Human Growth Chapter 6

According to Erikson’s theory, a mistrustful baby_______________.
protects herself by withdrawing from people and things around her.
Some basic emotions are happiness, fear, sadness, and__________.
Newborn babies respond with generalized distress___________.
to changes in body temperature
Expressions of______are less frequent than_______.
sadness; anger
Infants use________by actively seeking emotional information from a trusted person in an uncertain situation.
social referencing
Humans are capable of a higher- order set of feelings beyond basic emotion called________.
Self-conscious emotions typically appear____________.
between 18 to 24 months
Besides self-awareness,self-conscious emotions require________.
adult instruction in when to feel proud, ashamed, or guilty.
Emotional self-regulation refers to__________.
the strategies children use to adjust their emotional state to a comfortable level of intensity.
_________is early- appearing, stable individual difference in reactivity and self-regulation.
Reactivity refers to the_____________.
quickness and intensity of emotional arousal, attention, and motor activity.
Thomas and Chess’s New York Longitudinal Study demonstrated that_____________.
temperament can protect a child from the negative effects of a highly stressful home life.
In Thomas and Chess’s New York Longitudinal Study, _____percent of the children did not fit any category and showed unique blends and temperamental characteristics.
Most children classified by Thomas and Chess fell into the_________category.
Temperament is assessed through___________.
parental reports and observations
On average,______________of individual differences in temperament and personality have been attributed to differences in genetic makeup.
Persistent nutritional and emotional deprivation_________temperament.
profoundly alters
__________involves creating child-rearing environments that recognize each child’s temperament while encouraging more adaptive functioning.
Goodness of fit
The________theory of attachment recognizes the infant’s emotional tie to the caregiver as an evolved response that promotes survival.
In all societies studied, the most common attachment pattern is the_________pattern.