HUM 111: Traditional Roman Religion, Medieval Europe, Sparta’s Form of Government – Flashcards

question
Although early writing was produced using pointed sticks, Sumerian scribes c. 3100 B.C.E. advanced writing with durable reeds that:
answer
produced wedgelike script called cuneiform.
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The Egyptian system of hieroglyphics was:
answer
deciphered by Champollion using the Rosetta Stone.
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Slavery in Sumerian society was
answer
usually the result of capture during war.
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The Egyptians developed elaborate tombs and burial techniques:
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to provide the dead with all they would need in the afterlife.
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The vast majority of Egyptians who built the pyramids were slaves.
answer
False
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Social relationships in the ancient city of Çatalhöyük were largely
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egalitarian
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One of the contributors to the Neolithic revolution was:
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climate change
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Egyptian society
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consisted of a tiny minority of royalty and nobility and a majority class of the poor, including peasants and artisans.
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Which of the following was an important element in the development of early settlements?
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the establishment of first local and then long-distance trade routes throughout the Near East
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The important administrator of the pharaoh Djoser who initiated pyramid building in the "step" style was
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Imhotep
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An individual who successfully led the city-state's army in battles was:
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able to acquire prestige and power as a lugal
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The penalties in Hammurabi's Law Code
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were different depending on the class of an individual.
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The Akkadian rulers of Sargon and Naram-Sin
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ruled from cities and kept their empires through conquest and commerce.
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While ancient Sumerians shared a common religion, warfare was frequent because
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residents of each city believed themselves to be the servants of different gods.
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Jericho, one of the world's oldest villages, began an impressive building program of structures to protect their grain surplus around:
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6800 B.C.E.
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The common religion of the Sumerians
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included many gods, with a different god worshiped in each city-state.
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One distinct belief that later Western religions took from Zoroastrianism is the idea
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of a Day of Judgment
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The accomplishments of King Darius of Persia included
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building roads for transport and postal service.
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Twelfth-century popes, like their secular counterparts, sought to establish their authority by building and expanding bureaucratic structures to increase papal visibility and to show it in the daily lives of all Christians.
answer
true
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The seven liberal arts that the universities of Europe established as their curriculum consisted of the
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trivium and quadrivium.
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The political power of some queens of the High Middle Ages in Europe is reflected in the
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power of the queen in the game of chess.
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The Waldensians were declared heretics because they did not believe in transubstantiation.
answer
true
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The term universitas originally meant
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corporation
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Peter Abelard was a controversial and popular teacher who made the University of Bologna a center of theology.
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false
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The rapid growth of monastic houses, such as the Cistercians, in the twelfth century meant that more men and women were becoming professional religious and that
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a religiously engaged laity was supporting the Church through the donation of money and lands.
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The Babylonian Captivity of the Hebrews affected Judaism by:
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enabling the Hebrews to sustain an identity outside of a Hebrew kingdom
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By the end of Solomon's rule, the cult of Yahweh had expelled all worship of foreign deities and acted as a glue to hold the Hebrew Kingdom together after the Davidic dynasty ended.
answer
false
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Thutmose I was remarkable for
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ruling over Egypt, Palestine, and the lands from Nubia in the south to the Euphrates River in the north.
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The system of writing developed by the citizens of Ugarit
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used an alphabet of about thirty symbols for the consonants
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By the fourteenth century B.C.E., international relations were marked by:
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diplomatic standards, polite forms of address, gifts, and alliances
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"Indo-European," as used in historical or anthropological texts, refers to
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linguistic and cultural patterns found in India, the Near East, Europe, and perhaps the Far East.
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When the Hyksos conquered Lower Egypt in the Egypt's Second Intermediate Period, they
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adopted the machinery of pharaonic government.
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The division of the ancient kingdom of Israel was
answer
provoked by Solomon's oppressive regime
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The Heroic Age of Greece described by Hesiod and other ancient poets was long thought to
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be legends or fables with little basis in historical reality.
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Unlike other rulers, Cyrus of Persia (559-529 B.C.E.)
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granted self-rule and religious freedom to conquered peoples.
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The center of Mycenaean society was the village, which gave a sense of family and responsibility to the people and encouraged loyalty to the king, who was depicted as a father to his people.
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false
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Due to a period of captivity in Babylon, ancient Hebrews
answer
developed a religion that transcended local politics and geography.
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Thutmose I was the pharaoh who expelled the Hyksos and restored Egyptian confidence and reunification.
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false
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The origins of Greek democracy can be identified, in part, in the rule of the Athenian aristocrat
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Solon
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Which sentence best describes the structure of the Spartan government circa 600 B.C.E.?
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Sparta was ruled by a citizen assembly, a council of elders, and two kings.
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The growth of Athenian democracy, with its emphasis on equality between citizens, led to
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greater inequality between men and women.
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Why was the Peloponnesian War deadlocked for an extended period of time?
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Athens could not defeat Sparta on land, and Sparta could not defeat Athens at sea.
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Greek symposiums excluded all women.
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false
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The Athenian strategos Pericles expanded democracy in Athens by
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giving every Athenian citizen the right to propose legislation.
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The Delian League became a policy tool of which Greek polis?
answer
athens
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Aristocrats of Archaic Athens believed commerce to be a disreputable career.
answer
true
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The Sophist claim that "man is the measure of all things" means that
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goodness, truth, and justice are not absolutes, but vary according to the needs and interests of human beings.
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Hoplites were organized into formations called a:
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Phalanx
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Homosocial relationships between men of the aristocratic class in Ancient Greece were part of
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A mentoring process for young men.
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After Hoplites were introduced in Greece:
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aristocrats lost their monopoly on military prowess.
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Ionians transmitted the Lydian invention of _________ to the Greek world.
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coinage
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Because of their successful colonial and trading activities, the Miletus:
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became extraordinarily wealthy
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Greeks made contact with the _____ in the ninth century B.C.E.
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Phoenicians
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The social center and organizational hub of the Greek polis was:
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the agora
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The most important cultural center in the Hellenistic world was:
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Alexandria
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Alexander's successors in Egypt ruled their Macedonian subjects in the same way they ruled their Egyptian subjects, as pharaoh.
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false
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Aristotle argued that the universe could only be understood by exploring the natural world in which people lived.
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True
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Alexander sought to fuse his Greco-Macedonian Empire with Persia by:
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arranging for hundreds of his officers to marry Persian noblewomen.
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The complex, busy, and cosmopolitan life of the Hellenistic world led to the popularization of
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pastoral verse
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After the Corinthian War (395-387 B.C.E.), Sparta:
answer
was defeated by Thebes, under the leadership of Epaminondas.
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In the Republic, Plato argues for a return to the democratic state.
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false
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Philip II secured the support of many neighboring kingdoms through
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marriages
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The ultimate aim of the military and political policies of Philip II was to
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invade Persia.
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In the fourth century B.C.E., the Greeks of the poleis considered Macedonians to be
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barbarians.
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With the expansion of population in the Hellenistic world and the creation of larger cities:
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the average Greek male was less connected to his community and had little or no stake in society.
