Human Trafficking and Child Sex Trafficking Essay Example
Human Trafficking and Child Sex Trafficking Essay Example

Human Trafficking and Child Sex Trafficking Essay Example

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  • Pages: 18 (4940 words)
  • Published: August 30, 2017
  • Type: Research Paper
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In recent old ages, there has been an increasing involvement in the research of human trafficking, both in general and in child sex trafficking as a particular and important phenomenon. Harmonizing to the U.S. Department of State ( 2007 ) trafficking is one of the fastest turning condemnable endeavors with an approximative figure of 800.000 victims each twelvemonth trafficked over international boundary lines. Anti-trafficking runs and NGOs have mushroomed and anti-trafficking policies have become of import characteristics of both international development bureaus and governmental dockets ( Piper 2005:203 ) .

Largely, bookmans have concentrated their research on South East Asia ; a part which is frequently described as the hub of trafficking in individuals, peculiarly for the intent of sexual development. Since the UN Transitional Authority period kid sex traff


icking and kid sex touristry have been identified as a specific jobs and Cambodia has become the focal point of many UN activities. Child sex trafficking is described as comparatively new phenomenon in Cambodia which did non be before 1970 ( Archivantitkul: 1998 ) .

The political and economic landscape of Cambodia every bit good as moral and societal values have changed well in the last three decennaries since the Khmer Rouge government. This fact makes Cambodia peculiarly vulnerable for people who seek to do a net income from the poorness of people who may be overwhelmed by the on-going fast changing impacts which come to their state.

South-East Asia has a big graduated table of undocumented labour migration. Those migrations flows are greatly facilitated by recruiters in finish and beginning states which can do an exploitatory state of affairs. There is a all right line between the issues

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of migratory smuggling and trafficking and their differentiations are frequently blurred. Therefore, trafficking has to be seen as a portion of migration flows ( Piper 2005: 207 ) .

Most of human trafficking activities in South East Asia, peculiarly in the Mekong sub-region, take topographic point domestically and so one can mention more to a regional or national job than to an international one ( ibid.:204 ) . This portion of the issue should be considered carefully as different forms such as globalization and the socio-economic conditions play an of import function and could do trafficking in Cambodia once more an international job sing the causes ( ibid. :205 ) .

The definition of trafficking has changed well in the last figure of decennaries and yet there is still no consensus about a universally valid definition ( Laczko 2005: 10 ) . The deficiency of a common definition together with the refusal of some provinces to recognize the being of trafficking within their state makes it difficult to battle this issue efficaciously on a planetary graduated table ( Savona and Stefanizzi 2007: 2 ) .

In 2000, the UN General Assembly adopted the United Nations Protocol to Prevent, Suppress and Punish Trafficking in Persons[ 1 ], besides known as the Palermo Protocol. The protocol offers for the first clip a lawfully binding international definition of trafficking as the control of one individual over another for the intent of development:

"Trafficking in individuals '' shall intend the enlisting, transit, transportation, harboring or reception of individuals, by agencies of the menace or usage of force or other signifiers of coercion, of abduction, of fraud, of misrepresentation, of the maltreatment of

power or of a place of exposure or of the giving or having of payments or benefits to accomplish the consent of a individual holding control over another individual, for the intent of development. Exploitation shall include, at a lower limit, the development of the

harlotry of others or other signifiers of sexual development, forced labor or services, bondage or patterns similar to slavery, servitude or the remotion of variety meats. Human trafficking and in peculiar kid sex trafficking is considered by different bookmans and surveies ( e.g. Williams and Masika 2002 ; Jana 2002 ; Asia Regional Cooperation to Prevent Peoples Trafficking 2003 ) as a extremely gendered subject. Despite the deficiency of research and accurate informations on trafficking forms, and it is clear that the bulk of trafficking victims are adult females and misss ( UNODC, 2006 ) . Hence, one can state that trafficking is so frequently seen to be caused and facilitated by "unequal gender dealingss and patriarchal values and systems '' ( Williams and Masika 2002: 6 ) . Undeniably, this creates of exposures and hence human rights misdemeanors on adult females and kids. Understanding the gender dimensions of this phenomenon is important to obtain a clear image of the enlisting of trafficking victims up to the development of policy schemes and runs to battle these human rights misdemeanors.

The building of the victim of kid sex trafficking

Existing research every bit good as political and condemnable justness activity has the inclination to concentrate on the wrongdoer and their designation and penalty, instead than sing the victims of sex trafficking as 'equal participants ' . This reflects a traditional criminology research attack which

is frequently criticised by victimology discourse ( Goody 2005: 239 ) .

