teen calls to hotline counseling services, the most discussed topic is
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10 and 30
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When asked to recall the one or two most important events over the last half century, older adults tend to name events that occurred when they were between ________ years of age.
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They become increasingly prone to car accidents
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Research on older people has shown that
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Adolescent
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According to Erikson, achieving a sense of identity is the special task of the
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Menarche
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Puberty is most closely related to the onset of
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Those who express the strongest grief immediately do not purge their grief more quickly
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During the time following the death of a loved one
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A death-deferral phenomenon
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In one 15-year period, more Americans died on the two days after Christmas than on the two days before Christmas. It has been suggested that this illustrates
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The mental activities associated with thinking, knowing, remembering, and communicating
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Cognition refers to
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Mental operation
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According to Piaget, imagining an action and mentally reversing it would be an example of a
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Underestimated the cognitive capacities of infants
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Infants accustomed to a puppet jumping three times on stage show surprise if the puppet jumps only twice. This suggests that Piaget
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Secure attachment
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Providing children with a safe haven in times of stress contributes most directly to
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None of these feelings or events
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Researchers have discovered that the midlife transition between early and middle adulthood is characterized by unusually high levels of
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Adolescence
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According to Erikson, trust is to infancy as identity is to
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Have the most intimate relationships with girlfriends
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Research indicates that the high school girls who have the most affectionate relationships with their mothers also tend to
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The difficulty perceiving things from another person’s point of view
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According to Piaget, egocentrism refers to
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A decline in recall but not in recognition
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When adults of varying ages were tested for their memory of a recently learned list of 24 words, the older adults demonstrated
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Embodied cognition
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When put in a foul-smelling rather than a pleasant-smelling room, people expressed harsher judgments of immoral acts such as lying. This best illustrates the importance of
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High-pitched sounds is associated with large vibrations of the basilar membrane closest to the oval window
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According to place theory, the perception of
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Below one’s absolute threshold for awareness
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A subliminal message is one that is presented
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Bitter, sweet, sour, salty
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Our sense of taste was once thought to involve only the following four sensations
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Mirror neurons
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Psychologists are currently debating whether our physical capacity for mentally simulating the observed behavior of others is due to specialized
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Operant conditioning
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Shaping is a(n) ________ procedure.
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Classical conditioning
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An organism learns associations between events it does not control during the process of
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Instinctive drift
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Animals tend to revert from newly learned habits to their biologically predisposed behaviors. This is an example of
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Generalization
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Toddlers taught to fear speeding cars may also begin to fear speeding trucks and motorcycles. This best illustrates
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Fixed-interval
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An executive in a computer software firm works with his office door closed. At the same time every hour he opens the door to see what his employees are doing. The employees have learned to work especially hard during the five minutes before and while the door is open. Their work pattern is typical of responses that are reinforced on a ________ schedule.
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Punishment
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Myron quit gambling after he lost over a thousand dollars betting on horse races. This best illustrates the effects of
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Negative
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Mason, a stockbroker, runs two miles every day after work because it reduces his level of stress. Mason’s running habit is maintained by a ________ reinforcer.
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Acquiring new information or relatively enduring behaviors
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Psychologists define learning as the process of
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CS; US
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Extinction occurs when a ________ is no longer paired with a ________.
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Variable-ratio
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Asking women for dates is most likely to be reinforced on a ________ schedule.
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Continuous reinforcement followed by partial reinforcement
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A response is learned most rapidly and is most resistant to extinction if it is acquired under conditions of
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Classical conditioning
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A learned association between two stimuli is central to
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Generalization
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After learning to fear a white rat, Little Albert responded with fear to the sight of a rabbit. This best illustrates the process of
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Spontaneous recovery
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The reappearance, after a time lapse, of an extinguished CR is called
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Discrimination
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Learning that some responses, but not others, will be reinforced is called
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Interference
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People should avoid back-to-back study times for learning Spanish and French vocabulary in order to minimize
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Sensory
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An iconic memory is a ________ memory.
