Reflection Essay on India

Flashcard maker : Carmen Dawson
British rule –
• 1757 – 1947

• The factors of production: land, labor, capital, political stability
• What did India offer? Well…only a lot of resources (tea, indigo, coffee, cotton, and opium to bring to China)
• But there were 300 million consumers! YAY!
• Well…the British have no one to sell their stuff to if the Indians make their own cloth, etc.
• soooo there are restrictions placed on the Indians making their own cloth or salt
• Think about the Mahatma!
• Positives? Railroads, dams, education, health
• Negatives? Indians focus on cash crops, they are economically and politically dominated the British don’t allow for new competition
• Interestingly enough…it was the \”middle class\” the British created that ended up going against British rule

Indirect Rule:
• The British used 500 administrators and 65,000 troops to rule 200-300 million Indians!
• \”Indirect rule\” was the British preferred method of ruling their colonies few British needed since the Indian population was used to help rule the colony, i.e. hey depended on local rulers
• few British needed since the Indian population was used to help rule the colony for example they depended on local rulers.
Sepoy mutiny:
• Indian Soldiers for the British East India Company’s army
• \”Delicate and dangerous machine, which a little mismanagement may easily turn against us\”
• 1857 gossip traveled among the sepoys that the cartridges of their new enfield rifles were sealed with beef and pork fat
o Hindus considered cows sacred and were offended by this
• Surprising spread over much of northern India
• Fierce fighting took place
• British and sepoys tried to slaughter each other’s armies
• East India company took more than a year to regain control of the country
• Indians were weak and could not go against the British
• The mutiny marked a turning point in Indian history.
• 1858 brit government took direct command of India
• Part that was under British rule was called the Raj
• The Sepoy Mutiny fueled the racist attitudes of the English
• Indian soldiers or sepoys were told that their Enfield rifles were sealed with beef and pork
• They were already feeling resentment and nationalism
• 80-95 sepoys refused to accept the cartridges and the British jailed them
• the uprising spread to much of northern India.
• The EIC gained control of the country again.
• This led to H vs. M
• Raj was the part of India under British rule
• Referred to British rule over India from 1757-1947
• Basically is British India
• The British rule over India from 1757 – 1947
• It was divided into 11 provinces and 250 districts
Indian National Congress:
• Initially they only demanded more Indians be recruited into the civil service and they maintained their loyalty to the British Empire…
• However since the British reacted natively congress moved to the idea or self rule or swaraj in 1906
• Nationalism – world war I
• Gandhi and non-violence
o Called satyagraha
o The Indians would win over the British by gaining sympathy using patience and suffering
o Non-cooperation was they key: WHY? Because of indirect rule!
• 1855
• initially they only demanded more Indians be recruited into civil service and they maintained their loyalty to the British empire
• however since, the British reacted negatively congress moved to the idea of self-rule or SWARAJ in 1906
• calling for self government
• further inflamed in 1905 by the partition of Bengal
Muslim League
Political group of Indian
• Political group of Indian Muslims formed to protect their rights
• Found in 1906 in India
• Protected Muslim interests
• Concerned that the mainly Hindu Congress Party would look out primarily for Hindu interests
• Leader was Muhammad Ali Jinnah
o Once was member of the Congress Party
How did WWI impact Indian independence?
Indians enlisted in the British army and in return for their service the British government promised reforms that would lead to self – government
Lots of nationalism
World War II
Indian support in WWII relied on a British commitment for Indian independence..
Hence the arrival of the Cripps Proposal, basically that the Indians would govern themselves but the British would be responsible for defense until the war was over.
Rowlatt Act:
• \”The beginning of the end of British rule in India
• March 1919
• Extended emergency measures imposed during WWI to control public unrest
• Anyone suspected of terrorism given 2 years of prison
• Led to the amritsan protests and massacre
• 400 were killed 1200 wounded
Cripps Proposal:
• 1942
• the British needed India in WWII
• Cripps was sent to India to offer an independence deal
• It would allow provinces and princely states to \”opt out\”
• Congress party rejected it
• Indian support in WWII relied on a British cmmitment for Indian indpendence…hence the arrival of the criips propas
• Congress rejected it!
• They also didn’t like the plan because it said any province could create its own gov
Gandhi and his civil disobedience:
Non-cooperation/ \”satyagraha\”
• the Indians would win over the British by gaining sympathy using patience and suffering
• non- cooperation was the key – because of indirect rule!
The Salt March:
• a demonstation to defy the hated Salt Acts
• indiands could buy salt from no other source but the government
• they also had to pay taxes on salt
• Gandhi and his followers began a 240 mile walk to the seacoast
\”Quit India\” campaign:
Congress wanted the British out NOW!
Jinnah of the Muslim League wanted a guarantee of two states and then wanted the British out.
• 1942
• movement by CONGRESS!
Jawaharlal Nehru
India’s first PM, 1947-1964
He emphasized: Parliamentary democracy, socialism, non-alignment(not taking part in the cold war) , national unity, secularism.
Indian soldiers who worked for the East India Company
Cartages are laced with pork or beef fat.
Mutiny 1857
**1946 – Cadinet Mission Plan
• A 3 tiered system
The Jinnah calls for \”direction action day\” on
august 16, 1946

