Inorganic Chemistry

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Cation
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positively charged atom or group of atoms
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Anion
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negatively charged atom or group of atoms
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physical chemistry
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A discipline that attempts to explain the way in which matter behaves
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solution
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a homogenous (uniform) mixture of two or more substances
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solute
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A component of a solution that is present in lesser quantity than the solvent
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Solvent
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the solution component that is present in the larger quantity
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mole concept
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A method that allows the relative number of reactant particles involved in a chemical reaction to be known
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mole
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one mole of any substance will contain approximately 6.02×10^23 particles (Avogrado’s#) A mole of a particular substance is the number of grams proportional to the atomic or molecular weight if the substance
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molecule
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unit in which the atoms of two or more elements are held together by chemical bonds
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analytical chemistry
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The analysis of matter to determine the composition and the quantity of each kind of matter that is present
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inorganic chemistry
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the study of matter that consists of all the elements other than carbon and hydrogen and their combinations
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Chemical Formula
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the representation of a compound or ion in which elemental symbols represent types of atoms and subscripts show the relative number of atoms
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Chemistry
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study of matter, its chemical and physical properties, the chemical and physical changes it undergoes, and the energy changes that accompany those processes
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compound
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substance that is characterized by constant composition and that can be chemically broken down into elements
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Density
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Mass per unit volume of a substance D=MV
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element
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substance that cannot be decomposed into simpler substances by chemical or physical means
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Isotope
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atom of the same element that differs in mass because it contains different numbers of neutrons
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Law of Conservation of Mass
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A law stating that in chemical change matter cannot be created or destroyed. (matter cannot be gained or lost in a chem reaction) Total mass of products must equal total mass of reactants
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Specific Gravity
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The ratio of the density of a substance to the density of water at a specific temperature.
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Chemical reaction
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Process in which atoms are rearranged to produce new combinations. -always accompanied by the conversion of one form of energy into another. -usually heat is involved, absorbed, or emitted, but sometimes the conversion involves light or electrical energy instead of or in addition to heat. C6H12O6 + 6O2->6CO2 +6H2O Glucose + Oxygen -> Carbon dioxide water
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Matter and properties
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properties are characteristics of matter and are classified as either chemical or physical.
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transition elements
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heavy metals. Have incomplete inner shells.
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Chemical properties
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characteristics of a substance that relate to the substance’s participation in a chemical reaction. -can only be observed or measure when an element/compound undergoes a change in chemical composition.
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Important groups of elements
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Alkali metals (group IA) Alkaline earth metals (Group IIA) Carbon group (Group IVA) Transitional metals (Group IB-VIIIB) Halogens (Group VIIA) Noble gases (Inert Gases) (Group VIIIA)
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Physical properties
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characteristics of a substance that can be observed without the substance undergoing changes such as color, height, or weight.
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Alkali Metals
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Group IA. -do not occur as free elements, because they are so reactive -shiny metal & are so soft they can be cut w. a butterknife -react very violently w. air and water -must be stored in oil
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solid
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a physical state of matter characterized by its rigidity and fixed volume and shape.
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Alkaline earth metals
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Group IIA -less reactive than alkali metals -react w. air, water & other elements violently -does not have to be stored in oil.
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liquid
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a physical state of matter characterized by a fixed volume and the absence of a fixed shape.
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Carbon group
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Group IVA -all elements have 4 valence electrons -carbon forms 4 covalent bonds -Tin & Led forms ions w. either a +2 or a +4 charge.
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gaseous
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a physical state of matter characterized by a lack of fixed shape or volume and ease of compressibility.
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Intensive property
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a property of matter that is independent of the quantity of a substance. -melting point, boiling point, density, specific gravtiy
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Melting point
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the temperature at which a solid converts to a liquid
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boiling point
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the temp at which the vapor pressure is equal to the atmospheric pressure.
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Extensive property
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a property of matter that is dependent of the quantity of a substance. -mass, volume, energy, solubility, concentration temperature
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mass
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a quantity of matter.
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Volume
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space occupied by an object
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energy
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the capacity to do work
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Solubility
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the amount of a substance that will dissolve in a given volume of solvent at a specified temperature
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concentration
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the measure of the quantity of a substance contained in a specified volume of solution
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temperature
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a physical property of a system related to thermodynamics. The words “hot” or “cold” can describe temperature. It is usually measure in Celsius, Fahrenheit or Kelvin using a thermometer.
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Pure substance
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a substance that has only one component (elements and compounds)
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Mixtures
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a combo of two or more substances in which each substance retains its own identity (homogeneous or heterogeneous)
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Homogeneous
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only 1 phase. A uniform (same throughout) composition. Uniform blend of two or more substances whose proportions can be varied. Homogeneous mixtures are usually referred to as solutions.