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Effortful processing
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The use of mnemonics such as the peg-word system illustrates
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Amygdala
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Stress hormones provoke the ________ to initiate a memory trace in the frontal lobes and basal ganglia.
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Retroactive interference
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Memory of your familiar old e-mail password may block the recall of your new password. This illustrates
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Memory consolidation
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Removing a rat’s hippocampus 48 hours after it learns the location of some tasty food does not prevent it from forming a long-term memory of where the food is located. This best illustrates the importance of
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Retrieval cues
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Memories are primed by
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Retention; acquisition
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Storage is to encoding as ________ is to ________.
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Infantile amnesia
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A lack of conscious memories of your first three years of life best illustrates
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Flashbulb
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Joshua vividly recalls his feelings and what he was doing at the exact moment when he heard of his grandfather’s unexpected death. This best illustrates ________ memory.
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Effortful processing
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Encoding that requires attention and conscious awareness is called
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Encoding failure
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Our inability to remember information presented in the seconds just before we fall asleep is most likely due to
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The spacing effect
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By consciously rehearsing facts you need to learn in many separate study sessions occurring throughout the semester, you are most clearly taking advantage of
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Recognition
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Which measure of memory is used on a test that requires matching glossary terms with their correct definitions?
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The availability heuristic
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Dean overestimates the proportion of family chores for which he takes sole responsibility because it’s easier for him to recall what he has done than to recall what other family members have done. This best illustrates the impact of
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Syntax
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To combine words into grammatically sensible sentences, we need to apply proper rules of
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4; 2
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The word \”cats\” contains ________ phoneme(s) and ________ morpheme(s).
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Underestimate the extent to which our beliefs and judgments are inaccurate
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The overconfidence phenomenon refers to the tendency to
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Aphasia
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An impairment of language is known as
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Temporal
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Wernicke’s area is typically located in the left ________ lobe.
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Universal grammar
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Noam Chomsky suggested that all human languages share a(n)
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Insight
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After spending two hours trying to solve an engineering problem, Amira finally gave up. As she was trying to fall asleep that night, a solution to the problem popped into her head. Amira’s experience best illustrates
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Aptitude
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A test of your capacity to learn to be an automobile mechanic would be considered a(n) ________ test.
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Require less energy to solve problems than the average person
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Brain scans indicate that smart people
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Mental age divided by chronological age and multiplied by 100
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For the original version of the Stanford-Binet, IQ was defined as
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Grammar test
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Girls are most likely to outperform boys in a
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8
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Howard Gardner identified a total of ________ intelligences.
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Longitudinal study
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The same people are tested and retested over a period of years in a(n)
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Normal curve
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The distribution of intelligence test scores in the general population forms a bell-shaped pattern. This pattern is called a
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A general intelligence that underlies successful performance on a wide variety of tasks
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Spearman’s g factor refers to
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6
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Five-year-old Benjy has an IQ of 120 on the original version of the Stanford-Binet. His mental age is
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Emotional intelligence
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The ability to delay immediate pleasures in pursuit of long-range rewards is most clearly a characteristic of
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Identify children likely to have difficulty learning in regular school classes
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Binet and Simon designed a test of intellectual abilities in order to
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Cannon-Bard theory
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According to the ________, you would be able to experience emotion even without sympathetic nervous system arousal.
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cognitive label; physical arousal
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According to the two-factor theory, the two basic components of emotions are ________ and ________.
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Are more likely to declare the innocent guilty than to declare the guilty innocent
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Research on the accuracy of lie detector tests suggests that they
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Insula
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A deep neural center activated when people smell some disgusting food or when they feel moral disgust in response to a perceived injustice is called the
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The facial feedback effect
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The tendency of facial muscle states to trigger corresponding feelings such as fear or happiness is called
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Guilty knowledge test
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A polygraph examination of a suspected murderer included an assessment of his reaction to a detailed description of the victim’s clothing and death wounds—details that would be known only to a person at the scene of the crime. The investigators were using the
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Reduced immune responses
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A loss of perceived control tends to result in
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Type A
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Friedman and Rosenman referred to competitive, hard-driving, impatient, and easily angered individuals as ________ personalities.