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The Theban Sacred Band was
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an elite military unit composed entirely of male couples.
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All of the male rulers of Macedonian Egypt took the name
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Ptolemy
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Macedonian military reforms under Philip II most closely resemble earlier reforms undertaken by:
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Thebes
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Whereas Plato conceived of politics as a means toward living the good life, Aristotle regarded politics as
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an end within itself
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The _________ War represented the beginning of the end of the political dominance exercised by the Greek poleis.
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Corinthian
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Although some emperors who followed Augustus in the Julio-Claudian dynasty were able individuals, many were not; arguably the worst of these was
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Caligula
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Prior to the establishment of Rome as the dominant state in Italy
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Etruscans, skilled metalworkers and artists, lived there
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After a plebeian rebellion in the early fifth century B.C.E.
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the patricians accepted the elected tribunes and written laws
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According to legend, Rome was first ruled by a(n)
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monarchy
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Roman historians of the Principate regularly wrote glowing reports of the competent governance of the emperors.
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false
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Once the Romans had effectively gained control of Italy (265 B.C.E.), they
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started a series of wars for control of the western Mediterranean.
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Rome played a crucial role in the development of European civilization because
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Rome connected Europe to the cultural heritage of the Near East.
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The Romans were the first people to use _________ on a massive scale in their buildings.
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concrete
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Among the titles Augustus had been awarded were all the following EXCEPT
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dictator supremus
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Pax Romana refers to
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long period in which there were no major wars within the Roman Empire.
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Roman law consisted of three branches: civil law, natural law, and:
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The Law of Nations
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Central to Roman identity was a conservatism expressed in an unwritten code of:
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mos maiorum
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The Latin Right of the early Romans guaranteed that
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contracts, marriages, and citizenship were valid across Latium.
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The war between Pompey and Caesar was a direct result of Pompey's election as sole consul in 52 B.C.E.
answer
True
question
The geographic site of Rome has many advantages, including
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hills that increase the defensibility of the city.
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Traditional Roman religion included ancestor worship and:
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oligarchs who played dual roles as priests and politicians.
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Historians now refer to the period from 284 to 610 C.E. as Late Antiquity because:
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it is a period with its own themes and developments, neither wholly Roman and not yet medieval.
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Romans regarded the Germans as barbarians because:
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German society was illiterate, and Germans did not live in cities
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Most of what we know about Jesus was written down:
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Between 70 and 100 CE
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In Late Antiquity, the pope enjoyed acknowledgment and support for his primacy from the other western bishops.
answer
False
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As seen in the life of Perpetua, Christianity challenged the traditional Roman values of
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obedience to the Roman gods and one's ancestors.
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What point was in dispute between the Arians and Christian orthodoxy?
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whether Jesus was of the same being and substance as God the Father
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The monastic way of life in the West was influenced greatly by establishing a set of rules written by
answer
Benedict
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Byzantium was of little strategic import when Constantine moved his capital there in 324 C.E.
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False
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Boethius's interest in logic while remaining thoroughly Christian:
answer
established a link between classical Greek thought and intellectual Christianity.
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According to historical interpretations, Jesus was crucified because he
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was convicted of sedition by a Roman governor.
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According to the discipline of history, faiths
answer
are the products of historical processes.
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When the emperor died in 192 with no heir apparent, civil war once again engulfed the Roman Empire with _________ eventually claiming the throne.
answer
Septimius Severus
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One reason for including classical texts in the education of Christians by the fourth century was
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the desire of Christian intellectuals to be regarded as philosophers and to make classical learning applicable to a Christian way of life
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Unlike the common practices of many previous civilizations:
answer
early Christian monks practiced extreme forms of self-abasement.
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Which statement best describes the position of the Sadducees in Palestine during the first century C.E.?
answer
The Sadducees closely allied themselves with the Roman rulers of Judea.
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Roman borders were
answer
porous and thus more symbolic than actual.
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Constantinople remained the political and economic center of the Roman Empire until 476, when it fell to the Goths.
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False
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Charlemagne regularly chose the bishops in his empire.
answer
True
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Justinian's longest lasting reform was the
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organization and codification of Roman law
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The Shiite claim to legitimacy rests on the direct connection to Muhammad through his daughter
answer
Fatimah
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Why did the Romans of Italy and North Africa resent Justinian's efforts to liberate them?
answer
there was a heavy cost in taxes and lives
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During the expansion of the Islamic caliphate, Muslim rule was often preferred to Persian or Byzantine because
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the caliphate extracted fewer taxes from conquered populations than these empires.
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As a Christian king responsible for ruling a Christian society, Charlemagne
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took responsibility for reforming the religious life of his kingdom just as he reformed its government.
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The early Byzantine religion was known for its
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intense interest in matters of doctrine and orthodoxy.
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The word Islam means:
answer
submission
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Charlemagne and Harun al-Rashid formed an alliance partially because of their shared enemy, the
answer
Umayyad
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By the late sixth century C.E., the economy of Arabia was
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commercially sophisticated and was intersected by many trade routes
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It is difficult to date the beginning of Byzantine history with precision because:
answer
the Byzantine Empire was the uninterrupted successor of the Roman Empire.
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One result of the campaigns of Belisarius in North Africa and Italy was:
answer
the weakening of Constantinople against the Sassanids.
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The overall unity of the Muslim world disintegrated during the tenth and eleventh centuries because of
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increasing intolerance of regional and ethnic differences of practice and belief within Islam.
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Scandinavian traders turned to raiding because
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instability in the Abbasid empire had made travel on their traditional trade routes difficult.
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The Vikings are generally regarded as being a destructive force in European history
answer
but such a view may not be correct in light of the principalities they established across northern Europe
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The Byzantine church of Hagia Sophia was influential in the history of architecture because it
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placed a massive dome on a building with a square shape.
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The stability of Byzantine government was the product of:
answer
An efficient bureaucracy
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The rotation of crops:
answer
Spread labor more evenly throughout the year
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At Canossa in the winter of 1077
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King Henry IV did penance before Pope Gregory VII.
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The new class of lords that arose after 900:
answer
claimed descent not from Roman or Carolingian families but Viking warlords like Rollo the Viking.
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In 1099 the crusaders
answer
seized Jerusalem, slaughtering much of its population in the process.
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In 1059, Pope Nicholas II issued a new decree on papal elections, which gave the power to elect future popes to the
answer
college of cardinals
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In northern Europe, increasing use of the heavy-wheeled plow between 800 and 1050 coincided with
answer
fundamental changes in settlement patterns of peasants
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The tenth century was known for ineffective kingship throughout Europe and:
answer
an incompetent and largely corrupt papacy
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One factor that contributed to the growth of some urban centers such as Paris and London was
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their ability to draw on the wealth of the immediate area around the city.
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The motive for knights to participate in the Crusades was clearly religious including:
answer
a promise to be freed from all penances imposed by the Church.
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The Investiture Conflict was finally resolved by a compromise known as the:
answer
Concordat of Worms
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The most powerful of the heirs of Charlemagne was the Saxon king Otto who:
answer
tried but largely failed to dominate the papacy and northern Italy.
