Humanities Final Test Questions

Flashcard maker : Lily Taylor
Why did Jesus of Nazareth identify himself as the Messiah?
He never made this claim, his followers did.
What promise became the foundation of Christian faith?
Ressurection
Which sect is associated with the dead sea scrolls?
Essenes
What is Masada one of the most symbolic sites in all of Israel?
Represents the sacrifice of Jews rather than submit to Roman rule.
Why are the gospels of Matthew mark and like known as the synoptic gospels ?
Similar views of Jesus’ life.
From which cult did Christianity draw baptism, sacrifice for the good of humanity, and Jesu’s birth date?
The persian Mithras.
Why in 325 CE did Constantine move his capital from Rome to Byzantium which he renamed Constantinople ?
Rome was too vulnerable.
What about its design made Justinian’s San Vitale church in Ravenna unique?
Octagon
Why did the Byzantine emperor Leo III inaugurate a program of iconoclasm?
No images
As explained in the chapters continuity and change section, why is Venice home to a vast amount of Byzantine art?
4th crusades
Why was the Mecca important to the bedouin traders?
Natural Springs
Why was the Kaaba significant to the Bedouins?
Housed images of the Gods
Why is the Kaaba significant to Muslims today?
Center of the universe
What does the word Islam mean?
Submission
Why in 610 CE did the Archangel Gabriel first visit Mohammad?
To receive messages
Why do Muslims believe that the Qur’an cannot be translated?
Direct word of God
What is the hadith?
Muhammad’s sayings
Why is the muslim year shorter than the christians year
lunar calendar
Why did mohammad allow muslim mens to have up to 4 wives
to provide protective charity
Why did Islam split into two main groups around 661
disagreement
Why in the Qu’ran are Muslim women advised to dress modestly?
Avoid harassment
Why do Muslims decorate their mosques without figurative images
judgement
Why perhaps were conquered africans eager to convert to islam
to avoid enslavement
why does Scheherazade in the thousand and one nights tell her husband a story each night
to avoid execution
why are practitioners of islam mystical branch called sufi from the arabic suf
write intensive poetry
As reported from the chapters continuity and change section why did the islam inevitably come into conflict with Christianity?
islam believes Jesus was a prophet, not son of God
What advantages did feudalism offer the fiefs?
Use of land and protection
Why did Europe’s christians embark on pilgrimages?
to atone to their sins
What pilgrimages destination was most difficult to reach?
Jerusalem
What advantages did feudalism offer the nobels
military support
Why was the wergeld of a thane higher than that of a thrall
kill slaves
why is beowulf considered an english poem
written in old english
why does beowulf travel from Denmark to Sweden
to kill grendel
what was the main task of christian missionaries in England
transfer peoples allegiance
What was the book of keels moved from Iona off the Scottish coast to kells in Ireland
protect from the vikings
Why did Pope Leo III crown Charlemagne the first holy roman emperor
for christianizing the people of his vast empire
Why did Charlemagne insist upon a christian education for his people
more would enter priesthood
why in 1066 did William of normandy invade England
promised king
why architectural feature especially distinguishes a romanesque church
barrel vaults
What effect was the space created by the Romanesque churches barrel vaults designed to produce for the pilgrims?
raise their eyes
Why were Romanesque churches portals of special importance?
to define boundary between secular and sacred place
Why was the courtly love poetry written in the common language instead of Latin?
more people would enjoy
What medieval cult is connected to the courtly love literature?
cult of the virgin
According to the chapters continuity and change section, if romanesque style represented rural monastic life what did the gothic style reflect
emerging of the city
why was gothic as applied to france new architecture originally a derogatory term
goths destroyed classical traditions
why was light vital to saint denis’s design
manifestation of god
why were so many of the cathedrals called notre dame?
dedicated to the virgin mary
what religious relic does chartres cathedral house?
the tunic of the virgins
Why did the Gothic cathedrals contain stained glass programs?
to tell bible stories to an illiterate audience
Why is the Jesse tree a common stained glass motif?
Marys royal lineage
Which of the following innovations was key in gothic architecture
riv vaulting
Why did the Gothic cathedrals include flying buttresses?
To spread out the weight
What musical instrument became popular in the cathedrals ?
Organ
Why in 1179 did the cathedral school or Notre Dame in paris start admitting non clerical students?
France had an excess of clergy
Where was the first university founded?
Bolgona, Italy
On whose method did peter abreland have his teaching?
Socrates
Why was abreland castrated and forced to seek sanctuary in monastery ?
He fell in love with a pregnant student
What two subjects did scholasticism seek to reconcile?
faith and reason
What relic did Louis IX purchase on Crusade in Constantinople to display at Sainte Chapelle?
Christs crown of thorns
Why was Louis Ix so beloved by the french people ?
Abolished reform tax structure
Why did the Florentine families donate chapels to the mendicant churches?
Guarantee family salvation
Who created the first Creche?
St Francis
What exportation was a driving force in the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries?
The meaning of being human
Why did Siena experience population growth after 1125?
freedom from feudalism
Why were Sienas guild able to rise to such levels of power
manufacturing
Which guild in pre 1355 Siena was most powerful ?
Merchants
Why do Pictures of the virgin Mary abound in Siena?
Siena called itself “ancient city of the virgin”
On what trade was Florence’s wealth based?
Textiles
Why by the end of the 14th century did florence become an important banking city?
florence
What was the Florentine bankers most important invention
currency
Who in Florence was eligible to serve in the government
guild members
Who was Florence’s patron saint
John the baptist
Why in the arena chapel frescoes does Giotto deliberately abandon the Byzantine balance and symmetry ?
To make the scenes look more realistic
In the arena chapels frescoes, what is giotto the first artist since antiquity to depict?
People from behind
What is an advantage of the buon fresco technique?
Becomes part of the wall.

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