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Tendency for standards of judgement to be heavily influenced by previous experiences
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The adaptation-level phenomenon refers to the
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Sleeping difficulties
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Two-thirds of Americans responding to surveys taken in the three weeks after the 9/11 terrorist attacks reported
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Coronary Heart Disease
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Depression increases the risk of death, especially death from
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Lowering blood pressure
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Social support helps to promote cardiovascular health by
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Strong superego
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No matter how long and hard Lerae studies, she always feels she hasn’t studied as much as she should have. A Freudian psychologist would suggest that Lerae shows signs of a
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Rationalization
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The defense mechanism in which self-justifying explanations replace the real, unconscious reasons for actions is
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Overestimate; overestimate
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If we are nervous about our personal appearance after adopting a new hairstyle, we are likely to ________ the extent to which others notice our nervousness and we are likely to ________ the extent to which they notice our new hairstyle.
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Psychodynamic
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Projective tests are most closely associated with ________ theories.
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Openness
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Unlike country, pop, and religious music lovers, those who prefer classical, jazz, blues, and folk music tend to score high on the Big Five trait dimension known as
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Criticize others
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A person whose self-esteem is momentarily threatened is especially likely to
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Learned helplessness
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After experiencing inescapable brutalities as a prisoner in a Nazi concentration camp, Mr. Sternberg became apathetic, stopped eating, and gave up all efforts to physically survive the ordeal. Mr. Sternberg’s reaction most clearly illustrates
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Fixation
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According to Freud, an adult who exhibits biting sarcasm and an exaggerated denial of his or her dependence on others shows signs of a(n)
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MMPI
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Dr. Zytowics wants to assess the extent to which a client is suffering from depression, social withdrawal, and other symptoms of an emotional disorder. Which personality inventory would be most helpful for this purpose?
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Personality traits
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Factor analysis has been used to identify the most basic
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more; less
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Those with an internal locus of control act ________ independently and feel ________ depressed than those with an external locus of control.
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Selectively studied people with qualities he admired
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Maslow’s description of self-actualized individuals was said to reflect his own personal values because he
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Free association
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A psychotherapist instructs Dane to relax, close his eyes, and state aloud whatever thoughts come to mind no matter how trivial or absurd. The therapist is using a technique known as
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Self-control
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The ability to delay short-term gratification for greater long-term rewards illustrates
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Unlearned instinct
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The fact that human aggression varies widely from culture to culture most strongly suggests that it is NOT
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Reinforcement
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Animals that have successfully fought to get food or mates become increasingly ferocious. This best illustrates that aggression is influenced by
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Role playing aggression
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In contrast to watching violence on television, participating in violent video games involves
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Deliver electric shocks to a learner for giving the wrong answers
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Participants in the Milgram obedience studies were ordered to
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Be perceived as more socially skilled
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Svetlana, a 20-year-old undergraduate, is beautiful. Research suggests that she is likely to ________ than less attractive women.
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She easily recalls her negative feelings about shoplifting
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Vanna is tempted to shoplift a gold necklace even though she has negative feelings about shoplifting. Vanna is LEAST likely to steal the merchandise if
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Lower divorce rates and consider passionate love as less important for marriage
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Which of the following is true of non-Western cultures, as compared with Western cultures? They have
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A provocation
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Jason was fouled by an unfamiliar opponent during a basketball game at a neighborhood park. His consumption of alcohol prior to the game is most likely to lead him to interpret the foul as
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Even when the group judgement was clearly incorrect
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Solomon Asch reported that individuals conformed to a group’s judgment of the lengths of lines
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Equity, self-disclosure, and positive support
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Three keys to an enduring compassionate love include
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Social psychology
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Which branch of psychology is most directly concerned with the study of how people think about influence, and relate to one another?
