intergrated marketing communications and direct marketing

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Promotional Mix
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-Advertising -Personal Selling -Sales Promotion -Public Relations -Direct Marketing
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Customized (promotional mix)
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-Personal Selling -Direct marketing
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Personal Selling
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The two-way flow of communication between a buyer and seller, often in a face-to-face encounter, designed to influence a person’s or group’s purchase decision. uses custimized interaction beteen seller and buyer. Most expensive.
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Direct Marketing
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A promotion alternative that uses direct communication with consumers to generate a response in the form of an order, a request for further information, or a visit to a website or a retail outlet.
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Mass selling
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-Advertising -Public Relations -Sales Promotion
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Advertising
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Any paid form of non-personal communication about an organization, good, service, or idea by an identified sponsor. The paid aspect of the definition is important the space must be bought
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Public Relations
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A form of communication management that seeks to influence the feelings, opinions, or beliefs held by customers, prospective customers, stockholders, suppliers, employees, and other stakeholders about a company and its products or services. Any paid form of non-personal communication about an organization, good, service, or idea by an identified sponsor.
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Sales Promotion
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A short-term inducement of value offered to arouse interest in buying a good or service. Advetising support turns tryers into long term buyes after.
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3 tasks of the promotional mix
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-Inform Prospective Buyers -Persuade them to Try your Product/Brand -Remind them of the Benefits of your Product/Brand
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Integrated Marketing Communications (IMC)
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the concept of designing marketing communications programsthat coordinate all promotional activities—advertising, personal selling, sales promotion, public relations, and direct marketing—to provide a consistent message across all audiences.
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Source
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A company or person who has information to convey during the communication process.
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Encoding
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The process of having the sender transform an idea into a set of symbols during the communication process
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Message
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The information sent by a sourceto a receiver during the communication process.
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Channel of communiction
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The means (e.g., a salesperson, advertising media, or public relations tools) of conveying a message to a receiver during the communication process
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Decoding
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The process of having the receiver take a set of symbols, the message, and transform them back to an idea during the communication process
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Receiver
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Consumers who read, hear, or see the message sent by a source during the communication process
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Noise
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Extraneous factors that can work against effective communication by distorting a message or the feedback received during the communication process.
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Factors that Develop the Promotional Mix (5)
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1) Identifying the Target Audience 2) Determining the Product Life Cycle Position 3) Considering the Product Characteristics Complexity…
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3 elements of product characteristics
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Complexity-Technical Skills/Knowledge Needed Risk-Financial, Social and/or Physical Risk Ancillary Services-Degree of support needed after the sale.
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2 channel strategies
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pull and push strategy
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Pull Strategy
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Directing the promotional mix at ultimate consumers to encourage them to ask the retailer for a product. – Discount Coupons -Contests & Sweepstakes – Product Samples
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Push strategy
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Directing the promotional mix to channel members to gain their cooperation in ordering and stocking the product. -Point of Purchase Displays -Trade Discounts
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Promotional Decision Process
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Planning, Implementation and Evaluation
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Planning
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Developing the promotional program
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implementation
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executing the promotional program
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Evaluation
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assessing the promotional program
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4 types of promotional budgeting
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-Percentage of Sales Budgeting -Competitive Parity Budgeting -All-you-can-afford Budgeting -Objective and Task Budgeting
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Percentage of Sales Budgeting
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Allocating funds to promotion as a percentage of past or anticipated sales, in terms of either dollars or units sold.
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Competitive Parity Budgeting
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Allocating funds to promotion by matching the competitor’s absolute level of spending or the proportion per point of market share. Also called Matching Competitors or Share of Market.
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All-you-can afford Budgeting
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Allocating funds to promotion only after all other budget items are covered.
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Objective and task budgeting
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The best approach Allocating funds to promotion whereby the firm: (1) determines its promotion objectives; (2) outlines the tasks to accomplish these objectives; (3) determines the promotion cost of performing these tasks.
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Top 5 Marketers in 06 (spending money on promotional expenses)
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More then 3 billion annually 1) Proctor and Gamble 2) AT&T 3) General Motors 4) Time Warner 5) Verizon
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Direct Marketing Methods
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Internet sales, shopping channels, catalogs, telemarketing, direct response advertising, and direct mail
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The promotional mix can
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-Inform prospective buyer about the benifits of the product -persude them to try it -remind them later about the benifis they enjoyed by useing the product
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Communication
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is the proccess of of conveying a message to others and it requires six elements -source -message -channel of communication -reciever proccess of encoding and decoding
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Errors in communication
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– the source does not adequatly transform the abstract idea into an effective set of symbols. -a properly encoded message can be sent through the wrong channel and never amke it to the reciver. -the reciever may not properly transform the set of symbols into the correct abstract idea -feed back may be so delyed or distorted that it is of no use to the sender
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Field of experience
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A similar understanding and knowledge they apply to the message.
