Human Nutrition Study Guide

Carbs
Known as Starches, Sugars and Fibers

Fats (Lipids)
Known as Triglycerides, Phospholipids and Sterols

Proteins
Made (synthesized) from basic building blocks called Amino Acids

Vitamins
Subdivided into two separate groups by solubility in water or fat so we have water-soluble and fat-soluble.

Minerals
Subdivided into two separate groups by the amount present in the body, Major or Trace.

Carbohydrate, Protein
__________ and __________ has 4 kcals for each gram

fat
_____ has 9 kcals per gram

Calorie
The amount of heat necessary to raise the temperature of one liter of water one degree Celsius. In this course, we talk alot about calories in food, a measurement of the heat energy in the food.

Essential
means the body cannot make them

Appetite
_________ is considered a psychological response to the environment

Phytochemicals
substances in plants that may possess health-protective effects, even though they are not essential for life

45 to 65
Carbohydrate __% to __% of total calories

25-35
Fat __-__% of total calories

10-35
Protein __-__% of total calories

RDA
a “spreadsheet” listing the known essential nutrients and the amount of each nutrient a person needed each day to remain healthy.

RDA
Standards for nutrient intake

Dietary Allowances
RDA=Recommended _________ _____________

Dietary Reference Intakes
DRI= ________ ________ __________

Foods, physical activity
Dietary Guidelines messgage is that you should balance ______ and _______ ___________.

nutrient density
__________ ___________ reflects the nutrient content of a food in relation to its energy (kcal) content.

Adequate Intake (AI)
________ _________ indicates that there isn’t enough data to estimate an EAR, thus it is defined as the quantity of intake consumed by groups with no evidence of inadequate nutrient intake.

AI, RDA
Nutrients with an ___ do not have an _____

Daily Value
recommended daily amount of a nutrient; used on food labels to help people see how a food fits into their diet

Daily Value
Represent standards derived from the 1968 RDA (Recommended Dietary Allowances) known as the RDIs (Reference Daily Intakes) and DRVs (Daily Reference Values). , recommended daily amount of a nutrient; used on food labels to help people see how a food fits into their diet

anthropometric, biochemical, clinical, dietary, and ecomonic
ABCDEs of nutrition:

Endocrine System
participates in the regulation of metabolism, reproduction, water balance, and many other functions.

portal vein
As blood passes through the digestive tract, it picks up water-soluble nutrients for delivery to the liver through the __________ __________.

Lymphatic
____________ nutrients have to take a couple laps around the body in order to get to the liver.

fat-soluble
_____-___________ nutrients are lacteal or lymphatic nutrients

Small intestine
Where does most digestion take place?

pancreas and small intestine
What two places are most digestive enzymes produced?

sphincter
a ring of muscle that contracts to close an opening

lower esophageal
The ______ __________ sphincter separates the esophagus from the stomach

pyloric
The _______ sphincter separates the stomach from small intestine

Ileocecal
The _________sphincter separates the small intestine from the large intestine

Mucus
______coats the digestive tract from mouth to anus, so all the chemicals associated with digestion are separated from the cells that make up the tract.

Mucus
_____ protects the large intestine from bacterial activity and holds fecal matter together

liver
Where is bile produced?

gallbladder
Where is bile stored?

Peristalsis
involuntary waves of muscle contraction that keep food moving along in one direction through the digestive system

enzyme
A protein catalyst that speeds up the rate of a chemical reaction. It is not altered by the reaction

Chyme
Partially digested, semiliquid food mixed with digestive enzymes and acids in the stomach.

Villi
Projection of the small intestinal wall that extends into the lumen. Participates in digestion of foods and absorption of nutrients.

villi
The ______ are one cell thick and absorb the nutrients to deliver them to the blood or lymph

GERD
The stomach acid flows up the esophagus causing a burning sensation called heartburn or _________

GERD
Whe this disease goes untreated it may initiate esophageal cancer

Enzyme
any of several complex proteins that are produced by cells and act as catalysts in specific biochemical reactions

Large intestine
What rolls and mixes the contents of the colon, and divides it into smaller particles in preparation for elimination from the body.

large intestine
The ______ __________ absorbs water and some minerals from chyme. It collects any material that won’t be absorbed and “packages” it for disposal.

large intestine
The bacteria in the _____ ________have large amounts of foodstuffs to metabolize which produces gas.

