Humanities Final Study Guide

question

What approach is often used to understand what’s defined as deviant within a society? a. Criticism b.Symbolic Interactionism c. Constructivism d. Antipositivism
answer

c. Constructivism
question

Sociology is defined as the: a. Qualitative analysis of human phenomenon. b. Systematic study of society and social interaction. c. Quantitative analysis of social transgressions. d. Theoretical examination of life’s origins.
answer

b. Systematic study of society and social interaction
question

Which of the following men coined the term positivism, and is widely considered the father of sociology? a. Auguste Comte b. Karl Marx c. Max Weber d. Émile Durkheim
answer

a. Auguste Comte
question

Please define C. Wright Mill’s sociological imagination. a. The theory that man evolved slowly over time. b. The process of analyzing human behavior based solely on statistics. c. A series of interviews asking subjects about their sleep habits and dreams. d. How individuals understand their own and others’ pasts in relation to history and social structure.
answer

d. how individuals understand their own and others’ parts in relation to history and social structure
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A hypothesis can be defined as: a. A way to explain different aspects of social interactions b. A testable proposition c. An attempt to explain large-scale relationships d. Philosophical and theoretical frameworks used within a discipline to formulate theories, generalizations, and the experiments performed in support of them
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b. A testable proposition
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The process of simultaneously analyzing the behavior of individuals and the society that shapes that behavior (or, the concept that the individual and society are inseparable) is referred to as: a. Dynamic equilibrium b. Latent functions c. Dramaturgical analysis d. Figuration
answer

d. Figuration
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A paradigm can be defined as: a. Philosophical and theoretical frameworks used within a discipline to formulate theories, generalizations, and the experiments performed in support of them. b. The social ties that bind a group of people together such as kinship, shared location, and religion c. The consequences of a social process that are sought or anticipated d. Social patterns that have undesirable consequences for the operation of society
answer

a. Philosophical and theoretical frameworks used within a discipline to formulate theories, generalizations, and the experiments performed in support of them
question

Jeremy wrote an essay criticizing the college admissions process, arguing that heavy competition and limited educational resources make admission difficult for the average student. Which perspective would Jeremy’s argument fall under? a. Structural Functionalism b. Conflict Theory c. Symbolic Interactionism d. Behaviorism
answer

b. Conflict Theory
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Alona is examining the impact of the 2011 Penn State scandal on student morale and school spirit by distributing number-scaled surveys in her Introduction to Sociology class. Alona is employing a _____ research method. a. Qualitative b. Pathos c. Logos d. Quantitative
answer

d. Quantitative
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____ believed that societies grew and changed as a result of the struggles of different social classes over the means of production and greatly favored ____. a. Durkheim; Communism b. Max Weber; Positivism c. Karl Marx; Communism d. Comte; Antipositivism
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c. Karl Marx; Communism
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Which theorist claimed that people rise to their proper level in society based solely on personal merit? a. Karl Marx b. Max Weber c. Herbert Spencer d. Émile Durkheim
answer

d. Émile Durkheim
question

Eleanor is researching the effect social media has on worldwide political awareness and revolution. Felix is examining the effect World of Warcraft has on the romantic relationships of middle-aged men in his metro area. Eleanor’s analysis is _____, while Felix’s analysis is _____. a. Micro-level; macro-level b. Macro-level; micro-level c. They are both macro-level. d. They are both micro-level.
answer

b. Macro-level; micro-level
question

Alexis wants to research the 1960’s feminist movement. She reads articles from the time period, watches documentaries, reads scholarly journals on the topic, and interviews influential women from the movement. What kind of research method is Alexis using? a. Ethnography b. Surveys c. Experiments d. Secondary data analysis
answer

d. Secondary data analysis
question

John wants to study whether a larger number of laptops available to students at his school lead to higher grades. Choose the independent and dependent variable. a. Independent variable: Grades; Dependent variable: Number of laptops b. Independent variable: John; Dependent variable: Grades c. Independent variable: Grades; Dependent variable: John d. Independent variable: Number of laptops; Dependent variable: Grades
answer

d. Independent variable: number of laptops; dependent variable: grades
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A class of third graders is told that the assistant principal will be visiting their class to confirm their teacher’s reports of bad behavior. When the principal visits, the students behave perfectly. This is an example of ________. a. The Authority Effect b. The Regressive Effect c. The Hawthorne Effect d. The Cognizant Effect
answer

c. The Hawthorne Effect
question

Kendra is researching the effects of vitamin C on test-taking ability. Before the exam, Kendra gives group A orange juice, and group B water. Vitamin C is the ______. a. Experimental group b. Control group c. Dependent variable d. Independent variable
answer

