Intro to Chem Exam 3

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Compounds
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when two or more elements combine together
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Chemical bonds
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the atoms of compounds are connected by
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Octet
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is formed when an element has eight valence electrons
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Atom with an octet is
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stable
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exception for stable atoms and octets is
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He which is stable with 2 electrons because the n=1 energy level is completely filled
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octet rule
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atoms form compounds by gaining, loosing,or sharing electrons to acquire an octet of eight valence electrons.
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Two types of compounds
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ionic compounds
covalent compounds
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ionic compounds
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between a metal and a nonmetal
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covalent compounds
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between two or more nonmetals
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covalent compounds are formed by the
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sharing of valence electrons between atoms of nonmetals
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two shared electrons a (shared pair) form a
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single covalent bond
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with covalent bonds
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each atom acquires an octet
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how many atoms in the prefix mono
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1
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how many atoms in the prefix di
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2
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how many atoms in the prefix tri
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3
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how many atoms in the prefix tetra
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4
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how many atoms in the prefix penta
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5
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how many atoms in the prefix hexa
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6
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how many atoms in the prefix hepta
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7
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how many atoms in the prefix octa
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8
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how many atoms in the prefix nona
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9
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how many atoms in the prefix deca
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10
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how many elements are diatomic elements
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7
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diatomic elements are
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elements of the same sort which share a covalent bond
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Ionic compounds
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are formed between a metal and nonmetal
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Ionic compounds are formed by
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completely transferring all valence electrons from the metal to the nonmetal
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Cation are formed in ionic compounds because
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the metal has given the nonmetal its valence electrons leaving more protons then electrons
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Cations are charged
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positive
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Nonmetals in ionic compounds form an
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anion ion which is negative because it now has more electrons then neutrons
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Electrostatic forces
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ions with opposite charges are held together by this
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Positive ions
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cations
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metals ionization energy
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is low meaning it is easy to remove electrons
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Metals form positive ions or cations by
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loosing all of their valence electrons
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Negative ions are known as
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Anions
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a negative ion is formed by
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gaining electrons
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cation -metal ion is named
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(the name of the element) ion
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Anion- nonmetal ion is named by
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changing the end of the name of the element to ide
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Anions in group 5A have
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3- charge
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Anions in group 6A have
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2- charge
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Anions in group 7A have
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1- charge
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Noble gases can’t from anions because
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there octets are full
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ionic compounds
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are neutral
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Name all the Diatomic Molecules
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Hydrogen
Nitrogen
Oxygen
Fluorine
Chlorine
Bromine
Iodine
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Name the Ionic Compound NaCl
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sodium chloride
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Name the Ionic Compound K2S
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potassium sulfide
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Name the Ionic Compound MgO
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magnesium oxide
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CaI2
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calcium iodide
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Transition Metals form
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two or more positive ions
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Exception elements to transition metals
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Zinc, Cadmium, and Silver only make one ion
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Polyatomic Ions
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is a group of covalently bonded atoms
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Polyatomic Ions charges
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an overall ionic charge
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Polyatomic ions can be
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an anion (-) or cation +
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More oxygen means
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ate
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less oxygen means
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ite
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in a chemical change
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reacting substances form new substances with different compositions and properties a chemical reaction occurs
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a chemical change produces
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one or more new substances
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in a chemical change the composition
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of one or more substances is changed
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in a chemical change old bonds
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are broken and new bonds are formed
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Atoms in the reacting substances are
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rearranged to form one or more different substances
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chemical reactions are represented
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by chemical equations
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Chemical equations are written with
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the reactants on the right and the products on the right
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this symbol (+) means
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separates two or more formulas
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this symbol means ————->
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Reacts to form products
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this symbol (triangle) means
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reactants are heated
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this symbol (s) means
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solid
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this symbol (l) means
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liquid
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this symbol (g) means
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gas
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this symbol (aq) means
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aqueous
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combination reactions are
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two or more elements or simple compounds form one product
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Decomposition reactions
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one substance splits into two or more simpler substances
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Single replacement reactions
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Free element takes the place of a different element in a reacting compound
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Double replacement reactions
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the positive ions or cations of compounds exchange places
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Combustion Reactions
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a compound or element such as carbon reacts with oxygen EX fuel is burned and oxygen is produce
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In a balanced equation
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atoms are not gained or lost
total number of atoms of each element is the same in the reactants and in the products
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A buffer is
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substance that maintains a constant pH
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The resists
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a change in the pH upon the addition of a acid or base
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Buffers neutralize
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a small amount of the added acid or base
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The human body contains buffer
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buffers that help a pH of 7.4 in the blood
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A buffer solution contains
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a weak acid and its salt
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A buffer may also contain
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a weak base and its salt
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A buffer typically has equal
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concentrations of a weak acid (or base) and its salt
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A neutralization reaction
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an acid such as HCI and a base such as NaOH react with each other
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The H+ from the acid and the OH- from The H+ from the acid and the OH- from the base combine to form
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water as a product
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In the equation for neutralization
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an acid and a base produce a salt and water
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Acids react with some metals
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to give a salt and hydrogen gas
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Acids react with carbonates and bicarbonates
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to give carbonic acid and a salt
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Carbonic acid further breaks down
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to carbon dioxide and water
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The pH scale is used
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to indicate the acidity of a solution
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The pH scale range is from
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0-14
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a neutral solution has a pH
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of 7
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An acidic solution has a pH
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less then 7
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A base solution has a pH
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greater then 7
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Strong bases completely ionizes into
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OH- in the water
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bases produce
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OH- Ions in water
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Most bases are from groups
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1 2
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Bases taste
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bitter
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bases neutralize
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acids
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Acids produce
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H+ ions in water
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Acids have a
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sour taste
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acids neutralize
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bases
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Acids turn litmus
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to red
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bases turn litmus paper
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blue
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Strong acids completely ionizes
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into H+ in water

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