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Simony refers to
answer
the use of ecclesiastic office for personal gain
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Compared to their Carolingian predecessors, the kings of tenth- and eleventh-century Germany
answer
relied heavily on ecclesiastical leaders to carry out royal administration.
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Beginning in the eleventh century, the Church asserted its independence from secular rulers.
answer
True
question
The European political structure in the tenth and eleventh centuries was typified by social mobility and egalitarianism.
answer
False
question
In 1071, Byzantium lost Armenia and wealthy Anatolia to the
answer
Seljuq Turks
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Although it represented a monumental struggle for power at the highest levels of society, the Investiture Conflict was a largely private affair that had little impact on local political or religious relationships.
answer
False
question
Modern universities can trace their origin back to the
answer
cathedral schools
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Wolfram von Eschenbach was a German poet known primarily for his
answer
story depicting the search for the holy grail
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By 1200, access to some form of education was
answer
open in principle to all who wanted an education.
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The tradition of French administration that balanced local diversity of custom with bureaucratic centralization in Paris began with
answer
Phillip II
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Venice benefited from the Crusades by
answer
providing ships and supplies to Crusaders.
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The French Parlement never attained the importance of Parliament in England because
answer
the French nobility, unlike the English nobility, was exempt from taxation.
question
The term university originally meant a
answer
corporation or guild
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The ultimate purpose of the Albigensian Crusade was
answer
to justify the colonization of the south of france
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Twelfth-century literature focused on courtly themes and motifs and avoided discussion of the profane and mundane.
answer
False
question
In 1250, the most powerful guild in Arras was a guild of professional entertainers.
answer
True
question
The earliest cities in Mesopotamia were founded by the:
answer
Ubaid people
question
Although hominid existence extends back many millennia, human civilization was fully achieved around the year
answer
3000 BCE
question
Which of the following is NOT true regarding women in Egyptian society during the Pharaonic period?
answer
They could practice sexual freedom
question
The Neolithic Revolution allowed women to
answer
have more children and devote more time to child care.
question
Labor among Paleolithic peoples was strictly divided along gender lines, as men did the hunting and women the gathering.
answer
False
question
Hammurabi's Law Code is the first law code that exacted equal punishment for crimes across the social spectrum.
answer
False
question
After 2500 B.C.E., the tombs of Sumerian lugals often included armor and jewelry. This demonstrates both the wealth of the lugals and shows that Sumerians believed
answer
items such as these would be useful in the afterlife.
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The Egyptians made notable advances in:
answer
Measuring time
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While both Egypt and Mesopotamia used the wheel in pottery making, in the Early Bronze Age only Mesopotamia used the wheel for transport and war chariots.
answer
true
question
One of the notable characteristics of civilization was the development of:
answer
occupational specialization
question
Although early writing was produced using pointed sticks, Sumerian scribes circa 3100 B.C.E. advanced writing with durable reeds that
answer
produced wedge-like script called cuneiform.
question
Which comparison between Egypt and Mesopotamian civilizations is NOT true?
answer
Each enjoyed significant political and cultural interactions.
question
Which period saw Egypt expand its borders, abandon its isolationism, and change its ideal of pharaoh from a god to a "good shepherd"?
answer
the Middle Kingdom
question
Sumerian distrust of nature and fear of the world were paralyzing to their culture as they lacked motivation to make significant advances in science, technology, and trade.
answer
false
question
A mysterious wave of invasions entered the Mediterranean world and destroyed almost all of the preexisting civilizations:
answer
in the second millennium B.C.E.
question
By 1500 B.C.E.:
answer
huge Mycenaean citadels were scattered across some of Greece.
question
The division of property and wealth in New Kingdom Egypt
answer
favored the pharaoh, the military aristocracy, and the temples of the gods.
question
The Mitannians introduced lighter chariots to carry archers, but
answer
their opponents soon copied them and their technological advantage was lost.
question
The followers of Zoroastrianism believed in
answer
a god of light who constantly battled a god of darkness
question
Zarathustra attempted to redefine religion
answer
as ethical practices common to all people.
question
The division of the ancient kingdom of Israel was:
answer
provoked by Solomon's oppressive regime.
question
In the 1100s B.C.E. a wave of destruction swept across the Near East and the Mediterranean world as a result of the invasions of the:
answer
Sea Peoples
question
Members of the group known in the Hebrew Bible (Old Testament) as the Philistines shared cultural affinities with the
answer
Mycenaeans.
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Savage violence and terror were characteristic of Assyrian warfare and foreign policy from Assyria's rise as a power in 1900 B.C.E.
answer
False
question
When Akhenaten died and was succeeded by Tutankhaten
answer
the new pharaoh returned to traditional ways of worship
question
Darius believed that a preemptive strike against Athens and Eretria was necessary because
answer
Greek poleis in Asia Minor could always revolt against Persia when they could look for support in this endeavor from Athens, Eretria, and other Greek poleis.
question
The Archaic Age of Greece begins with the emergence of the polis and the return of writing, but most of what we know of the period comes from the particular perspective of the
answer
Athenians
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The best men or aristoi of early Greece modeled their behavior on
answer
the heroes of the Iliad and the Odyssey.
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The "Ionian revolution in thought," epitomized by Xenophanes and other philosophers from Miletus, can best be described as
answer
relativism
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Hubris is:
answer
excessive pride, which was punished by the gods.
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Although the history of Greece before the rise of the polis is largely undocumented and therefore difficult to study thoroughly, it seems clear that the
answer
early Greeks were living in a period of cultural isolation and economic stasis.
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Cleisthenes is important in the history of Athenian government because he:
answer
championed the cause of the demos and took steps to limit the power of aristocrats.
question
The origins of Greek democracy can be identified, in part, in the rule of the Athenian aristocrat:
answer
Solon
question
The Dionysia celebrated
answer
Athenian democracy and the greatness of the polis.
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After Hoplites were introduced in Greece:
answer
aristocrats lost their monopoly on military prowess
question
In preparation for war with Persia, Athens financed the
answer
creation of a naval fleet.
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In portraying the human body, Hellenistic sculptors favored
answer
awkward poses and exaggerated postures
question
The beginning of the end of Alexander's conquests was his inability to fully subdue:
answer
Afghanistan.
question
After defeating Darius's armies, Alexander moved his capital to the Persian city of Persepolis.
answer
False
question
Aristarchus of Samos was unusual among Hellenistic astronomers because he
answer
believed that the earth revolves around the sun.
question
During the Corinthian War (395-387 B.C.E.), Sparta fought against
answer
an alliance comprised of Athens, Argos, Corinth, and Thebes.
question
To highlight their authority and status in the former Persian empire, Seleucid rulers
answer
used terms in proclamations reminiscent of earlier Mesopotamian rulers.
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Xenephon's book, the Anabasis, provided Alexander with information about the
answer
culture of Persia.