c. Dependent variable
question

Which of the following is an example of nonreactive research? a. Gathering data from government studies b. Educating classrooms on the necessities of safe sex c. Interviewing heroin addicts and providing them with clean needles d. Volunteering at a local food bank and interacting with homeless persons
answer

a. Gathering data from government studies
question

Which of the following is not a purpose of the American Sociological Association’s code of ethics? a. To guarantee the safety of their participants b. To maintain value neutrality c. To ensure the financial gain of the researchers d. To foster professionally responsible scholarship in sociology
answer

c. To ensure the financial gain of the researchers
question

The term value neutrality is defined by the text as: a. A practice of remaining impartial, without bias or judgment during the course of a study and in publishing results. b. The study of evolving ethics and morals in relation to sociological research. c. A systematic approach to record and value information gleaned from secondary data as it relates to the study at hand. d. A study’s participants being randomly selected to serve as a representation of a larger population.
answer

a. A practice of remaining impartial, without bias or judgement during the course of a study and in publishing results
question

Kyle is collecting newspaper clippings from his grandfather about the American public’s perception of World War II. This is an example of ______. a. Tertiary data b. Interactive data c. Primary data d. Secondary data
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d. Secondary data
question

Which of the following is an example of an unethical sociological research practice? a. Conducting a literature review prior to conducting an experiment b. Drawing conclusions from a study which the hypothesis did not predict c. Observing study participants without their consent d. Using a control group and an experimental group during observation
answer

c. Observing study participants without their consent
question

What is the importance of interpretive framework? a. It leads to in-depth knowledge of a participant’s social world. b. It eliminates the need for a literature review. c. It relies on statistics to determine causal relationships. d. It prevents researchers from making unethical decisions.
answer

a. It leads to in-depth knowledge of a participant’s social world
question

Kevin conducted a study on whether the length of the line at a local Starbucks affected how well the customers enjoyed their coffee after receiving it. Malcolm conducted the study at his local Starbucks, and found the same results. Kevin’s study had a high level of _____. a. Literacy b. Validity c. Interpretation d. Reliability
answer

d. Realiability
question

In order to better understand the sorority pledging process at her university for her sociology thesis, Carmen pledges with a popular sorority. This is an example of _____. a. Literature review b. Participant observation c. Secondary data analysis d. Dependent variables
answer

b. Participant observation
question

Which of the following is NOT an example of self-fulfilling prophecy? a. Charlotte is an intelligent teenager, but told by her step-sisters and cousins that she’s destined to a life of poverty and failure. Charlotte begins to do poorly in school, and eventually drops out. b. Though encouraged by his parents to audition for Julliard, Jose believes he isn’t good enough to attend. After his audition, he expresses this reluctance to the admissions committee. They don’t admit him due to his lack of certainty. c. Morgan overhears a professor predicting the economic recession will prevent entry-level graduates from finding gainful employment. Morgan goes on interviews but doesn’t bother preparing, convinced it’s a waste of time. Morgan appears unprofessional and is not hired. d. Kevin sprained his ankle a month before a marathon. Though his trainer advises him not to participate, Kevin runs the marathon and places third.
answer

d. Kevin sprained his ankle a month before a marathon. Though his trainer advises him not to participate, Kevin runs the marathon and places third
question

The Agricultural Revolution is often referred to as \”dawn of civilization\” because: a. Cities and towns were established, and humans had more time for leisure activities. b. Societies began to form where rainfall was plentiful; groups were able to cultivate plants instead of living nomadic lifestyles. c. Tribes became nomadic, traveling to various locations in search of sustenance. d. Animals were first domesticated as a resource for survival.
answer

a. Cities and towns were established, humans had more time for leisure activities
question

Functionalist Émile Durkheim viewed society as: a. An even playing field composed of the educated and uneducated b. Split between two classes categorized by education, kinship, and religion c. The product of class struggle, requiring social revolutions to correct rampant class inequality d. An organism in which each portion plays a vital role in keeping the organism stable and healthy
answer

d. An organism in which each portion plays a vital role in keeping the organism stable and healthy
question

Alienation is defined by the text as: a. The condition in which the individual is isolated and divorced from his or her society, work, or sense of self. b. Social forces considered real which exist outside the individual. c. The act of defying social norms in favor of group unity d. The strength of ties that people have to their social groups, was a key factor in social life
answer

a. The condition in which the individual is isolated and divorced from his or her society, work, or sense of self
question