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Response
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Is the impact the message had on the recievers knowlage, attitudes, or behaviors
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Feedback
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The senders interpretation of the response and indicates whether the massege was decoded and understood as intended.
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Noise
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extraneous factors that can work against effective communication by distorting a message or the feedback received during the communication process
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Examples of niose
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A printing mistake that effects the meaning of a news paper advertisment or using words or pictures that fail to communicate the message clearly. sales persons message is misunderstood.
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Wasted coverage
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communication with consumers who are not the target audience.
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Publicity
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a nonpersonal, indirectly paid presentation of an organization, good, or service news story editorial product announcement inderectly paid because the company must support a public relations staff. Publicity following a purschase incrreases positive response to the message.
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Direct marketing
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a promotion alternative that uses direct communication with consumers to generate a response in the form of an order, a request for further information, or a visit to a retail outlet -face to face -direct mail -catalogs -telephone solicitations
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advertising during the Growth stage
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The primary goal is to persuade the cosumer to buy the product.sales promotion assumes less important in the stage and publicity is not a factor. the primary element is advertising, which stresses brand difference
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Advertising at the Introduction Stage
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primary gaol is informing consumers in an effort to increase their level of awareness. All promoional mix elements are used at this time. Advetising is is particularly important as a means of reaching as amny people as posible to build awareness. publicity may even begin slightly before the productis commercailly availble.
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Advertising in the maturity stage
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Is needed to maintain existing buyers, and advertising’s role is to remind buyer of the products existance.Sales promotion, in the from of discounts and coupons offered by both ultimate cnumers and intermediaries, is important in maintaining loyal buyers.
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Advertising in the decline stage
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Little money is spent.
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How to use the elements in the protional mix
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Complexity-Technical sophisication of the product. the more complex the more personal selling Degree of risk- Social, physical. more risk more personal selling. Ancillary- Degree of support reqiured after the sale. personal selling is key.
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Stages of the buying decision
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Prepurchase stage Purchase stage Postpurchase stage
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Prepurchase stage
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advertising is more helpful than personal selling because advertising informs the potential customer of the existence of the product and the seller. sales promotion plays an important role
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Purchase stage
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importance of personal selling is highest, whereas the impact of advertising is lowest. sales promotions such as coupons can be very helpful in encouraging demand
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Postpurchase stage
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the salesperson is still important. more personal contact after the sale, the more the buyer is satisfied. advertisement is important again to reassure customers purchase
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Push Strategy
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directing the promotional mix to channel members to gain their cooperation in ordering and stocking the product, pesonal selling and and sales promotion play major roles. suppliers push products to cunsumers
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Pull strategy
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directing the promotional mix at ultimate consumers to encourage them to ask the retailer for a product. Customers pull products from consumers. Advertising is key
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developing the promotion program (planning)
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Identify the target audience specify the objectives set the budget selest the right promotional tools design the promotion schedual promotion
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executing the promotion program (implementation)
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pretest the promotion carry out the promotion
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Assesing the promotion program (Evaluation)
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Posttest the promotion make needed changes
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Target Audience
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The group of prospective buyers toward which a promotion program is directed.
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Hierarchy of effects
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the sequence of stages a prospective buyer goes through from initial awareness of a product to eventual action (either trial or adoption of the product). The stages include awareness, interest, evaluation,trial, and adoption
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Awareness
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The consumer’s ability to recognize and remember the product or brand name
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Intrerest
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An increase in the consumers desire to learn about some of the features of the product or brand
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Evaluation
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The consumers appriassal of the product or brand on important attributes
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Adoption
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Through the favorable experience on the first trail, the consumers repeated purchases and use of the products brand
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Trail
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the consumers actual first purchase and use of the product or brand.
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Scheduling the promotion
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detirmine timing of protional program elements, ussually discribes the order in which each promotional tool is intoduced and the frequency of its use during the campain.
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To insure an effective IMC program
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develope a proccess that facilitates their design and use An IMC audit
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Importance of Direct Marketing
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Increase in customer relationship management 10 percent of gdp Values is the responses generated direct orders lead gereration traffic generation
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Direct orders
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the result of direct marketing offers that contain all the information necessary for a prospective buyer to make a decision to purchase and complete the transaction
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Lead generation
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result of direct marketing offer designed to generate interest in a product or a service and request for additional information
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Traffic generation
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the outcome of an offer designed to motivate people to visit a business
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Database
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the result of organizations efforts to create profiles of customers so that direct marketing tools, such as e-mails and cataogs, can be directed at specific customers.

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