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One of Plato's philosophical concerns was
answer
to establish a just society.
question
The fourth century B.C.E. in Greece witnessed a confused political terrain, with many attempting to discover a direction for the Greeks; among these was _________ , who believed that the Greeks could rediscover their lost unity by an invasion of Persia.
answer
Isocrates
question
The greatest Roman Stoic, Cicero, believed that
answer
virtue leads to happiness, and peace of mind is the highest goal.
question
After Rome had twice defeated Carthage, a third Punic War:
answer
was provoked by war hawks who thought Carthage must be destroyed.
question
The division between Roman patricians and plebeians was
answer
between the wealthiest (2 percent) and the rest (98 percent) of the people
question
Since the Romans employed slaves for all forms of manual labor
answer
little technological innovation took place, and urban underemployment was common.
question
The Augustan system refers to
answer
the political reforms instituted by Augustus and continued under his successors.
question
Changes in the Roman law of marriage in the second century B.C.E. meant that
answer
wives retained control of their own property, guaranteeing them more independence
question
Prior to Julius Caesar's appointment as Dictator for Life, only one other Roman had been appointed to that position without the traditional six-month term, and he was
answer
Sulla
question
Rome's conquest of the Hellenistic world reinforced its commitment to strict paternal authority.
answer
False
question
The war between Pompey and Caesar was a direct result of Pompey's election as sole consul in 52 B.C.E.
answer
True
question
When Julius Caesar adopted Octavian as his heir
answer
Octavian had to fight his rivals and kill his republican opponents
question
The death of Cleopatra
answer
meant that Egypt became a Roman province
question
Roman religion was not exclusive; new gods could be added and honored or removed.
answer
True
question
Our knowledge of the Etruscans is extensive because of their prolific writing.
answer
False
question
On the City of God
answer
was a new, Christian interpretation of human history by Augustine.
question
Christianity went from being a persecuted faith in the early fourth century to being the recognized faith of the empire; this last step was the result of the action by the emperor:
answer
Theodosius, who prohibited pagan worship.
question
By 300 C.E., Christians accounted for no more than 10 percent of the population of the Roman Empire; this low percentage might be due to
answer
Diocletian's policy of persecuting any group deemed to be subversive.
question
Once the Christian Church gained ascendancy in the Roman Empire, the highest authority in deciding doctrine was
answer
the emperor, as a newly styled pontifex maximus of the Christian Church
question
Boethius's interest in logic while remaining thoroughly Christian:
answer
established a link between classical Greek thought and intellectual Christianity.
question
Realizing that the Roman Empire had become too large for a single ruler to control it
answer
Diocletian divided the empire in half and appointed a co-emperor to rule the western part.
question
The differences between the eastern and western parts of the Roman Empire
answer
in culture, economy, and language were great and grew larger over time.
question
By the end of the third century, the involvement of women in the Church had:
answer
shrunk to the point that they were completely excluded from all positions of power.
question
During the third century, Rome underwent a prolonged period that came very close to destroying the empire. This period is known as the time of
answer
the Barracks Emperors, when Rome had no fewer than twenty-six emperors in about fifty years.
question
Boethius's Consolation of Philosophy is a(n)
answer
excellent example of the pairing of classical philosophy and the Christian worldview
question
Augustine's theological ideas revolved around
answer
human sinfulness and divine omnipotence.
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Augustine is recognized as one of the greatest early fathers of Christianity and Christian thinkers of all time; he believed that what he did was to
answer
draw out the basic truths from the Bible so that people could understand the text.
question
As a result of the Iconoclastic Controversy:
answer
political legitimacy was fundamentally linked to the defense of religious tradition.
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An important figure who founded several Merovingian monasteries was:
answer
Columbanus.
question
In their worship of Allah, Muslims worship
answer
the same deity worshiped by Christians and Jews.
question
Charles Martel is regarded as one of the founders of the Frankish kingdom due to his defeat of a Muslim force near Paris.
answer
True
question
The pandemic known as Justinian's plague spread rapidly through the eastern and western part of the Roman Empire because it
answer
traveled along well-established trade routes both within and outside the empir
question
Pope Gregory I:
answer
significantly advanced Benedictine monasticism as the major monastic movement in the West
question
Although the Iconoclastic Controversy was eventually resolved, its lasting effects included the
answer
destruction of nearly all pre-eighth-century religious art in the Byzantine empire.
question
As a Christian king responsible for ruling a Christian society, Charlemagne:
answer
took responsibility for reforming the religious life of his kingdom just as he reformed its government.
question
The Iconoclastic Controversy of the eighth century C.E. was about
answer
the use or prohibition of images in church, where people might worship the objects.
question
The economic base of the Abbasid caliphate lay in
answer
the Tigris-Euphrates basin of Mesopotamia.
question
Women from wealthy Byzantine families
answer
were educated at home by tutors, but did engage in more public intellectual discussions.
question
Byzantine culture was the means by which the heritage of Western civilization was preserved for the Europe where Greek had become very rare.
answer
True
question
Underlying the Carolingian Renaissance was the basic conviction that
answer
learning was the foundation on which Christian wisdom rested.
question
The armies of Abu-Bakr were able to expand Islam northward out of Arabia largely because of:
answer
the weakness of Byzantine and Persian armies because of their wars against each other.
question
From the Islamic world come some of the best-known poetry in the world, among which is the poetry of
answer
Umar Khayyam
question
Partly as a result of the Crusades, Europe:
answer
learned much from the Islamic world that shaped European civilization in the twelfth century.
question
The merging of small individual land holdings into larger, common fields that could be worked by a whole village resulted in the emergence of:
answer
manors
question
When Alexius Comnenus asked for western help against the Seljuq Turks, he was hoping for a
answer
force of heavily armored knights to deploy against the lightly armored Turkish cavalry.
question
Although moneylending was an important factor in the success of early Italian merchant activity
answer
the Western Christian church condemned the practice as usurious.
question
Islamic theology and philosophy had no influence on Catholic philosophy and theology.
answer
False
question
The importance of the Investiture Conflict was that it
answer
formally, though not in practice, separated the church and the state in European politics
question
Monasteries and secular lords often supported the founding of towns in their territories because
answer
they saw the economic advantages of having towns in their territory.
question
The agricultural revolution was the foundation on which the commercial revolution of the High Middle Ages rested.
answer
True
question
In 1099 the Crusaders:
answer
seized Jerusalem, slaughtering much of its population in the process.
question
A major source of mechanical power in medieval Europe after 1050 was the
answer
water mill, which was used to grind grain, crush paper pulp, and press oil.
question
The genre of literature most representative of urban culture during the High Middle Ages was the
answer
fabliau.
question
The first ruler to rule a united crown of Aragon was
answer
King Alfonso II.
question
The first proponent of scholasticism is thought to have been
answer
Saint Anselm of Canterbury.
question
The Magna Carta, signed by King John of England, was a
answer
legal document defining particular rights of nobles and freemen and limiting royal power.
question
Which religious themes did Saint Francis of Assisi emphasize in his ministry and his new monastic order?
answer
apostolic poverty and an imitation of the life of Christ
question
In the late Middle Ages, Jews were routinely expelled from Italy, England, France, Germany, and Spain.
