IB Chemistry HL – Organic Chemistry Reaction Pathways

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Alkane→Halogenoalkane
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Reaction: Substitution Conditions: Cl₂/Br₂, UV light
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Halogenoalkane→Dihalogenoalkane
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Reaction: Substitution Conditions: Cl₂/Br₂, UV light
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Dihalogenoalkane→Poly-halogenated Isomer
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Reaction: Substitution Conditions: Cl₂/Br₂, UV light
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Alkene→Alkane
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Reaction: Addition Hydrogenation Conditions: H₂, Ni Catalyst
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Alkene→Halogenoalkane
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Reaction: Addition H-X Conditions: HX
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Halogenoalkane→Alkene
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Reaction: Elimination Conditions: High Temperature, OH⁻
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Alkene→Addition Polymer
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Reaction: Addition Polymerisation Conditions: High Pressure, O₂ Catalyst
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Alkene→Dihalogenoalkane
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Reaction: Addition Halogenation Conditions: X₂
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Halogenoalkane→Alcohol
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Reaction: Nucleophilic Substitution (Forms either 1° or 2°) Conditions: Heat, OH⁻
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Alkene→Alcohol
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Reaction: Addition Hydration Conditions: H₂O, Acid Catalyst
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Alcohol→Ketone
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Reaction: Oxidation (Forms 2° Alcohol) Conditions: Heat, Acidified Cr₂O₇ÂČ⁻
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Alcohol→Aldehyde
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Reaction: Oxidation (Forms 1°Alcohol) Conditions: Heat, Acidified Cr₂O₇ÂČ⁻
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Aldehyde→Carboxylic Acid
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Reaction: Oxidation Conditions: Reflux, Acidified Cr₂O₇ÂČ⁻
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Carboxylic Acid+Alcohol→Ester
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Reaction: Esterification Condensation Conditions: Heat, H₂SO₄
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Halogenoalkane→Nitrile
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Reaction: Substitution Conditions: Heat, KCN
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Halogenoalkane→Amine
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Reaction: Nucleophilic Substitution Conditions: Heat, NH₃
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Nitrile→Amine
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Reaction: Addition Hydrogenation Conditions: Ni Catalyst
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Amine+Carboxylic Acid→Amide
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Reaction: Condensation Conditions: React then heat to dehydrated salt

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