Which of the following is NOT one of Marx’s four types of alienation? a. Alienation from the product of one’s labor b. Alienation from one’s self c. Alienation from others d. Alienation from one’s religion
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d. Alienation from one’s religion
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Durkheim defined ______ as the communal beliefs, morals, and attitudes of a society. a. The iron cage b. Collective conscience c. Bourgeoisie d. Anomie
answer

b. Collective conscience
question

As industrialization began to boom, Durkheim believed people were more susceptible to anomie because: a. Collective norms are weakened. b. Society no longer has the support of the collective consciousness. c. Specialization of labor lead to alienation. d. All of the above
answer

d. All of the above
question

Karl Marx asserted that the means of societal change existed in the tension between: a. The enslaved bourgeois reclaiming power from the controlling proletariat. b. The bourgeois struggling for the allocation of resources amongst themselves. c. The working class proletariat taking the means of production from the wealthy bourgeois. d. The proletariat fighting each other for a position within the bourgeois
answer

c. The working class proletariat taking the means of production from the wealthy bourgeois
question

Which of the following is an example of role strain? a. Derek attends law school and becomes a lawyer, though he dreams of one day becoming the next John Grisham. b. Becca returns to work after giving birth to her daughter, finding it difficult to act as mother, wife, and executive. c. Alex takes a sabbatical from his job as a professor of Molecular Biology to raise his two young children. d. Krista lands a role on Days of Our Lives and begins receiving fan mail from fans across the country.
answer

b. Becca returns to work after giving birth to her daughter, finding it difficult to act as mother, wife, and executive
question

Charles Cooley’s concept of the looking-glass self hypothesizes that: a. Self-esteem is directly correlated with body image. b. The media encourages society to base their appearances on visible public figures. c. People base their images on how they think other people see them. d. Personal identity isn’t influenced by outside social forces.
answer

c. People base their images on how they think other people see them
question

The term institutionalization can be defined as: a. The idea that society is constructed by us and those before us, and it is followed like a habit. b. The act of implanting a convention or norm into society. c. A status a person chooses, such as a level of education or income. d. Responsibilities and benefits that a person experiences according to their rank and role in society.
answer

b. The act of implanting a convention or norm into society
question

During her first day of kindergarten, Marie does not understand how the lunch line in the cafeteria works. She hesitates and watches as the older kids pick up their trays and silverware and then get in line. She follows their lead and successfully buys herself lunch. Marie’s experience in the lunchroom is an example of _____. a. Socialization b. The looking glass self c. Resocialization d. Anticipatory socialization
answer

a. Socialization
question

Erik Erikson’s theory explains: a. Why Rhesus Monkeys preferred terry cloth maternal stand-ins versus the maternal stand-ins that provided food. b. How human sexual desire is linked to the development of a personality. c. When human moral development begins in an individual. d. How the actions of society help shape personalities throughout the eight basic stages of life.
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d. How the actions of society help shape personalities throughout the eight basic stages of life
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Some sociologists have pointed out that gender roles are often determined by how a society socializes young boys and girls. Which of the following is an example of socializing a child into a gender role? a. Taking Jimmy to the aquarium. b. Buying Sarah a toy kitchen to play with. c. Letting Kim wear pants to school. d. Allowing Joey to sleep with his \”blankey.\”
answer

b. Buying Sarah a toy kitchen to play with
question

George Herbert Mead’s specific path of development for individuals is as follows: a. Preparatory stage, play stage, game stage, generalized other stage b. Game stage, play stage, generalized other stage, preparatory stage c. Preparatory stage, game stage, play stage, generalized other stage d. Generalized other stage, preparatory stage, play stage, game stage
answer

a. Preparatory stage, play stage, game stage, generalized other stage
question

Katrina, age 5, and Sharon, age 4, love to play together while their mothers chat. Katrina has a toy iron and washing machine. She and Sharon spend hours \”washing\” and \”ironing\” her baby doll’s clothes, just like they see their mothers do. Which of George Herbert Mead’s stages of development are Katrina and Sharon exemplifying? a. The preparatory stage b. The play stage c. The game stage d. The \”generalized other\” stage
answer

a. The preparatory stage
question

Émile Durkheim’s much lauded study of suicide is important to the field of sociology in many ways. One of the most influential impacts was: a. It defined the differences between sociology and psychology b. It allowed psychology and sociology to merge into one field. c. It showed the psychological reasons for suicide to be a lie. d. It earned Émile Durkheim the title \”Father of Sociology\” so that other sociologists would have a role model.
answer

a. It defined the difference between sociology and psychology
question

Parents often socialize their children to: a. Understand and follow different norms from what they themselves follow b. Understand and follow the same norms that they themselves follow c. Ignore society and create their own norms and follow them regardless of consequences d. Ignore society and live alone without much interaction with other people
answer

b. Understand and follow the same norms that they themselves follow
question

Education is important to society because: a. It teaches children facts about the world in which they live. b. It teaches children how to interact with their peers and helps them to gain social graces. c. It teaches children how to react to authority and how to behave in group and one-on-one situations. d. All of the above
answer