answer
True
question
The last emperor who effectively ruled all the disparate pieces of the Holy Roman Emperor was
answer
Frederick II
question
Marie de France
answer
wrote romances
question
King Henry II's important dispute with Archbishop Thomas Becket was related to
answer
whether priests should be tried in royal courts like other subjects of the king.
question
One of the crusading orders founded during the Crusades that maintained a sovereign political presence in the eastern Mediterranean long after the Crusades was over was the
answer
Knights Hospitaller.
question
In the twelfth century, the central act of worship for Christianity was
answer
prayer
question
Students who attended medieval universities
answer
generally drank to excess, gambled, fought, and were generally rowdy.
question
Historians typically divide ancient Egyptian history into _________ to facilitate the discussion of Egyptian politics and culture.
answer
kingdoms and periods
question
Due to recent research, the method of numbering Egyptian dynasties now begins with the _________ dynasty.
answer
Zero
question
One of the earliest civilizations, Sumer, flourished in what the Greeks called Mesopotamia, between the Tigris and Euphrates rivers in modern-day
answer
Iraq.
question
Before entering an enjoyable afterlife, the deceased Egyptian supposedly
answer
would be judged by Osiris and other divine judges.
question
Sumerian mathematics was very sophisticated and based on multiplications and divisions of
answer
30s and 60s.
question
Myths can be considered an early form of history.
answer
True
question
Hierarchical structures of leadership were uncommon in early hunter-gatherer societies.
answer
True
question
Hammurabi's empire was founded on
answer
political strategy and diplomacy.
question
Human cultures down to the fourth millennium B.C.E. are referred to as belonging to the Stone Age because they
answer
made most of their tools out of stone.
question
The Hebrew people, according to archaeological and linguistic evidence, were essentially
answer
Canaanite.
question
Hatshepsut was regularly portrayed as masculine in Egyptian statuary because
answer
she needed to demonstrate that, like male pharaohs, she ruled in her own right.
question
During the Late Bronze Age (1500-1200 B.C.E.) in the ancient Near East, the two great imperial powers were
answer
New Kingdom Egypt and the Hittite empire.
question
In the Book of Judges, the Hebrew people
answer
begin to settle and organize themselves into twelve tribes.
question
The priests at the greatest Egyptian temple complexes at Thebes
answer
received special favor from the Eighteenth Dynasty, which worshiped Amon-Ra.
question
The Eighteenth Dynasty in Egypt produced many strong pharaohs, among them:
answer
Hatshepsut.
question
As part of his religious reform, Amenhotep IV changed his name to Akhenaten and
answer
founded a new capital called Akhetaten, located between Thebes and Memphis.
question
The Phoenicians are also known as the
answer
Canaanites.
question
As part of his religious reform, Amenhotep IV changed his name to Akhenaten and
answer
founded a new capital called Akhetaten, located between Thebes and Memphis.
question
Unlike other rulers, Cyrus of Persia (559-529 B.C.E.)
answer
granted self-rule and religious freedom to conquered peoples.
question
Heinrich Schliemann and Sir Arthur Evans
answer
were archaeologists who dug up Troy, Mycenae, and Knossos.
question
Socrates' aim was to show that
answer
truth is real and absolute standards of goodness and virtue do exist.
question
Lyrical poetry like that written by Sappho demonstrates
answer
that individual feelings could differ greatly from the dominant Greek culture.
question
The Greek historian Herodotus believed
answer
both the Greeks and Persians were great peoples.
question
What form of government did Sparta impose on the defeated Athenians and their allies?
answer
oligarchy
question
One major result of the Persian wars was:
answer
the vindication of hoplites in battle and a boost to Athenian and Greek confidence.
question
All Greek poleis except Athens and Sparta immediately surrendered to Xerxes' invasion forces.
answer
False
question
During the Persian invasion of Greece in 480 B.C.E., Themistocles persuaded his fellow Athenians to
answer
abandon the city of Athens and let the Persians burn it.
question
A result of the defeat of the Athenian expedition to attack Syracuse was:
answer
the Athenian assembly replaced its democracy with oligarchy.
question
One major result of the Persian wars was:
answer
the vindication of hoplites in battle and a boost to Athenian and Greek confidence.
question
The Corinthian League was the first political and religious confederation of independent poleis pledged to support each other in times of need.
answer
false
question
The Greeks referred to some people with whom they came into contact as barbarians because they
answer
did not speak Greek.
question
Milesian philosophers, known as the pre-Socratics:
answer
looked to physical explanations of the workings of the universe.
question
The decisive Greek military victory over the Persians at Salamis was won by the
answer
Athenian fleet.
question
Panhellenic festivals in ancient Greece included
answer
athletic contests honoring the gods.
question
Due to the Persian Wars, the center of Greek philosophical speculation shifted from Ionia to
answer
the Greek "far west."
question
"Hellenism" led to political cooperation between the poleis.
answer
false
question
Spartan soldiers were forbidden to engage in trade.
answer
True
question
Socrates urged his followers to
answer
understand the principles of proper conduct and one's actions.
question
Lyrical poetry like that written by Sappho demonstrates
answer
that individual feelings could differ greatly from the dominant Greek culture.
question
One purpose of tragedy was to help the audience purge their emotions.
answer
True
question
Those Greeks who were able to accumulate wealth during the chaotic, isolated period
answer
eventually emerged as the Greek aristocracy.
question
Homer's poetry describes a world in which:
answer
warrior aristocrats competed for status and power and reinforced social ties through hospitality and gift-giving
question
The Twelve Tables of Law, approved in 450 B.C.E., represent
answer
the codification of existing laws for all to see and obey.
question
In the early Roman Republic, Rome was technically a democracy, but
answer
the Roman constitution essentially ensured oligarchic rule.
question
The Gracchi brothers were farmers who pressured the Senate to pass land reform laws in the second century B.C.E.
answer
False
question
Italy was the least slave-based economy known to history.
answer
False
question
One way by which the Romans were able to maintain their empire was through
answer
a system of roads constructed to be able to move army units throughout the empire.
question
The Romans did not usually impose heavy taxes or tributes on the cities they conquered, but demanded soldiers to contribute to their army.
answer
True
question
The greatest honor a Roman could hope to achieve was to
answer
sacrifice himself, his family, and his friends for the state.
question
Why couldn't the Greek city-states unite during the fourth century B.C.E.?
answer
The independent temper of Greek political life made unity impossible.
question
The leading political figure urging Greek resistance to Macedonian expansionism under Philip II was
answer
Demosthenes.
question
Social and political crises occurred in many Greek city-states during the fourth century B.C.E. due to
answer
rising food prices, stagnant wages, and high unemployment.
question
Philip's elite cavalry squad, the Companions, was made up of freed slaves who owed their freedom and position to Philip
answer
False
question
What similarities did Stoicism and Epicureanism share?
answer
a desire to explain the meaning of human existence
question
Mystery cults were popular mainly with the elite members of society.
answer
false
question
The _________ believed that the cosmos is an ordered whole in which all contradictions are resolved for ultimate good.