• June 3rd 1947 – congress and the Muslim League concurs with Mount batten’s plan for independence on August 15, 1947
• July 15th 1947 – British parliament passes into law the leaving of India on August 15, 1947

Lord Mountbatten:
• The lat viceroy of India
• he feared that Hindus and Muslims of India would never be able to live together in peace
• started to accept the partition of India into two nations – that Pakistan was unavoidable.
Cyril Radcliffe:
• The British man who split up Pakistan and India
• He had never travelled to India before and hadn’t a clue about the country
• Had outdated maps but he was almost good for the cause because he had no bias
Pakistan’s independence:
August 14, 1947
First leader: Mohammed Ali Jinnah
• leader of the muslim league
• Jinnah argued for a separate state for muslims
• Called the ‘great leader’
• Jinnah was the founder of Pakistan and its first governor-general
• 1876-1948
• When Pakistan held elections in 1970, the Awami League won the majority of the East Pakistani seats in the assembly.
o Political party dedicated to East Pakistan’s independence.
• The Awami League was a political party that wanted self-rule for East Pakistan.
• When Pakistan’s central government refused to accept the election result, riots broke out in East Pakistan.
• The central government arrested the leaders of the Awami League.
• The situation soon became a civil war in which thousands of people were killed.
• During the civil war, India came to the aid of East Pakistan by sending arms and then troops.
• Ten million people from East Pakistan fled to India. Late in 1971 the West Pakistanis were defeated and East Pakistan became the new nation of Bangladesh.
Awami League –
• When Pakistan held elections in 1970, the Awami League won the majority of the East Pakistani seats in the assembly.
o Political party dedicated to East Pakistan’s independence.
• The Awami League was a political party that wanted self-rule for East Pakistan.
• India and Pakistan faced a difficult problem in the northern state of Kashmir. The problem began with partition in 1947.
• Kashmir’s ruling prince, who was Hindu, at first tried to avoid joining either country.
• On the one hand, Pakistan claimed Kashmir because three quarters of its people were Muslim.
• On the other hand, Nehru’s family was from Kashmir and he had ties with the area.
o He sent Indian troops to back the Hindu prince.
• Muslims and Hindus in Kashmir fought each other for control.
• This led to fighting between Indian and Pakistani soldiers.
• In 1949 the United Nations set a cease-fire line. At that point, India held two thirds of Kashmir.
• Still, the question of Kashmir’s nationality was not answered. India and Pakistan continued to fight on and off throughout the 1950s and 1960s.
• In the late 1980s, border clashes and other violence between rebel groups became more common.
• More than 20,000 people had been killed before the end of the 1990s.
Zulfikar Ali Bhutto
• Prime minister Ali Bhutto of Pakistan is deposed in a coup led by General Zia 1977
o Gen. Zia pres of Pakistan dies in a mysterious plane crash 1988
• Bhutto is later hanged for having ordered the assassination of a political opponent
Mohammed Zia ul-Haq
Led the military coup against Bhutto in 1977; Bhutto was hung
Banned political parties judicial review and did all of this in the name is Islam, that is reinstating traditional laws and Islamic teaching.