d. All of the above
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The transition from college life to work life can be quite difficult for many young adults in the United States. Which is a possible cause for this struggle? a. The status quo has been maintained for a substantial period of time, and now the economy and government are undergoing significant changes. b. Many young people are in the same situation, so drawing expertise or knowledge from their experiences from peers is difficult. c. Finding a job, renting an apartment, and being independent is a daunting task that seems insurmountable. d. All of the above
answer

d. All of the above
question

Peer groups are important to adolescents because: a. They help to develop a sense of identity separate from adolescents’ parents. b. They provide the second major socialization experience outside the realm of their families. c. They rank higher in importance to adolescents’ than parental influence. d. They help exert dependence among adolescents.
answer

a. They help to develop a sense of identity separate from adolescents’ parents
question

In an effort to control a total institution, and to create a community of sameness, inmates are forced to strip down, be searched by police officers, and given identical uniforms before entering prison. This is an example of _______. a. An entry test that must be passed b. A degradation ceremony c. A graduation ceremony d. An exit test that must be passed
answer

b. A degradation ceremony
question

Sumaira is scared that she will not find a job in the current economy. She decides to be a business major and attend one of the top business schools in the country. Upon graduation, she is hired by a major investment banking firm in New York. Sumaira has completed: a. A degradation ceremony. b. Developing her sense of self. c. Anticipatory socialization. d. Developing her sense of morality.
answer

c. Anticipatory socialization
question

Joseph and Paula are excited to welcome their child into the world. They cannot wait to pass on all their knowledge, insight, and rich culture. Just as their parents gave them guidance and showed them how to live, Joseph and Paula will continue the chain by handing down their societal values and thus, sustain the society they love so much. Which sociological paradigm does this story fit? a. Structural Functionalism b. Conflict c. Symbolic Interactionism d. Feminist Theory
answer

b. Conflict
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Baby Marla is always well dressed. She has ribbons, bows, and frills all over her dresses and even in her hair. Her mother, who is worried that people might mistake Marla for a little boy, is determined to communicate to the world that she has a baby girl. Which sociological paradigm does this story fit? a. Structural Functionalism b. Conflict c. Symbolic Interactionism d. Exchange Theory
answer

c. Symbolic Interactionism
question

Ahmed has been trying to change his schedule so that he can take one more AP class his senior year in high school. He keeps running between the guidance office and the administration office to sort out the problem. Ahmed’s interaction with the school’s bureaucracy is an example of: a. The influences of a total institution b. The generalized other c. The influences of one’s peer groups d. The hidden curriculum of schools
answer

d. The hidden curriculum of schools
question

Sandy is standing in line for Kanye West tickets. The line wraps around the block, spilling into the streets and crowding store windows. Sandy is part of a(n): a. Dyad b. Triad c. In-group d. Aggregate
answer

d. Aggregate
question

What is the difference between a primary group and a secondary group? a. A primary group is small, consisting of emotional face-to-face relationships; a secondary group is larger and impersonal. b. A primary group is small and impersonal; a secondary group is large and consists of face-to-face relationships. c. A primary group is large and impersonal; a secondary group is small, consisting of emotional, face-to-face relationships. d. A primary group is large and impersonal; a secondary group is small and purely instrumental in function.
answer

a. A primary group is small, consisting of emotional face-to-face relationships; a secondary group is larger and impersonal
question

Which of the following is an example of an in-group/out-group dynamic: a. Organizations across a college campus come together at a yearly fundraiser to raise money for the local Breast Cancer Awareness chapter. b. Members of sorority Delta Delta Delta advise their pledges not to socialize with members of pledges of rival sorority Sigma Delta Theta. c. Chorus members of the campus’s production of Hairspray practice in Theatre building’s first floor, while the cast of God of Carnage practices on the second floor. d. The Chemistry Club advertises their organization at the local science fair.
answer

b. Members of sorority Delta Delta Delta advise their pledges not to socialize with members of pledges of rival sorority Sigma Delta Theta
question

When Michael starts high school, he joins the basketball team. He begins to look to his teammate friends for cues on how to behave at dances, in the hallways, and even in the classroom. Michael’s basketball team is serving as Michael’s _____. a. Out-group b. Reference group c. Aggregate d. Secondary group
answer

b. Reference group
question

Grace works in at an advertising agency. Grace’s coworkers help her complete presentations, contact clients, and assist her with research. Her coworkers are serving a(n): a. Expressive function b. Intrinsic function c. Elementary function d. Instrumental function
answer

d. Instrumental function
question

An instrumental leader: a. Promotes emotional strength and health, ensuring that people feel supported. b. Refers to the main focus or goal of the leader. c. Is goal-oriented and largely concerned with accomplishing set tasks. d. Rejects gender roles in the name of the feminist movement.
answer