Despite the big sum of literature and research which addresses kid sex trafficking in Cambodia, there remains a spread about the conceptualization of the victim of kid sex trafficking. From a western position, victim constructs are diverse which can be seen for case in the "ideal victim '' ( Christie 1986 ) and in societal constructivism positions ( e.g. Schutz 1962 ) . Therefore it is besides critical to see the gender position of trafficking and the societal function and building of adult females and misss in the Kampuchean society today in contrast to the yesteryear.

For a better apprehension of the beginning of the building perceptual experiences it is interesting to take a closer expression at constructivism theory. The construct of the victim underlies a building of a certain world within a civilization, a society and in peculiar an establishment. Those buildings of worlds can be seen in the visible radiation of constructivism which means the building of societal worlds. The theory of societal constructivism has been contributed to by Schutz ( 1962 ) , Berger and Luckmann ( 1966 ) and Gergen ( 1985, 1999 ) .

Sing the building of cognition Schutz ( 1962: 5 ) argues that "( a ) ll our cognition of the universe, in common sense every bit good as in scientific thought, involves concepts, i.e. a set of abstractions, generalisations, formalisations, idealisations, specific to the relevant degree of thought organisation '' . In footings of building the image of a victim one can presume that the content of a perceptual experience is constructed in an active- constructive procedure

of production instead than a passive- receptive procedure of representation ( Flick 2004: 89 ) . We find entree to our universe of experience which includes natural and societal environment every bit good as certain constructs by the building of constructs and cognition which are used to construe experiences, understanding and ascription of significance ( ibid. : 90 ) .

It is important to see the building of cognition and constructs in the context of societal research and figure out the relevancy for the present thesis. Schutz ( 1962: 208ff ) describes that societal research uses preexistent mundane constructs out of mundane cognition and concepts with this another more formalistic and generalized version of the universe ( Flick 2004: 91 ) . Due to the deficiency of research about the construct of a victim in Kampuchean society, my thesis will concentrate on the societal concept of a kid sex trafficking victim and how it differs depending on the societal environment or society the kid is populating in.

This research seeks to place the construct of a kid sex trafficking victim which NGOs, International Organisation and the Kampuchean authorities develop runs and policies to battle trafficking on. To acquire a clearer image of the causes of kid victim Piper ( 2005 ) claims that there is more research required into pre-trafficking state of affairss ( grounds of kid maltreatment, household state of affairs, and socio-economic force per unit area on household ) and the challenges faced by trafficked victims who return to their states and/ or parts of beginning. Besides the inquiry arises of whether the victim can achieve victim position after being returned to the household or

whether stigmatization causes him/her to be seen as an castaway. I would wish to see these issues for my qualitative interviews with NGOs and governmental representatives in Cambodia.

Extra literature reappraisal

Apart from the literature referred to in the text above, indispensable texts for researching human trafficking and child sex trafficking in peculiar are e.g. Micollier ( explosive detection systems ) ( 2004 ) who edited different essays which examine the societal building of gender, gender functions in the household, and gendered power dealingss in society in East Asia. The International Organization for Migration ( IOM ) besides published assorted surveies and books refering human trafficking. The most conducive 1 for my research ( IOM 2005 ) , gathers a aggregation of essays that describe informations aggregation and research of human trafficking from different states.

Relevant for the Mekong sub-region, Nicola Piper ( 2005 ) gives a reappraisal in this book about undertaken research on trafficking in South East Asia and Oceania. She highlights the spreads of cognition in literature and research of trafficking issues. Savona and Stefanizzi ( explosive detection systems ) ( 2007 ) and their subscribers have a similar focal point but offer a deeper analysis of migration flows and trafficking and bettering monitoring mechanisms for these complex felon activities. An of import survey about human trafficking in Cambodia was undertaken by the Asia Regional Cooperation to Prevent Peoples Trafficking ( 2003 ) : Gender, Human Trafficking and the Criminal Justice System in Cambodia. Their research focal point was on the gender position of trafficking and the implicit in causes and lending factors.

Another survey by the Asiatic Foundation ( 2006 ) : A Review of

a Decade of Research On Trafficking in Persons, Cambodia, aimed to supply a consistently reappraisal on trafficking related research about the effects, Scopess and forms of trafficking. They review more trafficking in general and in its assorted forms. Child sex trafficking is considered in a little but good researched paragraph.

Summarizing up, these cardinal readings and surveies all critically asses human trafficking and offer a assortment of valid positions on the phenomenon.