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Homogeneous examples
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Air, Softdrink, Alcohol, Salt in water, Sugar in water
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Heterogeneous
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more than one phase having visible differing parts.
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Heterogeneous examples
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Chocolate chip cookies, salt + pepper, oil in water
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Isotope notation
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representation of a specific isotope. The mass number is at the top, atomic number is listed below the symbol. 2 H Deuterium 1
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Stable isotopes
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atoms which do not breakdown spontaneously. The number of protons and neutrons are generally the same.
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Unstable isotopes
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are radioactive isotopes, either natural or artificially created having an unstable nucleus that decays, emitting alpha, beta or gamma rays. The nucleus of these atoms breaks apart spontaneously. There is an abnormal proton to neuron ratio present in the nucleus.
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Periodic Law and Periodic Table history
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-in the 19th century, elements were arranged in order of increasing atomic mass. -Mendeleev and Meyer independently found that by putting elements in similar groups, they showed a distinct periodicity. The periodicity table became a visual representation of this periodic law.
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Purpose of the periodic table
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provides specific information about each element & organizes the elements according to physical and chemical properties.
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format of the table
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periods, groups, metals, nonmetals, transition elements (alkali metals, Alkaline earth metals, carbon group, transition metals, halogens, noble gases
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periods
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horizontal rows of elements. 7 periods exist
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groups
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or families. Vertical columns, elements share similarities in physical & chemical properties.
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Metals
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atoms tend to lose electrons during chemical reactions. Left hand side of heavy stair case shape line.
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Nonmetals
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Found on the right-hand side of the heavy stair case shape line.
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Transitional metals
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Group IB-VIIB -metals -most are good conductors of heat & electricity -can be shaped easily -not very reactive
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Halogens
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Group VIIA -extremely reactive: none occur in nature as free elements -often bond to themselves as diatomic molecules
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Noble Gases
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Group VIIIA -Inert gases -completely nonreactive, colorless, odorless, monatomic gases -neither burn nor support combustion
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Chemical bond
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an attractive force holding two atomic nuclei together in a compound.
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Bond energy
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The amount of energy necessary to break a chemical bond.
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Electronegativity
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A measure of the tendency of an atom in a molecule to attract shared electrons. Electronegativity increases across periods from LEFT TO RIGHT and going UP groups from bottom to top. -Electron pair in a covalent bond between non-identical atoms will not be shared equally, due to differences in electronegativity.
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Octet rule
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A rule predicting that atoms form the most stable molecules or ions when they are surrounded by eight electrons in their highest occupied energy level.
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Valence
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The combining capacity of an element. It represents the number of electrons gained, lost, or shared by an atom.
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Valence electrons
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Electrons in the outermost shell which are involved in the bonding process.
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Ions
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Positively or negatively charged atoms or group of atoms. -Cation: positively charged ion H+ -Anion: Negatively charged ion C1- Complex ions: ions composed of two or more covalently bonded atoms. HCO3-
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Covalence
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valence resulting from the sharing of electrons
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types of bonds
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ionic, covalent, and polar covalent bond
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Ionic Bonds
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involves a transfer of one or more electrons form one atoms to another leading to the formation of an ionic bond. The resulting ions of opposite charge are attached to each other and held by this electrostatic force as an ion pair. Na+ + Cl- —> NaCl
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Covalent bonds
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involves a sharing of electrons resulting in the covalent bond. Electrons are shared and covalent bonds are formed when two atoms have about the same tendency to gain or lose electrons
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Polyatomic Ions
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Acetate ion C2H3O2-, Dihydrogen phosphate ion H2PO4-
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Polar Covalent Bonds
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when a covalent bond is formed between atoms of different electronegativities, the shared pair of electrons stays closer to the more electronegative atom, resulting in a polar bond
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Nomenclature
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The assignment of a correct and unambiguous name to each and every chemical compound. The first step involves finding the correct name for a structure from the name given.
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Chemical Formulas
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a chemical formula represents a molecule of a substance and is made up of the symbols of the elements of which it is composed. The Composition of a compound is shown by means of a formula and represents the simplest combining ratio of the molecules.
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Ionic compounds
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metals and nonmetals react to produce these compounds resulting from the transfer of one or more electrons. The first symbol is the positive ion (cation). It will be an element located on the left of the periodic chart. Next will be the negative ion (anion). It is from the elements that are located on the right of the periodic chart. NaCl Sodium Chloride
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Subscripts
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a number placed below and to the right of the symbol. It indicates the number of atoms of that element.
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parentheses
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used, along with the subscript, to indicate the number of complex ions present in a molecule.