c. Is goal-oriented and largely concerned with accomplishing set tasks
question

Christine is president of her Improvisation Comedy Troupe. When making decisions about booking gigs, rehearsal spaces, and call-times, Christine leaves the troupe to decide for themselves. Christine is a(n) _____ leader. a. Authoritarian b. Democratic c. Laissez-faire d. Republican
answer

c. Laissez-faire
question

Solomon Asch concluded that one reason people conform to a group is because they believe: a. They are too weak to decide for themselves. b. The group is better informed than they are. c. Dissent is a form of weakness. d. Large groups never make mistakes.
answer

b. The group is better informed than they are
question

Which of the following is NOT a characteristic of a bureaucracy: a. Clear division of labor b. Impersonality c. Explicit rules d. Personality-based promotion
answer

d. Personality-based promotion
question

The McDonalidization of Society refers to: a. The increasing presence of the fast-food business model in common social institutions. b. The obesity epidemic that’s rapidly sweeping the United States. c. The country’s increasing dependence on fast food as a daily meal. d. The increasing popularity of McDonalds as a hang-out for youths.
answer

a. The increasing presence of the fast-food business model in common social institutions
question

Kellan wants to shop at Express for the new school year, but because all of his friends shop at Pacific Sun, Kellan does as well. Kellan’s behavior is an example of: a. Consumer-oriented discretion b. Laissez-faire leadership c. Conformity d. Out-group dynamics
answer

c. Conformity
question

The concept \”reference groups\” can be defined as: a. Groups which consist of people for whom an individual feels great disdain. b. Groups a person belongs to and feels are an integral part of his or her identity. c. People who share similar characteristics but who are not connected in any way. d. Groups to which an individual compares himself or herself.
answer

d. Groups to which an individual compares himself or herself
question

A famous socialite is court-ordered to enter a rehabilitation center to eliminate her drug addiction. The socialite is about to become a member of a: a. Voluntary organization b. Paparazzi organization c. Utilitarian organization d. Coercive organization
answer

d. Coercive organization
question

Which of the following does NOT constitute cyberbullying? a. Sending threatening text messages b. Posting embarrassing images a person online c. Sending threatening letters to someone’s home d. Hacking someone’s account and pretending to be him or her
answer

c. Sending threatening letters to someone’s home
question

When Kevin backpacks across Europe after his high school graduation, he is surprised to find Burger Kings, H&Ms, and even Wal-Mart stores in the foreign cities. This is an example of: a. In-Group/Out-Group dynamic b. The McDonaldization of Society c. A bureaucracy d. Counter-culture
answer

b. The McDonaldization of Society
question

The term meritocracy is defined by the text as: a. A status-based regime in which advancement is unlikely. b. The removal of personal feelings from a professional situation. c. The authoritarian devalue of an employee. d. A bureaucracy where membership and advancement is based on proven and documented skills.
answer

d. A bureaucracy where membership and advancement is based on proven and documented skills
question

Ally’s father was sent to prison when she was 12 for the trafficking of narcotics; her brother was arrested when she was 13 for possession of methamphetamines. By the age of 18, Ally has been arrested three times for possession of marijuana. Which theory best describes Ally’s experience? a. Differential association theory b. Strain theory c. Labeling theory d. Opaque theory
answer

a. Differential association theory
question

The term deviance can be defined as: a. The act of notifying authorities when criminal acts are occurring. b. A violation of established contextual, cultural, or social norms, whether folkways, mores, or codified law. c. Social reward for the violation of norms. d. The regulation and enforcement of norms.
answer

b. A violation of established contextual, cultural, or social norms, whether folkways, mores, or codified law
question

What is the difference between a violent crime and a hate crime? a. A violent crime is based on a person’s race, religion, or other characteristics. b. A violent crime is punishable in a court of law; a hate crime is not. c. A hate crime is punishable in a court of law; a violent crime is not. d. A hate crime is based on a person’s race, religion, or other characteristics.
answer

d. A hate crime is based on a person’s race, religion, or other characteristics
question

Jake receives a promotion at his law firm after winning an important case. This is an example of a: a. Positive informal sanction b. Negative informal sanction c. Positive formal sanction d. Negative formal sanction
answer

c. Positive formal sanction
question

Which theorist studied the power elite, and the influence they had over society? a. Karl Marx b. Carl Sagan c. Émile Durkheim d. C. Wright Mills
answer

d. C. Wright Mills
question

The term crime can be defined as: a. A behavior that violates official law and is punishable through formal sanctions. b. A harmful action directed at the authorities. c. A sequence of events leading to incarceration. d. An unintended consequence of necessary action.
answer

a. A behavior that violates official law and is punishable through formal sanctions
question