Research inquiry and purpose

Research inquiry. As introduced to in the paragraph above, my research inquiry arises out of a literature spread. : "What type of conceptualization of a victim do victim support Centres, NGOs and the authorities in Cambodia have and how do those constructs influence their work, runs and policy schemes? ''

Research purpose. The research purpose is to place the different bing buildings of a kid sex trafficking victims in Cambodia provided and to research if the societal and cultural building of a trafficked kid differs depending on society and societal environment like shelters or vocational preparation programme the kid lives in or is involved in.

Possible sub-questions that contribute to the research inquiry are:

  • How do kids go victims of trafficking?
  • What is the societal building of adult females and misss in Cambodia?
  • Explore the historical development of the term "kid '' and "juvenile '' in Cambodia in legal and cultural ways. Is at that place a altering significance of those footings?
  • How of import is virginity for Kampuchean work forces?

Research Method/ Design

Harmonizing to Flick ( 2006 ) , the foundation of qualitative research is the Reconstruction of societal worlds. Through the geographic expedition of subjective perceptual experiences, forms of reading, structural features and

the latent significance of action, a deeper apprehension of a survey field can be achieved. Thereby, no proband chastening takes topographic point by presetting of replying classs, but it creates a infinite for single positions of the survey field ( Muckel 1996: 66 ) .

The general claim of qualitative research is to depict " life universes 'from the interior out ' , from the point of position of the people who participate '' ( Flick et Al: 3 ) , to lend to a better apprehension of societal worlds. In comparing to quantitative societal research where one examine already formulated hypothesis, the purpose of qualitative research is to detect new thoughts and to develop through empirical observation justified theories ( Flick 2006: 15 ) . Though, the communicating of the researches of the peculiar field, i.e. the subjectiveness of the research worker and the researched, becomes an indispensable constituent of the research procedure and the determination ( Flick 2006 ) .

Contrary to quantitative research commanding or excepting influence from the researched as interfering variables, in qualitative research the contemplation of the research worker 's actions, his perceptual experiences and observations every bit good as feelings and annoyances are involved in the informations rating procedure ( ibid. : 16 ) . The openness to the primary universe of the researched and their different buildings of world every bit good as harmonizing to the applied research methods are a basic feature of qualitative research ( ibid. ) .

My research involvement focuses on the subjective positions and construct of the victim of kid sex trafficking in Cambodia. Therefore it is indispensable to use qualitative research methods. In the

undermentioned I will depict the chosen methods of roll uping and measuring informations.

 Method of informations aggregation

The thesis seeks to asses NGOs, crisis Centres and governmental bureaus ' constructs and positions of the victim of kid sex trafficking in Cambodia. The purpose is to analyze how their building of a kid victim influences their undertaking, runs and policies. This interrelatedness is possible to picture verbally but non easy to observe throughout observation procedures due to ethical considerations. The observation of the work with victims is ethically non justifiable in such a short research clip frame as the individuality with victims is purely confidential and observation is non approved by the administrations or shelters if the research worker is non able to remain at least 2 month. Therefore the qualitative interview with the administrations and shelters was chosen as a research method. The chief involvement is to happen out about peculiar perceptual experiences and more complex debates. Therefore the inquiring should be more active and examining ( Hopf 2004: 204 )

The semi-structured interview is an appropriate attack to research the subjective perceptual experience and theories that stands behind my questionnaire. Scheele and Groeben ( 1988 ) introduced this attack to research the building and subjective theories behind mundane cognition and the field of survey ( Flick 2006: 155 ) . Their premise was that interviewees are encouraged to show their perceptual experiences and their logical thinking behind certain subjects in a natural mode if the interviewer provides a semi-structured inquiry puting. Therefore one can retrace the subjective theories and positions of the interviewee for the intent of the survey.

The chief elements of the semi-structured interview are unfastened

and confrontational inquiries. ( see box 1 ) They offer the interviewee infinite to show their perceptual experience and cognition. The confrontational inquiry has a antiphonal map to the subjective theories offered by the interviewee and is inquiring a viing alternate to re-examine the sentiments ( ibid. : 156 ) . An illustration for my research would be:

Another set of inquiries would be hypothesis-directed inquiries ( see text box 2 ) which test scientific literature written about the research subject ( ibid. ) . They give the interviewee the opportunity to go more expressed and assist the interviewer to acquire the needed information for the researched subject: The expert interview is a subcategory of the semi-structured interview. The attack of the thesis questionnaire is to interview on the one manus service suppliers like victim support Centre, crisis Centres and NGOs that support the victim demands and rights. On the other manus it is an purpose to talk to the Kampuchean authorities which means in peculiar MP Mu Sochua of the Ministry of Women 's and Veteran 's Affairs ( MWVA ) .

