Intro into SOC exam 2 review

Society
_______ is people who interact in a defined territory and share a culture.

Max Weber
____ ____: shows the power of ideas in shaping society. Weber contrasted the traditional thinking of simple societies with rational thought that dominates complex societies today.

7
Wed uses how many characteristics to identify rational social organization?

Protestant Reformation
Weber claimed that the key to birth of Industrial Capitalism lay in the __________ __________.

Sociocultural evolution
What is Lenski’s term for changes that occur as a society gains new technology. Societies with simple technology and little control over nature can only support smalls amounts of people while societies that are dependent on technology have the ability to support hundreds of millions more. The more technology a society has, the more and faster it grows.

Dawn of Civilization
The invention of animal-drawn plow, along with other breakthrough such as irrigation, the wheel, writing numbers, and the use of various metals. This moment in history is often called the ________ __________.

Social conflict
________ _______ is the struggle between segments of society over valued resources.

Capitalist
________ are people who own and operate factories and other businesses in pursuit of profits.

Alienation
_________ is the experience of isolation and misery resulting from powerlessness.

1. The act of working
2. The products of work
3. Other workers
4. Human potential
What does Marx note of how worker feel alienated? (4)

Rationalization of society
___________ __ ______, Weber’s term for the historical change from tradition to rationality as the main type of human thought.

Mechanical solidarity
__________ _______, Durkheim’s term for social bonds, based on common sentiments and shared moral values, that are strong among members of pre-industrial societies.

Superego
_______: (Latin for “above or beyond the ego”) Freud’s term for cultural values and norms internalized by an individual. Operates as our conscience, telling us why we can’t have everything we want. The child comes to understand that everyone’s behavior should take account of cultural norms. The superego tends to be very condemning.

Cognitive
Jean Piaget (1896-1980) Theory of _______ Development. Studied human cognition, how people think and understand by watching his own 3 children grow.

sensorimotor, preoperational, concrete, and formal
Piaget’s 4 stages of cognitive development:

Post-conventional
_____-_________: (corresponding to Piaget’s formal stage) Moving beyond society’s norms to consider abstract ethical principles. Now they think about liberty, freedom, or justice.

Looking-glass Self
_______-_____ ______: Cooley’s term for a self-image based on how we think others see us.

Anticipatory Socialization
__________ ________: learning that helps a person achieve a desired position.

Re-socialization
__-_________: radically changing an inmate’s personality by carefully controlling the environment.

making a difference vs. self-absorption
Erik H. Erikson

Infancy: trust vs. mistrust

Toddlerhood: autonomy vs. guilt and shame

Preschool: initiative vs. guilt

Preadolescence: industriousness vs. inferiority

Adolescence: identity vs. confusion

Young adulthood: intimacy vs. isolation

Middle adulthood: ____ _ _______ vs. ____-_______

Old age: the challenge of integrity vs. despair

boys and girls
Carol Gilligan compared moral development between ____ and ____.

negotiation
According to psychiatrist Elizabeth Kübler-Ross, the 3rd stage one will express when they are experiencing death is ________.

Superego
_________: (Latin for “above or beyond the ego”) Freud’s term for cultural values and norms internalized by an individual. Operates as our conscience, telling us why we can’t have everything we want. The child comes to understand that everyone’s behavior should take account of cultural norms. The superego tends to be very condemning.

Jean Piaget (1896-1980)
Who developed a Theory of Cognitive Development? Studied human cognition, how people think and understand by watching his own 3 children grow.

sensorimotor, preoperational, concrete, and formal.
Piaget’s 4 stages of cognitive development:

Post-conventional
____-_________: (corresponding to Piaget’s formal stage) Moving beyond society’s norms to consider abstract ethical principles. Now they think about liberty, freedom, or justice.

Looking-glass Self
_______-_____ ______: Cooley’s term for a self-image based on how we think others see us.

Anticipatory Socialization
_______ ________: learning that helps a person achieve a desired position.

Resocialization
_____________: radically changing an inmate’s personality by carefully controlling the environment.

Erik H. Erikson
Erik H. Erikson
Infancy: trust vs. mistrust
Toddlerhood: autonomy vs. guilt and shame
Preschool: initiative vs. guilt
Preadolescence: industriousness vs. inferiority
Adolescence: identity vs. confusion
Young adulthood: intimacy vs. isolation
Middle adulthood: making a difference vs. self-absorption
Old age: the challenge of integrity vs. despair

boys and girls
Carol Gilligan compared moral development between ______ and ______.

negotiation
According to psychiatrist Elizabeth Kübler-Ross, the 3rd stage one will express when they are experiencing death is ________.

Social interaction
_______ ________ is the process by which people act and react in relation to others. Members of every society rely on social structure to make sense out of everyday situations. We find what is acceptable socially by those interactions.

Master status
_______ _______ a status that has special importance for social identity, often shaping a person’s entire life. Someone may be a mother, daughter, grandmother, wife or a professor but the fact that the person is blind is not an equal status to the others. It overrides and engulfs all the others. This can include your sexual orientation or racial ethnicity.

Role conflict
_____ _____ conflict among the roles connected to 2 or more statuses.

Ethnomethodology
_______________ Harold Garfinkel’s term for the study of the way people make sense of their everyday surroundings.

power and value
Language defines men and women different in terms of both ______ and _____.

emotions
Sociologist Arlie Russell Hochschild explains, that the typical company tries to regulate not only the behavior of the employees, but also their ________. She explores the many ways we manage our emotions in personal life and also perform emotional labor in the American workplace and around the globe.

Socialy media
_______ _____ technology that links people in social activity. The expansion of social media has dramatically changed how people interact.

Dramaturgical analysis
___________ ______ Erving Goffman’s term for the study of social interaction in terms of theatrical performance.

well-being
Expressive leadership by contrast, is group leadership that focuses on the group’s ____-____. These leaders build more personal primary ties. They offer sympathy, keep group united, lighten serious moments with humor and are more likely to receive affection.

Reference group
_______ _____ is a social group that serves as a point of reference in making evaluations and decisions. Individuals use reference groups to form attitudes and make evaluations.

inward
Peter Blau claimed that larger groups turn _____, socially diverse groups turn outward.

Problems with Bureaucracy: (4)
1. Bureaucratic alienation
2. Bureaucratic inefficiency and ritualism
3. Bureaucratic inertia
4. Oligarchy

George Ritzer says the McDonalization of society rest on: (4)
1. Efficiency (anything done quickly is good)
2. Calculability (mass produced according to a uniform plan)
3. Uniformity and predictability (system specifies every course of action and leaves nothing to chance)
4. Control through automation (minimize the human element)

Dyad
Georg Simmel used these terms to designate social groups:
_____ is Greek for “pair” to designate a social group with two members. Usually more of an intense bond because neither member is sharing their attention with anyone but tat other person.
Triad is a social group with 3 or more members. A triad is more stable than a dyad because one member can act as a mediator should the relationship between two others becomes strained.

2
Group pressure can influence us to conform or obey. Irving Janis says there’s __ types of groups.

scientific management
In the early 1900’s, Fredrick Taylor’s _________ _________ applied principles to increase productivity.

Utilitarian organizations
___________ __________ would be anyone working for pay.

Bureaucratic ritualism
____________ _________ describes a focus on rules and regulations to the point of undermining an organization’s goal. Rules and regulations should be a means to an end, not an end in themselves that takes the focus away from the organization’s stated goals.

Role Exit
the process by which people disengage from important social roles. According to Ebaugh, the process begins as people come to doubt their ability to continue in a certain role. Exes carry with them a self image shaped by an earlier role, which can interfere with building a new sense of self.

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