Dietary fibers
_______ _______are polysaccharides and that we cannot digest them

Starch
_______ protects the body from having to use body or dietary protein as a replacement for the blood sugar, glucose

starch
Extra glucose is converted to ______, the plant’s storage form of energy

275-300
On a 2000 kcal diet, 55-60% is ___-___ grams of carbohydrate per day.

simple carbohydrate
A _______ _________ can be absorbed into the body without any change in its chemical structure

Amylase
enzyme in saliva that breaks the chemical bonds in starches

starch
undigested _____ provides energy to the cells that make up the large intestine.

lactase
Lactose intolerance is cause by a deficiency of what?

Diarrhea, gas, cramps
3 symptoms of lactose intolerance.

glucose
What is the bodies primary energy source?

Hyperglycemia
Insulin in the hormone that treats what disease?

Hypoglycemia
Glucagon corrects what disease?

Epinephrine
What causes an immediate increase in blood glucose?

glycogen
__________ is the storage form of carbohydrate in humans and other animals.

glycogen
__________ in muscle and liver tissue provides a constant supply of glucose, so that we can go without eating between meals, and most of overnight.

muscles and liver
Where is glycogen stored?

38, 25
For fiber intake, it is recommended that men have about _____ grams, while women have about ____ grams

glucose
once dietary carbohydrates are in the liver they are all changed to ________.

blood
the liver releases the glucose into the______for delivery to all tissues needing glucose.

fat, glycogen
Excess glucose won’t be wasted because the liver will change it into ______, and hold it in liver tissue until it is needed. If, the ******** stores are full and the body doesn’t need energy from glucose, the extra glucose will be converted to____.

mouth
Digestion begins in the _______

abdominal, Triglycerides, HDL, Blood pressure, glucose
•_________ obesity (a waistline over 35 inches in women and 40 inches in men)
•__________ of 150 of higher
•Low ______ (lower than 40 in men and lower than 50 in women)
•_______ __________of 130/85 mm Hg or higher
•Fasting ______of 110 mg/dL or higher

glycerol, 3
A triglyceride is formed when one molecule of _________ (a common alcohol) combines with __ fatty acids

Triglycerides
__________ are the major form of fat in foods and the way the human body stores fat in adipocytes or fat cells.

saturated
A fatty acid is __________ if it has no double bonds on the carbon chain

unsaturated
One or more double bonds make the fatty acid __________

unsaturated
Being ___________ is nothing more than a carbon to carbon chemical bond missing 2 hydrogens.

saturated
A____________chemical bond has two adjacent carbons, each carrying a full load of hydrogens

saturated
In order to reduce LDL levels, it has been recommended that the amount of _________ fat in the diet be held at or below 10% of total calories.

monounsaturated, polyunsaturated
Studies show that ___________ fats are better than __________ fats at decreasing LDL.

hydrogenation
the process of converting unsaturated fats to saturated fats by adding hydrogen

pancreatic lipase
__________ __________ can attack the emulsified fat particles and change them into monoglycerides and free fatty acids so they can be absorbed through the intestinal wall.

lipase
juice with lipid-digesting enzymes

HDL
______ is good cholesterol

Chlyomicron
Lipoprotein made of triglycerides and cholesterol surrounded by a shell of phospholipids and proteins. They are made in the intestinal wall from absorbed dietary lipids, and travel through the lymphatic system to the blood by way of the right side of the heart.

