IB Organic Chemistry HL and SL

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Covalent
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When 2 atoms “share” electrons
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Empirical Formula
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The lowest whole # ratio of atoms in a compound
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Molecular Formula
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The actual number of atoms in a compound
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Homologous Series
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The series of hydrocarbons that follows the formula C(n)H(an+b)
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Hydrocarbon
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A compound composed entirely of hydrogen and carbon
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Alkanes
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A carbon chain that contain only single bonds
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Catenation
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Adding carbons to chain
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Isomer/Structural Isomer
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A molecule with a different structure but the same chemical formula
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Straight chain carbon
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a hydrocarbon with no branches
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Branched chain carbon
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a carbon chain that has branches
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Substitution reaction
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When an H on the carbon chain is switched out for a substituent group or functional group
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Free Radical
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An unbonded atom that can accept an extra electron to make a bonding pair
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Initiation
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when the # of free radicals INCREASE
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Propagation
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when the # of free radicals STAY CONSTANT
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Termination
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when the # of free radicals DECREASE
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Homolytic Fission
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The process of braking apart one molecule to create two identical atoms or molecules that acts as free radicals
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Chain Reaction
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when a small event causes many subsequent events to occur
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Reaction Mechanism
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The series of steps needed to go from reactants to products within an organic reaction
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Alkene
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When there are double bonds within the carbon chain
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Saturated
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when all the spots for hydrogen are filled
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Unsaturated
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When the carbon chain has double bonds preventing all the spots for hydrogen from being filled
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Addition Reaction
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When two organic compounds are added together to make a singular compound. Involves increasing the size of the carbon chain
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Electrophiles
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positively charged species that are attracted to high concentration electron environments
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Functional Group
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An atom or group of atoms (other than hydrogen) that imparts specific physical and chemical properties of a homologous series of organic compounds.
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Structural formula
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A structural formula shows the connectivity of the atoms in the molecule.
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Steric Hinderance
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The prevention or slowing down of a reaction by atoms or functional groups blocking the access of an attacking molecule or ion
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Stereo – isomerism
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Isomerism arising from differences in the shapes of the molecules. Includes geometric and optical isomerism
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Benzene
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Hexagonal shape with delocalized bonds. Undergo substitution rather than addition reactions.
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Carbocation
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A cation in which the carbon carries most of the + charge. Can be formed during SN1 substitution.
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Chiral center
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An asymmetric carbon atom, i.e. has four different functional groups attached to it.
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Condensation reaction
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Reaction in which two molecules join together with the loss of a small molecule, typically water.
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Dehydration
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Loss of water. Alcohols can be dehydrated when they are refluxed with condensed sulphuric acid. As sulphuric acid is an oxidizing agent able to react with the product, phosphoric acid is frequently used instead
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Esterification
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Process by which an alcohol and a carboxylic acid are converted into an ester and water, often with acid catalysis.
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Fission, heterolytic
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Bond breaking in which the more electronegative of the two atoms joined by the bond takes both of the electrons.
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Fission, homolytic
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Bond breaking in which each atom takes one of the electron in the bond, creating free radicals.
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Hydration
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Addition of water. Ethanol can be formed from addition of water to ethene.
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Hydrolysis
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Process by which a molecule is broken down by water
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Mechanism, SN1
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A unimolecular process by which a halogenoalkane undergoes nucleophilic substitution. A two-step mechanism: a rate-determining step in which the bond between the carbocation and the halogen are broken, followed by a step in which the nucleophile is attracted to the carbocation. Faster than SN2, as the formation of the intermediate carbocation is faster than the SN2 route which involves a transition state with relatively high activation energy.
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Mechanism, SN2
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A bimolecular process by which a halogenoalkane undergoes nucleophilic substitution. Mechanism involves formation of a transition state which involves both of the reactants.
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Nucleophilic substitution
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Substitution that occurs with a halogenoalkane reacting with a nucleophile. Rate depends on: **nature of halogen atom **nature of halogenoalkane (tertiary > secondary > primary).
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Optically active
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Can rotate the plane of polarization in opposite directions. Enantiomers are optically active
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Addition polymerisation
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Forming a polymer by addition of monomers
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Condensation polymerisation
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Forming a polymer by substitution reaction between monomers, each having two functional groups
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Reaction, addition
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A reaction in which the reactant is added across a C=C bond, converting it to a C-C bond. Addition reactions with water requires an H2SO4 catalyst. Addition reactions with hydrogen use Ni as catalyst.
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Reaction, condensation
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A reaction in which one group is substituted for another. Substitution reactions with halogenoalkanes are nucleophilic substitutions.

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