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Explicit and implicit attitudes
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At a conscious level, Aaron doesn’t think he’s prejudiced. Yet he automatically feels uncomfortable in situations where he has to interact with people of different races from his own. Aaron’s experience best illustrates the distinction between
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You know you would feel terribly guilty for refusing their request
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Two classmates ask you to spend a couple of hours helping them prepare for a chemistry test. According to social exchange theory, you would be most likely to help them if
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They perceive their orders to come from legitimate authority figures
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In 1942, German reserve police officers obeyed orders to kill some 1500 Jews in the village of Jozefow, Poland. This incident illustrated that people are most likely to be destructively obedient when
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A loss of self-awareness and self-restraint in group situations that fosters arousal and anonymity
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Deindividuation refers to
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The bystander effect
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When 12-year-old Jamilah saw an old man lying on the sidewalk, he prepared to offer help. But when he noticed several adults walk past the man, he concluded that the man did not need any help. His reaction most clearly illustrates one of the dynamics involved in
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Frustration
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According to the scapegoat theory, prejudice is likely to result from
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Situational influences; personal dispositions
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The fundamental attribution error refers to our tendency to underestimate the impact of ________ and to overestimate the impact of ________ in explaining the behavior of others.
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Stimulus generalization
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A person attacked by a fierce dog develops a fear of all dogs. This best illustrates
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Persistent and distressing
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Anxiety is considered disordered if it is
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Preventing her from functioning effectively
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Alexis is socially withdrawn and has few close friends. This behavior is most likely to be diagnosed as a symptom of psychological disorder if it is
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Bulimia nervosa
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Twenty-two-year-old Tawana is slightly overweight and loves to eat, particularly snack foods and rich desserts. Fearful of becoming overweight, she frequently takes a laxative following episodes of binge eating. Tawana most clearly suffers from
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Schizophrenia
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Some psychological disorders occur primarily in one culture. However, ________ occurs worldwide.
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Phobia
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Kaylee is so afraid of spiders and insects that she avoids most outdoor activities and even refuses to go to the basement of her own house alone. Kaylee appears to suffer from
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A lack of guilt feelings
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Antisocial personality disorder is most likely to be characterized by
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Schizophrenia
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Danes born in densely populated areas have been found to be at increased risk for
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Learning
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Melissa is fearful of men and refuses to go out on dates. Her therapist suggests that she is fearful because she was sexually abused by her father when she was young. The therapist’s suggestion most clearly reflects a ________ perspective.
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Deviant
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Ongoing patterns of behavior that are different from those of most other people in your culture are best characterized as
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Biological
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It has been suggested that compulsive acts typically exaggerate behaviors that contributed to the survival of the human species. This idea best illustrates the ________ perspective.
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Classical conditioning
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Rats that received unpredictable electric shocks in a laboratory experiment subsequently became apprehensive when returned to that same laboratory setting. This best illustrates that anxiety disorders may result from
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Abnormally large and the thalamus is abnormally small
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Among schizophrenia patients, the fluid-filled areas of the brain are
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Limbic system
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Some people are more vulnerable to PTSD because they have a sensitive ________, which floods the body with stress hormones.
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Schizophrenia
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In which type of disorder is a person’s speech likely to be so full of unrelated words and phrases that it could be characterized as a \”word salad\”?
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The therapeutic alliance
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Researchers have found that matching Asian-American clients with counselors who share their cultural values facilitates
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Become aware of their repressed conflicts and impulses
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Psychoanalytic techniques are designed primarily to help patients
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Psychodynamic theories
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Principles derived from psychologists’ understanding of classical conditioning have most directly influenced the development of
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Cognitive behavioral therapy
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Dr. Jackson reinforces depressed patients for their participation in pleasant activities and trains them to take increasingly more credit for the rewards they gain from engaging in those activities. Dr. Jackson’s treatment approach best illustrates

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