answer
stoics
question
The Romans did not usually impose heavy taxes or tributes on the cities they conquered, but demanded soldiers to contribute to their army.
answer
True
question
Cicero, one of the most famous Stoics of the later republic, believed in all the tenets of Stoicism EXCEPT
answer
withdraw from pubic life
question
The myth of the rape of Lucretia appealed to Roman patriotism by emphasizing:
answer
the corruption of Etruscan morals and government.
question
The greatest honor a Roman could hope to achieve was to
answer
sacrifice himself, his family, and his friends for the state.
question
The Twelve Tables of Law, approved in 450 B.C.E., represent
answer
the codification of existing laws for all to see and obey.
question
The Augustan system of government:
answer
is known as the early empire or Principate, because Octavian ruled as first citizen.
question
The equestrian order (Roman knights) was established by:
answer
businessmen whose wealth made it possible for them to own and equip warhorses.
question
Revolts in Judea in the first and second century C.E. resulted in
answer
the destruction of the Temple at Jerusalem.
question
According to the patria potestas provision of the Twelve Tables, a Roman father
answer
had absolute power over his family, up to and including the power of life and death.
question
Cultural and intellectual developments in Rome reached their pinnacle during
answer
the Principate
question
In invading Persia, Alexander began to follow the example of Cyrus the Great and:
answer
offered amnesty to cities that surrendered and no mercy to those that did not
question
Hellenistic sculpture is best described as
answer
realistic and alive
question
After a period of instability, __________was finally able to establish rule over the homeland of Alexander's Empire—Macedonia and Greece.
answer
Antigonus.
question
The Aetolian and Achaean Leagues differed from previous Greek attempts at political organization between poleis because:
answer
they represented a real political unification, with some centralization of government functions.
question
Aristotle argued that good conduct is virtuous conduct and that virtue resides in aiming to
answer
act moderately in all things.
question
n comparison to classical Greek art, Hellenistic art became
answer
more of a commodity to be bought and sold.
question
Following Sparta's victory in the Peloponnesian War:
answer
Sparta alienated the other Greek cities by trying to dominate them.
question
The Greeks referred to some people with whom they came into contact as barbarians because they
answer
did not speak Greek.
question
By the sixth century B.C.E., Greeks founded numerous colonies around the Mediterranean basin, the most significant of which were located where?
answer
Anatolia and Italy.
question
Aristotle argued that all members of Greek society ought to participate in democracy.
answer
False
question
Social and political crises occurred in many Greek city-states during the fourth century B.C.E. due to
answer
rising food prices, stagnant wages, and high unemployment.
question
Alexander the Great is said to have taken two books with him on his conquest of Persia; one was Homer's Iliad and the other was
answer
Xenophon's Anabasis.
question
Aristotle argued that good conduct is virtuous conduct and that virtue resides in aiming to
answer
act moderately in all things.
question
The league that influenced Alexander Hamilton, John Jay, and James Madison as a role model of cooperation and unification was the Achaean League.
answer
True
question
Greek rational thought began to separate in the Hellenistic world:
answer
and scientific inquiry began to be its own field of study.
question
According to Stoicism, evil does not exist.
answer
False
question
During the economic decline of Greece in the fourth century B.C.E.:
answer
former soldiers often worked as mercenaries who disrupted the household-based culture of the Greek poleis.
question
Alexander the Great is a difficult figure for historians to evaluate because
answer
so many legends grew up around him during his lifetime.
question
Following Sparta's victory in the Peloponnesian War:
answer
Sparta alienated the other Greek cities by trying to dominate them.
question
Since every polis needed hoplites
answer
poleis were forced to grant more political power to them.
question
A tyrant was often able to seize power because
answer
the hoplites supported him militarily.
question
In the Book of Judges, the Hebrew people
answer
begin to settle and organize themselves into twelve tribes.
question
The earlier Assyrian empire had been devastated by the _________ , but in the ninth century B.C.E., the foundations for a neo-Assyrian empire were laid by Assurnasirpal II
answer
Sea Peoples
question
Relations after 1500 B.C.E. are more appropriately referred to as "transnational" because
answer
the political and economic networks transcended national boundaries and identities.
question
The Late Bronze Age:
answer
was an age of superpowers.
question
The Phoenicians were descendants of the Peleset, one of the Sea Peoples. They introduced the olive and the grapevine to the Near East and exerted much of their power in the area from large citadels and control over local trade routes and a monopoly over metalsmithing that made it virtually impossible for their enemies to forge their own weapons.
answer
False
question
Mycenaean Greece played a central role in Bronze Age networks as evidenced by
answer
correspondence between Mycenaean leaders and Egyptian pharaohs and Hittite kings
question
In 1786, the scholar Sir William Jones suggested that
answer
ancient Greek and Sanskrit descended from a common, Indo-European linguistic source.
question
The people who settled in Anatolia around 2000 B.C.E. and built a powerful, militaristic kingdom there over the next four hundred years are known as the
answer
Hittites
question
Around 1200 B.C.E., an inscription by Pharaoh Ramses III records
answer
an Egyptian victory over the "Sea Peoples," invaders from the north.
question
Many small kingdoms arose in the Levant during the early Iron Age as a result of the
answer
collapse of the Hittite civilization.
question
The term thalassocracy means "sea empire."
answer
True
question
Sargon of Akkad (c. 2350 B.C.E.) is significant because he:
answer
subdued Sumer and exerted influence from Ethiopia to the Indus Valley.
question
Ur-Nammu built the great ziggurat at:
answer
Ur
question
During the Middle Kingdom, Egypt turned inward and lessened its trade and diplomatic contacts.
answer
False
question
Hammurabi might have been the first ruler in history to:
answer
have most of his laws aimed at free commoners.
question
Egypt in the Old and Middle Kingdoms was maintained chiefly through conquest.
answer
False
question
To the peoples of the ancient world, the characteristic manifestations of civilization—government, literature, science, and art—were necessarily products of
answer
city life
question
One of the significant technological achievements of the Sumerians was:
answer
the invention of the potter's wheel.
question
By becoming a "lawgiver," Hammurabi:
answer
set a new standard of kingship.
question
Since human beings in the Paleolithic period had no domestic animals
answer
they had no significant wealth beyond what they could carry.
question
Hammurabi's Law Code accorded no rights to women.
answer
False
question
The Phoenicians's greatest contribution to civilization was:
answer
their alphabet.
question
The culture of the Hittites was:
answer
strongly militaristic, prone to attacks on other peoples.
question
The Hebrew people became unified in their worship of Yahweh due to
answer
prophetic insistence on the need for a united Hebrew identity under neo-Assyrian rule.
question
Socrates' most important pupil was
answer
Plato.
question
The catalyst of the Persian Wars was
answer
a revolt instigated by the Ionian Greeks against the Persians.
question
Sparta
answer
depended on the enslaved labor of helots.
question
The role of the chorus in Greek drama was to
answer
present common Athenian opinion about the themes or action of the play.
question
Central to the Skeptical worldview is the idea that
answer
one must suspend judgment concerning everything.
question
Hellenistic cosmopolitanism differed from Persian and Roman cosmopolitanism because it
answer
was cultural rather than linked directly to a particular imperial power.
question
In comparison to classical Greek art, Hellenistic art became
answer
more of a commodity to be bought and sold.
question
The Ptolemies of Egypt promoted themselves as heirs of Alexander by
answer
ensuring Alexander's body was buried in Egypt.
question
The chief characteristics of Hellenistic architecture were:
answer
grandeur and ornamentation.
question
Alexander instituted the ritual of proskynesis to allow his Persian subjects to more easily accept him as their new ruler.
answer
True
question
Macedonian rule in Egypt was characterized by
answer
a revival of ancient traditions associated with the pharaohs.
question
The early pharaohs had difficulty establishing their rule over all Egypt due to the power of local civic and religious authorities.
answer
true
question
Tens of thousands of Sumerian clay tablets have survived
answer
telling us more about Sumer than we know about any other human society at the time.