Functionalist Émile Durkheim believed some deviance within society was: a. Necessary; it challenged people’s views. b. Dangerous; it encouraged disruptive behavior. c. Insignificant; deviance within society is largely ignored. d. Instrumental; it encouraged the population to rebel.
answer

a. Necessary; it challenged people’s views
question

Which of the following is not a branch of the U.S. Criminal Justice System? a. The police b. The jury c. The courts d. The corrections system
answer

b. The jury
question

The term secondary deviance can be defined as: a. When positive formal sanctions cause an individual to deviate from society’s expectations. b. When a violation of norms does not result in any long-term effects on the individual’s self-image or interactions with others. c. When negative informal sanctions encourage an individual to seek more positive behavioral choices. d. When a person’s self-concept and behavior begin to change after his or her actions are labeled as deviant by members of society.
answer

d. When a person’s self-concept and behavior begin to change after his or her actions are labeled as deviant by members of society
question

Which of the following is an example of a negative informal sanction? a. Mario being sent to jail after robbing a CVS. b. Beatrix being booed off stage after telling an offensive joke during her comedy routine. c. Eleanor being given a \”Teacher of the Year\” award for her work as a high school English teacher. d. Meredith receiving compliments on her hair after visiting the salon.
answer

b. Beatrix being booed off stage after telling an offensive joke during her comedy routine
question

Social control is: a. An arrangement of practices and behaviors on which society’s members base their daily lives. b. A system that has the authority to make decisions based on law. c. A label that describes the chief characteristic of an individual. d. The regulation and enforcement of norms.
answer

d. The regulation and enforcement of norms
question

Strain theory: a. Argues that morality is based on wealth. b. Asserts that motivation and personal responsibility are the key factors in living a healthy lifestyle. c. Addresses the relationship between having socially acceptable goals and having socially acceptable means to reach those goals. d. States individuals learn deviant behavior from those close to them who provide models of and opportunities for deviance.
answer

c. Addresses the relationship between having socially acceptable goals and having socially acceptable means to reach those goals
question

In first grade, Scott is unfairly singled out by his teacher for bad behavior, partly because his older brothers had behavioral problems themselves. Throughout grade school, Scott gains a reputation as a \”problem\” child. Scott eventually drops out of school, thinking he was born to fail anyway. Which school of thought best fits Scott’s experience? a. Strain theory b. Control theory c. Differential association d. Labeling theory
answer

d. Labeling theory
question

True or False: Deviance is always considered a crime? a. True b. False
answer

b. False
question

Edwin Sutherland: a. Strain theory b. Differential association c. Control theory d. Cultural deviance theory
answer

b.
question

Travis Hirschi: a. Strain theory b. Differential association c. Control theory d. Cultural deviance theory
answer

c.
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Robert Merton: a. Strain theory b. Differential association c. Control theory d. Cultural deviance theory
answer

a.
question

Clifford Shaw and Henry McKay: a. Strain theory b. Differential association c. Control theory d. Cultural deviance theory
answer

d.
question

An average of _____ people in the United States fall victim to hate crimes each year? a. 100,000 b. 150,000 c. 195,000 d. 200,000
answer

c. 195,000
question

Elisa graduated from college with a double major and was inducted into the Phi Beta Kappa society. She was then offered a job in New York where she worked 12 hours a day and produced excellent results. Within two years she had over 100 employees working under her. Elisa’s hard work was rewarded with a raise and a bonus. This form of promotion is based on the principles of: a. A meritocracy b. A democracy c. A caste system d. A closed stratification system
answer

a. A meritocracy
question

Mohit spent his days combing through garbage in Mumbai, India with his brothers and sisters. Sometimes he would find food, or something to sell for money. He never tried to overcome his lower-class status because he had seen his friends try and fail. So, he accepted his fate, and tried to live life as best he could in a closed society. Mohit is an example of someone living under: a. A meritocracy b. A dictatorship c. A caste system d. An oligarchy
answer

c. A caste system
question

It was time for Oli to marry. He had finished school and was starting a job. His parents chose a bride for him whose parents had the same amount of wealth and belonged to the same class as they did. Oli and his bride will have a(n) _________ marriage. a. Exogamus b. Endogamous c. Traditional d. Unconventional
answer

b. Endogamous
question

Cate is the daughter of a Senator and the former CEO of a Fortune 500 company. Harry grew up on a farm, tilling the land for a living. They are planning a June wedding. They will have a(n)___________ marriage. a. Exogamous b. Traditional c. Endogamus d. Unconventional
answer

a. Exogamous
question

Which factor is considered when evaluating someone’s standard of living? a. Income b. Employment c. Class d. All of the above
answer