Here the involvement is non so much the biographic background of the existent individual but more the perceptual experience of the existent establishment or the Kampuchean Parliament about the research subject. The interviewees are seen as representatives for a certain group non as persons ( Flick 2006: 165 ) .

There are several research practical comfortss for the adept interview. In an early geographic expedition stage of a theoretical, less prestructured and informational less cross-linked research, the expert interview offers unrivalled dense informations acquisition. This stands in contrast to the elaborate, cost and time-intensive achievement

of participant observation, field survey and systematic quantitative research ( Bogner and Menz 2005: 7 ) .

It is recommended to take adept interviews if a survey field is difficult or impossible to entree particularly when it comes to delicate issues like kid sex trafficking and child harlotry. Beside the economic advantages and the opportunity to acquire information even about an awkward issue, another advantage is the facilitation of farther field entree when the expert refers to other co-workers and dialogue spouses. It should besides be noted out of a methodological position that a farther benefit is that it is much easier to interview an expert as they normally have a higher lingual competency which contributes straight to the analysis of the narrative. Hence, in an idealized construct, two academic socialised dialogue spouses meet in this interview puting ( ibid. : 8 ) .

To guarantee cogency of my research and to determine forms of the building of the victim of kid sex trafficking, I intend to transport out 15-20 interviews with victim support Centres, Human Rights NGOs who are concerned about kid sex trafficking and authorities representatives ( all in Phnom Penh ) .

All establishments are contacted via electronic mail and telephone to set up an assignment during my field trip in Cambodia and to offer them an lineation of the research undertaking which gives them the chance to fix for the inquiries.

I will utilize open-ended inquiries that give the interviewee infinite to show their perceptual experiences and positions. It besides allows for the outgrowth of new subjects that were non originally thought to be portion of the interview. I will fix 8 wide subjects for

the interviews that are formulated as wide inquiries and present them one after the other[ 2 ]. Depending on the interview class, I will stipulate the subjects and inquire in more item to clear up obscure preparations.


Whilst there are many advantages to this research design, there are besides several restrictions to the expert interview. Meuser and Nagel ( 2002:87 ) place the expert might non ever respond as desired where their expertness may emerge as being limited and hinder the interview procedure. Further, they identify the contingency that the interviewee may non t participate in the `` question-answering game '' ( Flick 2006:165 ) giving alternatively a address to advance their cognition and/or docket. Whilst this can sometimes lend to the research subject, it can besides stray from the point and do it hard to return to the original inquiry. Another possible failing of adept interviews is that the interviewee can alter functions from being an expert to being a private individual. Whereby, the interview looses objectiveness and private/ personal perceptual experiences and prejudice may interfere with the representation of the establishment or expert cognition ( ibid. ) .

To guarantee dependability for this method it is important that the interviewee, here the expert, understands the research context and the inquiries to the full. Bulmer and Warwick ( 1983 ) place the troubles of carry oning societal research in developing states which gives this research proposal an interesting angle. It is widely recognised that the handiness of societal informations in developing states is limited. Existing information is frequently of hapless quality and therefore of small usage due to limited administrative capacity, deficiency of work force

and substructure ( ibid. : 4-5 ) .

The cogency might be restricted and misdirecting if one relies merely on administrative beginnings. The Kampuchean jurisprudence enforcement bureaus and disposal are perceived as the most corrupt sector. The Global Corruption Barometer besides shows that 70 % of the citizens are likely to pay payoffs to the constabulary ( Anti- Corruption Resource Centre 2009 ) which proves the normalcy and explicitness of corruptness within the population. When it comes to delicate issues such as human trafficking high ranking Kampuchean jurisprudence enforcement functionary are believed to accept payoffs to ease human trafficking and kid harlotry ( US Department of State Human Rights Report 2006 ) .

A telling illustration for corruptness conformity within sex trafficking is the former Deputy Director of the Police Anti-Human Trafficking and Juvenile Department and two functionaries under his supervising were convicted and imprisoned for easing human trafficking ( Anti- Corruption Resource Centre 2009 ) . Due to the ubiquitousness of corruptness, corruptness this must be recognised within my research and considered when seeking out NGOs, who can offer a different image of the world throughout their authorization, their studies and research. With this sing and an consciousness of these possible troubles and obstructions within the interview procedure, a valid information aggregation can be better guaranteed. If one does so, the adept interview can be a really utile and powerful beginning to bring forth valid informations. After weighing up the assortment of pro and cons, the expert interview is an appropriate interview method for this research to supply an interpretive history of the construct a kid sex trafficking victim.