Chlyomicron
Transports lipids from the intestinal cells to the body

Alpha-Linolenic , Linoleic
The 2 essential fatty aacis

prostaglandins
Essential fatty acis are impornat for vision, immunity and _________

Dietary
________ sources of cholesterol are foods of animal origin.

oil liquids
Unsaturated fatty acids that make almost all ________at room temperature can be saturated with the addition of hydrogen

solid fat
By adding hydrogen to the carbon-to-carbon double bonds, it is possible to create single bonds, thus producing a ______ _____ at room temperature.

lymph vessels
chylomicrons pass from the intestinal cell into the _______ _________ (lacteals), not the blood.

portal vein
shorter chain fats do not have to rely on the chylomicron to carry them into the body, but they can go directly into the _____ _______ just like the monosacchardies did

liver
Normally, LDL particles are taken up by cells in need of cholesterol or cleared by the ______

vitamin D
Exposure to ultraviolet radiation (sunshine) 15 minutes per day, several times a week will allow us to make all the __________ ___ we need

alcohol
_______ has 7 kcal per gram

carbs
`We need ___________ in our diets primarily to help satisfy the calorie needs of our body cells.

Protein
_________ is the main structural material in the body.

Triglycerides
_________ are the main forms of energy storage for the body.

kilocalorie
a unit of heat equal to the amount of heat required to raise the temperature of one kilogram of water by one degree at one atmosphere pressure

45 to 65
The AMDR for carbohydrates is __ to __ percent of total calories.

satiety
A state in which there is no longer a desire to eat

daily value
Based on a 2000 kcal diet

Protein
What macronutrient has an RDA?

DRIs
RDAs, EARs, AIs, EERs, and ULs are all considered to be what?

health claim
A ________ _________ makes a direct reference to a nutrient and a reduction in risk of a particular disease. There is scientific justification behind these claims and the FDA has given approval for their use on particular foods.

Structure Function Claim
can claim product affects body function (e.g.- maintains lean body mass) NOT FDA approved or necessarily valid

epidemiology
The study of how disease rates vary among different population groups

urea
Nitrogenous waste product of protein metabolism; major source of nitrogen in the urine

esophageal sphincter
a muscle that constricts after food enters the stomach

bile
essential for the digestion and abosorption of fat.

small intestine
Most of the digestion and absorption of food occurs where?

passive diffusion
The movement of molecules from areas of HIGH concentration to areas of LOW concentration. (NO ENERGY USED) Fats, water and some monerals are abosorbed this way

Active absorption
In addition to the need for a carrier protein, some nutrients also require energy input to move from lumen of the small intestine into the aborptive cells. This makes it possible fro cells to take up nutrients even when they are consumed in low concetrations. Some sugrs, such as glucose, are actively absorbed, as are amino acids

chyme
a semiliquid mass of partially digested food that passes from the stomach through the pyloric sphincter into the duodenum

glucose, frustose and glactose
3 most common monosaccharides are:

fructose
sucrose= glucose + ________

galactose
Lactose= glucose + ________

glucose
Maltose= glucose+ ________

glucose
What is the main carb in our bodies?

simple
surgars are considered _______ carbs

complex
fibers and starches are considered ________ carbs

soluble
________ fibers (pectin, gums, mucilages) are found in the skins and flesh of many fruits

insoluble
_________ fibers include cellulose, hemicellulose

soluble
When it comes to your heart health, it appears that only _________ fiber is beneficial in lowering your cholesterol.

insulin
A hormone produced by the pancreas. It increases the synthesis of glycogen in the liver and the movement of glucose from the bloodstream

alcohol
Triglyceride is composed of 3 fatty acids bonded to glycerol, a(n) ________

hydrogenation
_______________ is used to convert liquid oils into more solid fats, used to make margarine and shortening. Tans fatty acids are a product of this

solid
long chain saturated fats are _____ at room temp

soft or liquid
Medium or short chain saturated fats are _____ at room temp

chylomicron
carries dietary fat from the small intestine to cells

VLDL
Carries lipids make and taken up by the liver

LDL
Carries cholesterol made by the liver and from other sources to cells

HDL
Contributes to cholesterol removal from cells and, in turn, excretion of it from from the body

300
You should keep your cholesterol to under _____mg