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question
Although early writing was produced using pointed sticks, Sumerian scribes c. 3100 B.C.E. advanced writing with durable reeds that:
answer
produced wedgelike script called cuneiform.
question
The Egyptian system of hieroglyphics was:
answer
deciphered by Champollion using the Rosetta Stone.
question
Slavery in Sumerian society was
answer
usually the result of capture during war.
question
The Egyptians developed elaborate tombs and burial techniques:
answer
to provide the dead with all they would need in the afterlife.
question
The vast majority of Egyptians who built the pyramids were slaves.
answer
False
question
Social relationships in the ancient city of Çatalhöyük were largely
answer
egalitarian
question
One of the contributors to the Neolithic revolution was:
answer
climate change
question
Egyptian society
answer
consisted of a tiny minority of royalty and nobility and a majority class of the poor, including peasants and artisans.
question
Which of the following was an important element in the development of early settlements?
answer
the establishment of first local and then long-distance trade routes throughout the Near East
question
The important administrator of the pharaoh Djoser who initiated pyramid building in the "step" style was
answer
Imhotep
question
An individual who successfully led the city-state's army in battles was:
answer
able to acquire prestige and power as a lugal
question
The penalties in Hammurabi's Law Code
answer
were different depending on the class of an individual.
question
The Akkadian rulers of Sargon and Naram-Sin
answer
ruled from cities and kept their empires through conquest and commerce.
question
While ancient Sumerians shared a common religion, warfare was frequent because
answer
residents of each city believed themselves to be the servants of different gods.
question
Jericho, one of the world's oldest villages, began an impressive building program of structures to protect their grain surplus around:
answer
6800 B.C.E.
question
The common religion of the Sumerians
answer
included many gods, with a different god worshiped in each city-state.
question
One distinct belief that later Western religions took from Zoroastrianism is the idea
answer
of a Day of Judgment
question
The accomplishments of King Darius of Persia included
answer
building roads for transport and postal service.
question
Twelfth-century popes, like their secular counterparts, sought to establish their authority by building and expanding bureaucratic structures to increase papal visibility and to show it in the daily lives of all Christians.
answer
true
question
The seven liberal arts that the universities of Europe established as their curriculum consisted of the
answer
trivium and quadrivium.
question
The political power of some queens of the High Middle Ages in Europe is reflected in the
answer
power of the queen in the game of chess.
question
The Waldensians were declared heretics because they did not believe in transubstantiation.
answer
true
question
The term universitas originally meant
answer
corporation
question
Peter Abelard was a controversial and popular teacher who made the University of Bologna a center of theology.
answer
false
question
The rapid growth of monastic houses, such as the Cistercians, in the twelfth century meant that more men and women were becoming professional religious and that
answer
a religiously engaged laity was supporting the Church through the donation of money and lands.
question
The Babylonian Captivity of the Hebrews affected Judaism by:
answer
enabling the Hebrews to sustain an identity outside of a Hebrew kingdom
question
By the end of Solomon's rule, the cult of Yahweh had expelled all worship of foreign deities and acted as a glue to hold the Hebrew Kingdom together after the Davidic dynasty ended.
answer
false
question
Thutmose I was remarkable for
answer
ruling over Egypt, Palestine, and the lands from Nubia in the south to the Euphrates River in the north.
question
The system of writing developed by the citizens of Ugarit
answer
used an alphabet of about thirty symbols for the consonants
question
By the fourteenth century B.C.E., international relations were marked by:
answer
diplomatic standards, polite forms of address, gifts, and alliances
question
"Indo-European," as used in historical or anthropological texts, refers to
answer
linguistic and cultural patterns found in India, the Near East, Europe, and perhaps the Far East.
question
When the Hyksos conquered Lower Egypt in the Egypt's Second Intermediate Period, they
answer
adopted the machinery of pharaonic government.
question
The division of the ancient kingdom of Israel was
answer
provoked by Solomon's oppressive regime
question
The Heroic Age of Greece described by Hesiod and other ancient poets was long thought to
answer
be legends or fables with little basis in historical reality.
question
Unlike other rulers, Cyrus of Persia (559-529 B.C.E.)
answer
granted self-rule and religious freedom to conquered peoples.
question
The center of Mycenaean society was the village, which gave a sense of family and responsibility to the people and encouraged loyalty to the king, who was depicted as a father to his people.
answer
false
question
Due to a period of captivity in Babylon, ancient Hebrews
answer
developed a religion that transcended local politics and geography.
question
Thutmose I was the pharaoh who expelled the Hyksos and restored Egyptian confidence and reunification.
answer
false
question
The origins of Greek democracy can be identified, in part, in the rule of the Athenian aristocrat
answer
Solon
question
Which sentence best describes the structure of the Spartan government circa 600 B.C.E.?
answer
Sparta was ruled by a citizen assembly, a council of elders, and two kings.
question
The growth of Athenian democracy, with its emphasis on equality between citizens, led to
answer
greater inequality between men and women.
question
Why was the Peloponnesian War deadlocked for an extended period of time?
answer
Athens could not defeat Sparta on land, and Sparta could not defeat Athens at sea.
question
Greek symposiums excluded all women.
answer
false
question
The Athenian strategos Pericles expanded democracy in Athens by
answer
giving every Athenian citizen the right to propose legislation.
question
The Delian League became a policy tool of which Greek polis?
answer
athens
question
Aristocrats of Archaic Athens believed commerce to be a disreputable career.
answer
true
question
The Sophist claim that "man is the measure of all things" means that
answer
goodness, truth, and justice are not absolutes, but vary according to the needs and interests of human beings.
question
Hoplites were organized into formations called a:
answer
Phalanx
question
Homosocial relationships between men of the aristocratic class in Ancient Greece were part of
answer
A mentoring process for young men.
question
After Hoplites were introduced in Greece:
answer
aristocrats lost their monopoly on military prowess.
question
Ionians transmitted the Lydian invention of _________ to the Greek world.
answer
coinage
question
Because of their successful colonial and trading activities, the Miletus:
answer
became extraordinarily wealthy
question
Greeks made contact with the _____ in the ninth century B.C.E.