d. All of the above
question

What is particularly unique about the United States middle class? a. It is the smallest class in the United States. b. It is broken into two subcategories: upper and lower middle class. c. The people who are middle class often have little to no education. d. The upper class are as likely to become members of the lower class as members of the lower class are likely to become members of the upper class.
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b. It is broken into two subcategories: upper and lower middle class
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Which historical event was greatly responsible for global stratification as we see it today? a. World War I b. The Fall of the British Empire c. The French Revolution d. The Industrial Revolution
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d. The Industrial Revolution
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In 2008 the United States, as well as the rest of the world, felt the effects of the recession. After the collapse of the housing market, people lost their jobs and they quit spending money. Many people could not afford their mortgages anymore and their homes went into foreclosure. For many people, it was a time of __________. a. Social stratification b. Social inconsistency c. Horizontal mobility d. Downward mobility
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d. Downward mobility
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With the recent Occupy Wall Street Movement, the people of the United States keep hearing about the top 1%. How much of the United State’s wealth rests in the hands of the wealthiest top 1% of people? a. 1/3 b. 1/4 c. 1/8 d. 1/16
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a. 1/3
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Charlotte was born to a lower class family in rural Pennsylvania. After taking a job in the mail room of a large corporate office, Charlotte is slowly promoted through the ranks and becomes CEO of the company by the age of 50. What type of stratification is shown in this story? a. Structural mobility b. Intergenerational mobility c. Intragenerational mobility d. Downward mobility
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c. IntRAgenerational mobility
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Since the social classes in the United States do not have any clear boundaries, how is a sociologist supposed to determine whether their subjects are in the upper class or the upper-middle class? a. Upper class is often defined as having control over one’s life and the lives of people around you, while the upper-middle class is often defined as having control only over one’s own life. b. The upper class is split into \”old money\” and \”new money\” people, while the upper-middle class simply struggles to maintain its wealth. c. All upper class people enjoy opera and have been bred for their stations while the upper-middle class consists mostly of newly wealthy people who may not have had the same kind of upbringing. d. In the upper class, everyone knows everyone, but in the upper-middle class, the people do not comingle.
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a. Upper class is often defined as having control over one’s life and the lives of people around you, while the upper-middle class is often defined as having control only over one’s own life
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What seems to be the key (although not the rule) to upward social mobility? a. How well off your parents are. b. How much education you have. c. How many jobs you work. d. How much you spend on your personal appearance.
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b. How much education you have
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The Davis-Moore Thesis states: a. That economic hardship and skyrocketing inflation is the cause for all social stratification in the United States. b. That Karl Marx was correct and that stratification can only be solved by converting to a socialist government. c. That the more society values a particular profession, the more the people in that profession will make. d. That people constantly move up and down the social ladder, and this creates an unstable economy which will eventually collapse on itself.
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c. That the more society values a particular profession, the more the people in that profession will make
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Symbolic interactionists have come to the conclusion that: a. Most people do not care about social rank and standing. b. Only lower class people drink beer. c. Only upper class people can enjoy a good game of polo. d. Most people only socialize with people in their same social class.
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d. Most people only socialize with people in their same social class
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One main issue in studying global social inequality is: a. Most countries keep their economic situations secret. b. Social inequality is relative and therefore, difficult to compare across cultures. c. The presence of tourism can make a country look richer than it really is. d. Most people live beyond their means which gives a false sense of wealth to a society.
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b. Social inequality is relative and therefore, difficult to compare across cultures
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What is the difference between sex and gender? a. Sex refers to sexual orientation, and gender refers to physical or physiological differences between males and females. b. Sex is the extent to which one identifies as being either masculine or feminine, gender is biological characterization of anatomy. c. Sex refers to who a person is sexually attracted to, and gender refers to whom a person chooses to partner with. d. Sex refers to physical or physiological differences between males and females, while gender is the extent to which one identifies as being either masculine or feminine.
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d. Sex refers to physical or physiological differences between males and females, while gender is the extent to which one identifies as being either masculine or feminine1.
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The term sexual orientation can be defined as: a. A term that refers to individuals who identify with the behaviors and characteristics that are opposite of their biological sex. b. A phase which a person outgrows before entering heterosexuality. c. A person’s emotional and sexual attraction to a particular sex. d. A person’s biological gender.
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c. A person’s emotional and sexual attraction to be a particular sex
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Chase grew up wanting to wear his sister’s dresses over his brother’s pants and button up shirts. When Chase turns 18, he decides to begin living as woman, though he’s still only sexually attracted to women. He decides he doesn’t want to undergo surgery. Chase is: a. Transgender b. Bisexual c. Transsexual d. Homophobic
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a. Transgender
