Human Resources Management (Lepak/Gowan) – Chapter 2

question

Strategy
answer

Plan for achieving a competitive advantage over its rivals
question

Cost leadership strategy
answer

Outperforming competing firms within an industry by maintaining the ability to offer the lowest costs for products or services; costs are the underlying focus; maximizes predictable employee outcomes (jobs functions)
question

Differentiation strategy
answer

Achieving competitive advantage over competing firms by providing something unique for which customers are willing to pay; jobs geared towards particular objective (creativity, customer service)
question

Company characteristics
answer

Size and stage of development; second organizational demand
question

Small businesses
answer

Generated between 60-80% of net new jobs over the past decade; hires 40% of tech workers; represents over 99% of all employers; roughly 50% of private-sector employees, more than 600k startup businesses are created each year
question

Stage of development
answer

Startup, emerging growth, maturity, decline/transition
question

Organizational culture
answer

Set of basic assumptions, values, and beliefs of a company’s members; informal or unwritten side of the organization; shaped by company founder, history, actions of managers, etc.
question

Organizational culture influences employee management
answer

1) Affects managerial decisions about specific practices to use with HR functions; 2) Influences effectiveness of different HR practices; 3) effectiveness of employee management practices
question

Psychological contract
answer

Perceived obligations that employees believe they owe their company and that their company owes them
question

Work/life balance
answer

Balance between the demands of work and the demands of employees’ personal lives
question

___% of mothers in US workforce have children under the age of ____
answer

60%; three
question

___million full-time employees had flexible work schedules in 2004
answer

27
question

Justice
answer

The expectations of employees about how they should be treated while at work
question

Distributive justice
answer

Fairness of what individuals receive from companies in return for their efforts
question

Procedural justice
answer

Perceptions of whether the processes that are used to make decisions, allocate rewards, or resolve disputes or that otherwise affect employees are viewed as fair
question

Procedural fairness criteria
answer

Consistency, bias suppression, accuracy, correctability, representativeness, ethicality
question

Consistency
answer

Managers should ensure that allocative procedures are consistent across people and over time
question

Bias suppression
answer

Managers need to prevent personal self-interest and blind allegiance to narrow preconceptions
question

Accuracy
answer

Decisions must be based on good information and informed opinion
question

Correctability
answer

Managers must be open to opportunities to modify or reverse decisions based on inaccurate information
question

Representativeness
answer

The allocation process must represent the concerns of all important subgroups and individuals
question

Ethicality
answer

The allocation process must be compatible with prevailing moral and ethical standards
question

Interactional justice
answer

How employees feel they are treated by their managers/supervisors in everyday interactions
question

Responses to perceived violations of psychological contracts
answer

Voice, silence, neglect, exit, destruction
question

Voice
answer

Actions an employee might take to correct a situation that he or she views as unfair
question

Silence
answer

A form of nonresponse and a willingness to live with the circumstances, even if they are viewed as unfair
question

Neglect
answer

Failure to completely fulfill one’s duties
question

Exit
answer

Departure from the company
question

Destruction
answer

Counterproductive behaviors that damage the company, such as vandalism, theft and aggression
question

Environmental influences
answer

Labor force trends, technology, globalization, ethical/social responsibility
question

Labor force trends
answer

Aging workforce, demographic diversity
question

Percentage of individuals in 55-and-older age group is expected to grow ____ times as fast as the rest of the workforce
answer

Five
question

Percentage of individuals in 65-and-older age group is expected to grow ____ times as fast as the total labor force
answer

Ten
question

Women in the labor force is expected to grow by ____% byetween the years 2006 and 2016
answer

9
question

Women are expected to make up ____% of the US labor force in 2016
answer

47
question

Telecommute
answer

Work away from the traditional office setting using technology
question

Global International strategies
answer

Domestic, international, multinational, global, transnational
question

Domestic strategy
answer

Focuses on serving the market within a particular country
question

International strategy
answer

Expand the markets in which they compete to include multiple countries
question

Multinational strategy
answer

When companies establish autonomous or independent business units in multiple countries
question

Global strategy
answer

A company strives to achieve global efficiency
question

Transnational strategy
answer

Strives to achieve the benefits of both a global strategy and a multinational strategy
question

Offshoring
answer

Practice of sending work that was once performed domestically to companies in other countries or opening facilities in other countries to do the work
question

Global factors
answer

Economic considerations, cultural differences
question

Maquiladoras
answer

US-owned manufacturing plants in Mexico
question

Individualism-Collectivism
answer

Degree to which people in a country prefer to act as individuals rather than as members of groups
question

Power distance
answer

Degree of inequality among people that population of a country considers normal
question

Uncertainty avoidance
answer

Degree to which people in a country prefer structured situations with clear rules about how one should behave over unstructured situations that are more ambiguous
question

Masculinity-femininity
answer

Degree to which a society stresses values that have traditionally been viewed as masculine (assertiveness, performance, success, and competition) over feminine values (quality of life, personal relationships, service, care for the weak, solidarity)
question

Eight stakeholder groups with regard to ethics
answer

Shareholders, community, governance, diversity, employees, environment, human rights, product
question

Top 5 pressure points for unethical behavior
answer

Following the boss’s directive, meeting overly aggressive business/financial objectives, helping the organization to survive, meeting scheduling pressures, wanting to be a team player
question

___% of US companies have written code of ethics
answer

79

Get instant access to
all materials

Become a Member