IN 1979 the US looked around (at what?) and had to support the guy…
Benazir Bhutto –
• 1988 – elected PM
• Daughter on Ali Bhutto
• She became the first woman to serve as head of a Muslim nation.
• The army removed her from office in 1990, but she was elected again in 1993. Three years later she was defeated.
• In 1999 the army took control again and General Pervez Musharraf became prime minister.
Nawaz Sharif –
• became prime minister after the 1997 elections
• he was ousted in 1999 by army leaders when another coup had imposed military rule over Pakistan.
Pervez Musharraf –
Staged a military coup in 1998
And took the title of president
He stepped down in 2007 as there were to be elections in Jan. 2008.
Benazir was killed on Dec. 27, 2007
Elections were postponed until February 2008 and when the PPP won, Benazir’s widow, Asif Ali Zardari was election president.
India’s independence:
August 15, 1947
First leader: Jawalharlal Nehru
• First PM of independent India
• He emphasized: parliamentary democracy, socialism, non-alignment, national unity, secularism
Nonalignment –
• the states being not aligned or not with one country or not for or against any others
• The main opposition party to congress and grew in strength in the 80s
• Has a hindu agenda; the creation of a hindu nation
• In the 1996 elections they became the first party to comete with congress as the BJP won a plurality so the BJP has had to rule in a coalition government
ManMohan Singh
o becomes prime minister in 1004 and re-elected in 2009
o he was the minister of finance under Rao and helped \”capitalize\” India
Indira Gandhi –
• 1984 indira Gandhi is machine-gunned by two of her sikh bodyguards
• her murder is in retaliation for an attack she ordered on a sikh temple
• PM after her father’s death until her assassination in 1984
o Not mahadma ghandhi
• Continued her fathers policies
• 1984: indira storms the golden temple – the sikh most holy site – located in Amritsar WHYYY? Well… – called Op Blue Star
• basically Sikhs wanted self rule in the Punjab and sikh militants were using the golden temple as a base
• over 1000 dead
• the revenge? Indira was assassinated by her sikh bodyguards
Rajiv Gandhi
• took over after his mother’s assassination in 84
• he wasn’t really interested in politics
• seen as \”Mr. Clean\” in 84
o brother was supposed to be the take over yet he died so this one is forced to
• assassination in 91
Rahul Gandhi
• he is the \”heir apparent\” of the Nehru dynasty
• presently member of parliament
narasimha rao:
• took over after rajiv’s assassination
• opened up the economy foreign investment reduced tariffs
manmohan singh
• becomes prime minister in 04 and re-elected in 2009
• he was the minister of finance under rao and helped capitalize india
Mughal Empire 1106-1757
1937-An elections and Congress won 70% of the votes.
1942: \”Quit India\” Movement by Congress
1943 \”Divide and Quit\” by the Muslim League
1946- Cabinet Mission Plan A 3-tiered system \”Federalism\”
Then Nehru is re-elected to lead Congress and says, \” I am not bund by a single thing in the plan\”
Then Jinnah calls for \”Direct Action Day\” on August. 16, 1946
June 3, 1947 Congress and the Muslim league concurs with Mountbatten’s plan for independence on August 15, 1947
July 15, 1947 British Parliament passes into law the leaving of India on August 15, 1947
have there been 4 dynasty PMs? NO
jawalharal – indira – rajiv – NOT rahul yet

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