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The term sexuality is defined by the text as: a. An individual’s sense of being either masculine or feminine. b. The repressed sexual inclinations of society as a whole. c. An individual’s biological gender. d. A person’s capacity for sexual feelings.
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d. A person’s capacity for sexual feelings
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Jenny is given a doll for 2nd birthday, while her brother, Tyrone, is given a fire truck. This is an example of gender: a. Bending b. Indifference c. Socialization d. Stratification
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c. Socialization
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When Jeanette’s parents find out her twin brother, Rex, has been sexually active, they tell him to use protection. When they found out Jeanette has been sexually active, they ground her for a month. This is an example of: a. A double standard b. A misunderstanding c. Homophobia d. Gender identity
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a. A double standard
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When thinking about gender, Jeff sees men as the dominant social group and women the subordinate group. This exploitation of the subordinate group has created social problems, such as high rates of poverty among single mothers. Which sociological perspective best fit Jeff’s views? a. Conflict Theory b. Structural Functionalism c. Cyberfeminism d. Symbolic Interactionism
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a. Conflict theory
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Tasha believes that gender is about the division of labor in the family. In the pre-industrial era, men were the hunter-gatherers and bread-winners, and women were keepers of the home. After World War II, changes in the family structure allowed women to become breadwinners also, altering the roles of the family. From what sociological perspective do Tasha’s thoughts come? a. Conflict Theory b. Structural Functionalism c. Cyberfeminism d. Symbolic Interactionism
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b. Structural Functionalism
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When Wendy’s sorority sisters discover that Wendy is a lesbian, they hold a secret meeting to decide if Wendy should still be allowed to pledge. A handful of the sisters vote \”no.\” This is an example of: a. Doing gender b. Bisexuality c. Homophobia d. Social imperialism
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c. Homophobia
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Which of the following is NOT a product of gender stereotyping? a. Keisha’s mom encouraging her to take home economics over shop class so she can please her future husband. b. A music store employee encouraging a young woman to study the piano or flute instead of the drums or guitar. c. A teacher discouraging a female student from entering the military, suggesting nursing school instead. d. A father buying a basketball hoop for his daughter’s eighth birthday.
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d. A father buying a basketball hoop for his daughter’s eighth birthday
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In 1973, the American Psychological Association (APA) declassified homosexuality as an abnormal or deviant disorder. Which sociological perspective would be most interested in the statement the (APA) made to society? a. Exchange Theory b. Structural Functionalism c. Cyberfeminism d. Symbolic Interactionism
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d. Symbolic Interactionism
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In which country is sex education required in public schools? a. The United States b. Sweden c. England d. Nigeria
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b. Sweden
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Biological determinism is: a. The prejudiced belief that one sex should be valued over another b. An extreme or irrational aversion to homosexuals c. An individual’s sense of being either masculine or feminine d. The belief that men and women behave differently due to differences in their biology
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d. The belief that men and women behave differently due to differences in their biology
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Family is a term that is difficult to define. When studying sociology it is important to remember that: a. Sociologist try to keep the definition open so that people who walk by each other on the street are a family. b. Sociologists try to keep the definition open to encompass all types of people who are emotionally close to each other. c. Sociologists only consider people who live in the same household to be a family. d. Sociologists only consider traditional marriage as a requirement to be a family.
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b. Sociologists try to keep the definition open to encompass all types of people who are emotionally close to each other
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Why do sociologists find the study of family to be so important when trying to grasp the mores and norms of a culture? a. Families provide for each other as well as carry out and teach a particular culture to other members of the family. b. Families almost never reinforce the values of the society in which they live, and thus can bring about change without much effort. c. Families are so isolated from society at large that they become tiny independent societies. d. Families tend to be apathetic towards culture whereas young unmarried people reinforce social rituals and ideologies.
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a. Families provide for each other as well as carry out and teach a particular culture to other members of the family
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Watching television shows can be a good way to understand and study families because: a. They teach us what the ideal family should look like. b. They teach us how to behave when parents get upset. c. They teach us how to think through the consequences of certain actions. d. They teach us how a family on screen can represent the values of the era in which they aired.
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d. They teach us how a family on screen can represent the values of the era in which they are aired
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What is the relationship, if any, between people who cohabitate and then get married, and those people who wait to live together after they marry? a. Cohabitating, unmarried partners have a slightly higher divorce rate after they get married than those who don’t cohabitate until after marriage. b. Cohabitating, unmarried partners have a slightly lower divorce rate after they get married than those who don’t cohabitate until after marriage. c. Cohabitating, unmarried partners have the exact same divorce rate as the people who don’t cohabitate until marriage. d. It does not matter because divorce occurs when two people are incompatible and does not depend on how long people have lived with each other.
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a. Cohabitating, unmarried partners have a slightly higher divorce rate after they get married than those who don’t cohabitate until after marriage

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