Human Bonding Prelim 2

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What are the situational factors that affect how people perceive the attractiveness of others?
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Physiological arousal, mood, comparison standards, perceived scarcity, color red or pink, alcohol consumption, bodily scent, vocal pitch, menstrual cycle phase
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How does mood affect perceived attractiveness?
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If you’re in a good mood the person is more attractive
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How does physiological arousal affect perceived attractiveness?
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If you are physiologically aroused (fear or exercise) you find people more attractive. Duration is only as long as the physiological arousal.
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How does bodily scent affect perceived attractiveness?
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Men find women’s body odor are more attractive in follicular phase of menstrual cycle. In their fertile phase women prefer the body scent of men with high symmetry. Women also prefer men who’s MHC is different from their own, unless they are pregnant or on contraceptives.
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How does perceived scarcity affect perceived attractiveness?
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You will find people more attractive when potential mates are scarce (bar at closing time)
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How does menstrual cycle phase affect perceived attractiveness?
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Men find women in their follicular phase more attractive, and women find men more attractive in general when they are in that follicular phase.
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How does the color red or pink affect perceived attractiveness?
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Wearing the color red makes you look more attractive, and raises testosterone. Women more likely to wear red or pink at peak fertility
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How does alcohol consumption affect perceived attractiveness?
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Drinking alcohol makes you find others more attractive
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How do comparison standards affect perceived attractiveness?
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You will find people more attractive if the people around are unattractive (Charlie’s angels)
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How does vocal pitch affect perceived attractiveness?
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Men find women with higher voices more attractive, and women find men with lower pitched voices more attractive. Voice reflects underlying hormonal profile.
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How do personality and social status affect interpersonal attraction?
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Personality: people are more attractive when they are in a positive mood. When people show positive emotion we subconsciously think they like us. People are more attractive when they are warm, funny, and pose with a dog or baby. Social status: material resources, power (physical, mental, social), intelligence, large social network, competence and confidence, always locally defined!
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What are the top four international mate preferences?
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1. kind, understanding 2. intelligence 3. positive personality 4. health
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What are the main differences in the international mate preferences?
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Physically attractive: 5 for men, 7 for women Good earning: 12 for men, 9 for women
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How does reciprocal liking affect interpersonal attraction? What about playing hard to get?
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We are attracted to people who are attracted to us. We are most attracted to discriminating people who are hard to get for everyone except you. We like people that we have to work for, because it is rewarding.
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What is the process model of mate selection, and what are its main and sub factors?
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Process model is a system of criteria that narrows the large pool of potential mates down to one. Main factors are A. Who is around? 1. propinquity 2. similarity 3. familiarity B. Who is appealing? 1. personality 2. status 3. appearence 4. situational affects C. Who is interested? 1. repicrocal liking D. Who is the one? 1. infatuation
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What are the symptoms of romantic infatuation, its average duration and time course, its underlying neurochemistry, and its theorized function?
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1. Symptoms a. acute onset b. physological arousal c. mental preoccupation d. mood dependence e. idealization f. single target 2. Average duration Infatuation reaches peak immediately. By the end of the first year it has reduced by half. Reaches lowest point 2 years into the relationship +/- 6 months. If couple remains together the infatuation will level off, with fluctuations. 3. Underlying neurochemistry Dopamine is released before and during sex, has an appetitive / approach system, and acts on cocaine receptors. Opiates are released during and after sex, has a consummatory reward system, and acts on heroin receptors. 4. Theorized function Promotes pair bonding. Facilitates the development of an enduring bond by creating conditions and interactions that are conducive to bond function. Pair bonding increases likelihood and survival of offspring.
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How do the symptoms of infatuation resemble symptoms of cocaine use, and how do the symptoms of attachment resemble symptoms of heroin use?
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Infatuation causes physiological arousal, mental preoccupation, mood dependency, makes you feel excited and motivated. Cocaine causes high levels of energy and activity, elevated mood, increased HR and BP, paranoia and anxiety, increased sex drive, and dialated pupils. Very similar because both act on dopamine receptors. Attachment causes separation distress, proximity seeking, distress alleviation, feeling calm and peaceful. Heroin causes euphoria, sedation, pleasurable gratification, loss of motivation, constricted pupils, compulsion to take drug, and extreme withdrawral including anxiety, agitation, insomnia, and mood swings. Similar because both act on opioid receptors
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During what phases of a sexual interaction are dopamine and opiates released and what are their effects on motivation and gratification?