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Coefficients
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used to indicate the number of molecules. ex: 2 moles of water is written as 2H2O
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common nomenclature system
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the root of the metal’s name is used. The suffix -ic is added to the root if the ion has a higher charge of the two possibilities; the suffix -ous is added to the lower charge FeCl2 Ferrous Chloride FeCl3 Ferric Chloride
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Stock system
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(official system) roman numerals placed in parentheses after the name of the metal are used to indicate its variable charge or oxidation state. CuCl Copper (I) Chloride CuCl2 Copper (II) Chloride SO2 Sulfur (IV) Oxide SO3 Sulfur (VI) Oxide
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Oxygen containing radicals
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(complex and polyatomic ions) are oxygen contatining ions with varying amounts of oxygen. In the naming of these radicals, suffixes and prefixes are used. Less oxygen: “ite” NaNO2 Sodium nitrite More oxygen: “ate” NaNO3 Sodium Nitrate
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Chemical Equation
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a qualitive and quantitive expression of the reacting substances and their products in a chemical reaction
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reactants
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substances entering into a chemical reaction
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products
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substances resulting from a chem reaction
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Equilibrium
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when the rate of the forward reaction and the rate of the reverse reaction of a reversible reaction are equal, the reaction is said to have reached equilibrium.
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potential energy
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(chemical bonds) Energy a system possesses by virtue of its position, condition, or composition.
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Kinetic energy
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(motion) energy a system possesses by virtue of its motion
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Molecular Collisions
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are usually necessary for chemical reactions to occur
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Activation energy
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energy which two molecules must have to take part in a chemical reaction
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Catalysts
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a substance that changes the rate of reaction by lowering the activation energy without being permanently changed itself
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Exothermic reactions
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reactions that liberate energy
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Endothermic reactions
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reactions that absorb energy
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concentration
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the rate or speed of a chemical reaction is proportional to the molecular concentration of each of the reacting substances.
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equilibrium constant
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a ratio at equilibrium that is reached in a system when the conversion of reactants into products and the conversion of products back to reactants is the same. Knowing the effects of a change in the conditions of equilibrium will enable you to select conditions and control the relative amount of substances present at equilibrium. (more gas for car to go over hill, less to go down)
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Balancing a chemical equation
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1. count the number of atoms of each element on both the product and reactant side 2. determine which elements are not balanced 3. balance one element at a time using coefficients. 4. check to be certain that the total mass of the products is equal to the total mass of the reactants
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five major factors that influence rate of reaction
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-structure of the reacting species -concentration of the reactants -temperature of the reactants -physical state of the reactants -presence of a catalyst
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structure of the reacting species
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size and shape, bond strength, charge of reactants
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concentration of the reactants
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the rate will increase as the concentration increases simply because a higher concentration means more reactant molecules in a given volume and this will result in a greater number of collisions per unit time and more products being generated
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temperature of the reactants
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the rate increases as the temperature increases because the kinetic energy of the reacting particles is directly proportional to the Kelvin temperature. Increasing the speed of particles increases the likelihood of collisions, and the higher kinetic energy means the higher percentage of these collisions will result in product formation
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physical state of the reactants
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for reactions to occur, the reactants must collide frequently and have sufficient energy to react. Solids, liquids, and gases all react at different speeds
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presence of a catalyst
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the catalyst interacts w. the reactants to create an alternate pathway for production of products. This alternate pathway has lower activation energy (Ea) this makes it easier for the reaction to occur and thus increases the reaction rate
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oxidation reduction
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the transfer of negative charge (one or more electrons) from one reactant to another -oxidation is defined as: loss of electrons, addition of oxygen, removal of hydrogen -reduction is defined as: gain of electrons, removal of oxygen, addition of hydrogen
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combustion
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(rapid oxidation) oxidation accompanied by noticeable light & heat
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slow oxidation
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oxidation not accompanied by noticeable light & heat
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oxidizing agents
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a substance that gives up electrons from another causing the latter to be oxidized
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reducing agents
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a substance that gives up electrons to some other substance, causing the latter to be reduced
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electrochemical reactions
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deals with those chemical changes either produced by electric current or with the production of electric current
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combination reactions
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involve the direct union or combination of two substances producing one new substance. Oxidation-reduction is involved in some, but not all, combination reactions. A+B -> AB Na + Cl -> NaCl
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Decomposition Reactions
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reactions of a single substance being decomposed or broken down into two or more different substances. Oxidation-reduction is involved in some, but not all, decomposed reactions. AB -> A + B
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Single replacement
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reaction in which one atom or complex ions replaces another in a compound, producing a new compound. Oxidation-reduction is always present in single replacement reactions A + BC -> AC + B *switch boyfriend
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Double replacement
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reaction in which two compounds react with each other and exchange atoms. This produces two different compounds. AB + CD -> AD + CB *swingers
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Neutralization
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acid/base reaction Acid + Base -> Salt + water

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