Alternate Method: Problem-centered Interview ( PCI )

Initially the

problem-centered interview ( Witzel 1982 ; 1985 ) was considered as an appropriate interview method for my research inquiry about building of a victim. The rules of the problem-centred interview are " to garner nonsubjective grounds on human behavior every bit good as on subjective perceptual experiences and ways of treating societal world '' ( Witzel 2000:1 ) . In this sense, the basic concern is the geographic expedition of subjective knowledge, attacks, motive for actions and state of affairs Al readings.

In contrast, the narrative interview ( Hopf 2004: 206 ) is considered in this context to be unequal because it produces a batch of stuff which leads to a immense information sum. Further, there should be no intercession in the procedure where the function of the interviewer is an attentive hearer. This would be inappropriate sing the specific research questionnaire in head and the given clip frame. The problem-centered interview to big extent draws upon Glasers and Strauss 's ( 1967 ) theory bring forthing method of the "Grounded Theory '' .

The primary ground for excepting this research method is the fact that it is a biographic focused interview where the life and personal experiences of the interviewee are built-in to the information generated. The adept cognition of a certain field or of a peculiar administration and expertness which mirrors the political orientation of that establishment is of more usage than the life of the expert and their personal motives and positions. However, the research involvement is to determine and construe why the construct of the victim is constructed as described by the administration experts and why it might differ from Western positions of

the kid as a victim of sex trafficking. Therefore cultural and societal buildings of worlds have to be included.

Datas analysis

The dependability of this survey will be maximised by transcribing all interviews conducted and constructing classs based on an initial reading of the transcripts. This procedure is described as 'coding ' ( e.g. Flick 2006: 295 and Seale 2004: 306ff ) which is based in based in grounded theory as discussed earlier. Seale identifies that the intent of coding qualitative informations is to cut down big sums of informations and to "develop and prove out theories '' ( 2004: 313 ) .

The chief challenging undertaking for the research worker is to filtrate out comparings and place similarities and differences in the interview stuff. For my research I will utilize unfastened coding which means the "procedure of interrupting down, analyzing, comparing, gestating and categorising informations '' ( Strauss and Corbin 1990: 61 ) . The coding scheme enables me to analyze the constructs of the victim of kid sex trafficking, group them into classs and later discourse them in deepness. The last measure of cryptography is a list of footings together with an explanatory text ( Bohm 2004: 271 ) .

Ethical motives in qualitative research

Multiple ethical considerations originate throughout the research procedure for this thesis. Get downing from the research design and the rightness of certain methods to roll uping informations and further on to the point of analyzing the gathered information. More late there has been a paradigm displacement from the ethical concerns in societal research concerned with the ways in which participants are affected by the research to a more post-structuralist attack which includes the

societal universe and the cognizable and nonsubjective truth is uncovered by research workers ( Ali and Kelly 2004: 116 ) .

A important influence in societal research moralss comes from feminist research workers who emphasise"  the function of power dealingss at all degrees of cognition production, from epistemology, through research relationships, to the airing of findings '' ( ibid. ) . Research sing child sex trafficking can be seen from the position of feminist research as it is a extremely gendered subject. It is hence important to see feminist research patterns and its related ethical elements. A primary purpose of feminist research is to contend and challenge the marginalised position of adult female, and in this peculiar instance vulnerable kid, by stand foring their demands, positions and perceptual experiences ( Gillies and Alldred 2005: 39 ) . There have been many contentions environing the function of the research worker in the production of cognition about adult females and stand foring 'the Other ' ( Wilkonson and Kitzinger 1996, in: Gillies and Alldred 2005: 39 ) .

The ethical concerns posed when transporting out research on trafficked kids as such a vulnerable group are profound. I hence consider it ethically indefensible to interview kids about their experience with sexual development within this short research period. Such an attack could potentially do farther hurt to an already vulnerable and exploited capable group. As such, I have hence decided against questioning victims of trafficking and will carry on interviews entirely with experts. Respect will be given to bing ethical safeguards and ordinances for societal research whilst besides admiting that an ethical pattern will frequently " comes down to the 'professional

' unity of the person research worker '' ( Ali and Kelly 2004: 118 ) .

Translator troubles

A farther challenge to potentially questioning victims would be the demand of a transcriber which can creates a battalion of jobs: The dynamic can make a tense and imbalanced ambiance for the victims to speak comfortably. There is a hazard that the transcriber may non interpret the verbatim accurately. Finally, reading of the linguistic communication specifics of the victim is important to the informations and hence non understanding Khmer creates a big obstruction when reexamining the interview interlingual renditions. This may be difficult to get the better of even with a transcriber. In consideration of this I decided to interview English speech production NGOs and authorities representatives. How generalisable will our consequences be to the sectors as a whole?


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