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Dopamine- appetitive or approach system. Associated with wanting, desire, and sexual motivation. Released before and during sex. Dopamine suffers from habituation and fallls over time. Opiates- consummatory reward system. Rush when you receive the reward, during and after sex. Contributes to the feeling of liking versus wanting. Responsible for feeling of sexual satiation. Determines the reward magnitude in incentive motivation, giving feedback to the dopamine system. If you have the same levels of both, this is the moment when attachment can occur. Sexual rewards over time- during infatuation dopamine peaks and then falls, gets lower than opiate reward during attachment phase.
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How are the magnitudes of dopamine reward and opiate reward affected by oxytocin? And how does this impact the formation / maintenance of pair bonds?
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In a system without oxytocin both dopamine and opiates habituate, dopamine peaks and then decreases while opiates steadily decrease. With oxytocin dopamine will still habituate but opiates will stay constant. Oxytocin also sensitizes reaction to dopamine, giving a greater magnitude of reward. Oxytocin is the cuddle hormone, responsible for pair bonding along with dopamine. released in childbirth, nursing, maternal are, sexual activity, orgasm, and touch. Oxytocin increases trust in humans, and affects memory encoding, meaning you encode more positive than negative memories. May contribute to idealization part of infatuation.
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What are the theoretical models of mate choice, and what are the variables that predict who individuals will find appealing? What is the evolutionary logic behind it?
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1. Sexual strategies theory If sex differences in “parental investment,” then sex differences in mating strategies & preferences. Women produce one egg per month, and men produce 500mil sperm a day. Women want fewer mates with better resources, men want more partners based on fertility. But is short term mating an effective strategy? In hunter gatherer societies women are either pregnant or lactating most of the time. Also, in a stable partnership, women ovulate for more years, decrease in infant mortality, and offspring are more likely to attract and retain mates. Therefore, short term mating would not be effective. Critics think that the women value men with status and resources is not an evolutionary necessity, but a social construct. Example: cougars and boy toys 2. “Likes attract” hypothesis Individuals who strongly possess a particular trait will make strong demands for the same trait in a partner. SST would predict that M and F would look for complementary traits, but data shows they actually look for similar traits. Makes sense because pair will stay together long enough to raise offspring. 3. Adventitious model Partners of identical twins were studied. They weren’t similar and were not more likely to find the twin attractive, and vice versa. Shows that human mating is relatively adventitious! i.e. based on available options/ propinquity AND this makes evolutionary sense because it accounts for propinquity.
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People are not very good at predicting who thye will be attracted to or what will make them satisfied with their partners and relationships. What is the evidence for this?
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Speed dating- people made lists of characteristics they were looking for, but they failed to predict attractions. Also, people who said that attractiveness doesnt matter still showed effects on satisfaction based on attraction.
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Love describes three different constellations of feelings. What are these three and how do they relate to social behavioral systems? What is the time course of pair bonding in terms of the three types of love and related behavioral systems?
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1. Feeling cared for, protected and secure This type of love works with the attachment behavioral system. Solves the adaptive challenge of surviving to reproductive age. Develops around 2 year mark 2. Feeling passionate about and excited by a person This type of love works with the sexual mating system. Solves the adaptive challenge of mating. Diminised by 2 year mark. 3. Feeling care for, responsible, protective Works with parental / caregiving system. Solves adaptive challenge of nurturing / raising offspring. develops around 2 year mark All three types work simultaneously in pair bond relationships, but they develop on different trajectories.
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Why does love take these three basic forms?
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Basic forms- Passionate (sexual mating) Caring (parental caregiving) and Cared For (attachment) attachment, parental-caregiving systems, and sexual mating systems all involve the same neural, chemical, and anatomical parts. The neurochemistry of these three systems is continuous with each other. The type of love you may have for someone can change over time too, for example a parent may care for you and then later in life you will care for them
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What is the essence of intimacy? What factors both foster and reveal interpersonal intimacy?
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The essence of intimicay is vulnerability, letting your guard down and letting someone get dangerously close 1. verbal disclosure implicit rules about self disclosure, we tend to match other people’s level of disclosure 2. reciprocal if someone shares information we will match it at the same level (airport study with clipboard) 3. gradual over the course of a relationship we share more and more info. the more you share the more likely you are to be rejected or hurt. violations will interrupt the process, and the person will generally respond with something less personal, then we back off d. kinesics defended or undefended posture (crossing arms, or covering genitals) looking at someone, making eye contact, looking away, looking back to check, smiling, freezing, and then fixing hair clothing ect e. proxemics use of physical space (8 inches or closer is your personal space), where you tend to put things so nobody comes near (men to the side, women to the front). eye contact physical touch- some are more intimate than others (front v back, stroke v pat, limbs v torso) f. paralinguistics how you speak pitch, intonation, contours, whispers tone matters more than content g. setting private v public alone v group unspecified ending eating and sleeping seeing someone in pajamas, dim lighting
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Diamond- what are differences between romantic love and sexual desire, their evolutionary origins, and their implications for gender research and sexual orientation
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Sexual desire evolved for mating. Romantic love originally evolved in the context of infant-caregiver attachment. Sexual predisposition for one or both sexes doesn’t affect our system of romantic love. Role of oxytocin may explain why women report greater interconnections between love and desire than men. You can feel one without the other, example being children being romantically infatuated before sexual maturation. System for love originally developed as the attachment system to keep infants close to their mother. Then this system was co-opted for the purpose of keeping reproductive partners together. Why do people fall in love with people they find desireable? either cultural norms or proximity means they have a better chance of falling in love Women tend to place greater emphasis on relationships as a context for sexual feelings and behaviors than men. Oxytocin- women have more, and more is released during sex. Women can develop same sex desires as a result of falling in love with female friends. Women’s affectationally triggered desires can override their general sexual orientation.
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Difference between companionate and passionate love?
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Passionate love- temporary state of heightened interest in a specific individual, with feelings of excitement, euphoria, intense desires for proximity and physical contact, resistence to separation Companionate love- desire for proximity and resistance to separation become less urgent, and feelings of security, care, and comfort predominate
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Reis & Aron- brief history of love research, what love is, why it matters, how it operates.
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History 1. plato- symposium 2. darwin- reproductive success is central process underlying evolution of species 3. freud- psychological aspects of love, like childhood experiences 4. margaret mead- anthropology, variations of love and sexuality 5. Kurt Lewin- championed studying social processes in laboratory settings 6. Women’s movement- helped study of love gain attention 7. Harlow and Bowlby- set the stage for biologically based studies of emotion 8. l’affaire proxime- gov trying to block love research What love is passionate love- state of intense longing for union with another companionate love- affection we feel for those with whom our lives are deeply intertwined why love matters solves adaptational problems passionate love solves attraction problem- helps people select long term mates. helps people overcome necessary changes in your life that occur when you need to form a new relationship. companionate love- solves committment problem. keeps partners together to raise offspring, ward off sexual rivals, and maintain standing within social groups how love operates passionate love- difficulties concentrating, intense desire for closeness and contact, idealized perception of loved person companionate love- linked with intimacy and bonding, and trust.
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Savin Williams- know what it means that the correlates of homosexuality depend on how it is measured and defined
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Three components of sexual orientation: Sexual / romantic attraction Sexual behavior Sexual identity Correlates of homosexuality include transmission of STDs and HIV, suicide and mental problems, gender atypical behavior. How you define homosexuality has implications for what your research will find. For example, the biological basis of homosexuality, or excluding people from suicide statistics because they have had homosexual behavior but don’t identify as homosexual.
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Bosson- methods and results of her three studies
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Interpersonal chemistry through negativity- bonding by sharing negative attitudes Negative information sticks out more than positive information. Sharing negative attitudes can be seen as more genuine because its clear you are not just being polite. Negative opinions of others can boost self esteem an facilitate social identities by delineating the boundaries between in groups and out groups Study 1- listed positive and negative attitudes they shared with current best friend at beginning of relationship. general mix was sharing negative attitudes about other people and positive attitudes about inaminate objects, activities, and ideas. Study 2- listed positive and negative attitudes they currently shared with three current closest friends. Same finding as study 1. Study 3- listen to a recording of an interaction. pick positive and negative attributes of brad. then told they share that attitude with another listener. learning of a shared negative attitude about a third party promoted closesness whether the attitude was strong or weak, but only promoted closeness for positive attitudes when they were strongly held. doesn’t matter how common the attitude was
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Gunaydin- methods and major findings
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Objective facial resemblence to significant others influences snap judgements perceived facial resemblence can lead to facially triggered transference, finding the person more positively and inferring that thye are trustworthy. What about objective facial resemblence? showing people morphed photos of SO’s and strangers. It only worked for women, and relationship quality was related to more positive snap judgements. women are more sensitive to subjle facial and relational cues, and process visual information more thoroughly. Facially triggered transference can influence person perception spontaneously and automatically.

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