answer
Phoenicians
question
The social center and organizational hub of the Greek polis was:
answer
the agora
question
The most important cultural center in the Hellenistic world was:
answer
Alexandria
question
Alexander's successors in Egypt ruled their Macedonian subjects in the same way they ruled their Egyptian subjects, as pharaoh.
answer
false
question
Aristotle argued that the universe could only be understood by exploring the natural world in which people lived.
answer
True
question
Alexander sought to fuse his Greco-Macedonian Empire with Persia by:
answer
arranging for hundreds of his officers to marry Persian noblewomen.
question
The complex, busy, and cosmopolitan life of the Hellenistic world led to the popularization of
answer
pastoral verse
question
After the Corinthian War (395-387 B.C.E.), Sparta:
answer
was defeated by Thebes, under the leadership of Epaminondas.
question
In the Republic, Plato argues for a return to the democratic state.
answer
false
question
Philip II secured the support of many neighboring kingdoms through
answer
marriages
question
The ultimate aim of the military and political policies of Philip II was to
answer
invade Persia.
question
In the fourth century B.C.E., the Greeks of the poleis considered Macedonians to be
answer
barbarians.
question
With the expansion of population in the Hellenistic world and the creation of larger cities:
answer
the average Greek male was less connected to his community and had little or no stake in society.
question
The Theban Sacred Band was
answer
an elite military unit composed entirely of male couples.
question
All of the male rulers of Macedonian Egypt took the name
answer
Ptolemy
question
Macedonian military reforms under Philip II most closely resemble earlier reforms undertaken by:
answer
Thebes
question
Whereas Plato conceived of politics as a means toward living the good life, Aristotle regarded politics as
answer
an end within itself
question
The _________ War represented the beginning of the end of the political dominance exercised by the Greek poleis.
answer
Corinthian
question
Although some emperors who followed Augustus in the Julio-Claudian dynasty were able individuals, many were not; arguably the worst of these was
answer
Caligula
question
Prior to the establishment of Rome as the dominant state in Italy
answer
Etruscans, skilled metalworkers and artists, lived there
question
After a plebeian rebellion in the early fifth century B.C.E.
answer
the patricians accepted the elected tribunes and written laws
question
According to legend, Rome was first ruled by a(n)
answer
monarchy
question
Roman historians of the Principate regularly wrote glowing reports of the competent governance of the emperors.
answer
false
question
Once the Romans had effectively gained control of Italy (265 B.C.E.), they
answer
started a series of wars for control of the western Mediterranean.
question
Rome played a crucial role in the development of European civilization because
answer
Rome connected Europe to the cultural heritage of the Near East.
question
The Romans were the first people to use _________ on a massive scale in their buildings.
answer
concrete
question
Among the titles Augustus had been awarded were all the following EXCEPT
answer
dictator supremus
question
Pax Romana refers to
answer
long period in which there were no major wars within the Roman Empire.
question
Roman law consisted of three branches: civil law, natural law, and:
answer
The Law of Nations
question
Central to Roman identity was a conservatism expressed in an unwritten code of:
answer
mos maiorum
question
The Latin Right of the early Romans guaranteed that
answer
contracts, marriages, and citizenship were valid across Latium.
question
The war between Pompey and Caesar was a direct result of Pompey's election as sole consul in 52 B.C.E.
answer
True
question
The geographic site of Rome has many advantages, including
answer
hills that increase the defensibility of the city.
question
Traditional Roman religion included ancestor worship and:
answer
oligarchs who played dual roles as priests and politicians.
question
Historians now refer to the period from 284 to 610 C.E. as Late Antiquity because:
answer
it is a period with its own themes and developments, neither wholly Roman and not yet medieval.
question
Romans regarded the Germans as barbarians because:
answer
German society was illiterate, and Germans did not live in cities
question
Most of what we know about Jesus was written down:
answer
Between 70 and 100 CE
question
In Late Antiquity, the pope enjoyed acknowledgment and support for his primacy from the other western bishops.
answer
False
question
As seen in the life of Perpetua, Christianity challenged the traditional Roman values of
answer
obedience to the Roman gods and one's ancestors.
question
What point was in dispute between the Arians and Christian orthodoxy?
answer
whether Jesus was of the same being and substance as God the Father
question
The monastic way of life in the West was influenced greatly by establishing a set of rules written by
answer
Benedict
question
Byzantium was of little strategic import when Constantine moved his capital there in 324 C.E.
answer
False
question
Boethius's interest in logic while remaining thoroughly Christian:
answer
established a link between classical Greek thought and intellectual Christianity.
question
According to historical interpretations, Jesus was crucified because he
answer
was convicted of sedition by a Roman governor.
question
According to the discipline of history, faiths
answer
are the products of historical processes.
question
When the emperor died in 192 with no heir apparent, civil war once again engulfed the Roman Empire with _________ eventually claiming the throne.
answer
Septimius Severus
question
One reason for including classical texts in the education of Christians by the fourth century was
answer
the desire of Christian intellectuals to be regarded as philosophers and to make classical learning applicable to a Christian way of life
question
Unlike the common practices of many previous civilizations:
answer
early Christian monks practiced extreme forms of self-abasement.
question
Which statement best describes the position of the Sadducees in Palestine during the first century C.E.?
answer
The Sadducees closely allied themselves with the Roman rulers of Judea.
question
Roman borders were
answer
porous and thus more symbolic than actual.
question
Constantinople remained the political and economic center of the Roman Empire until 476, when it fell to the Goths.
answer
False
question
Charlemagne regularly chose the bishops in his empire.
answer
True
question
Justinian's longest lasting reform was the
answer
organization and codification of Roman law
question
The Shiite claim to legitimacy rests on the direct connection to Muhammad through his daughter
answer
Fatimah
question
Why did the Romans of Italy and North Africa resent Justinian's efforts to liberate them?
answer
there was a heavy cost in taxes and lives
question
During the expansion of the Islamic caliphate, Muslim rule was often preferred to Persian or Byzantine because
answer
the caliphate extracted fewer taxes from conquered populations than these empires.
question
As a Christian king responsible for ruling a Christian society, Charlemagne
answer
took responsibility for reforming the religious life of his kingdom just as he reformed its government.
question
The early Byzantine religion was known for its
answer
intense interest in matters of doctrine and orthodoxy.
question
The word Islam means:
answer
submission
question
Charlemagne and Harun al-Rashid formed an alliance partially because of their shared enemy, the
answer
Umayyad
question
By the late sixth century C.E., the economy of Arabia was
answer
commercially sophisticated and was intersected by many trade routes
question
It is difficult to date the beginning of Byzantine history with precision because:
answer
the Byzantine Empire was the uninterrupted successor of the Roman Empire.
question
One result of the campaigns of Belisarius in North Africa and Italy was:
answer
the weakening of Constantinople against the Sassanids.
question
The overall unity of the Muslim world disintegrated during the tenth and eleventh centuries because of
answer
increasing intolerance of regional and ethnic differences of practice and belief within Islam.
question
Scandinavian traders turned to raiding because
answer
instability in the Abbasid empire had made travel on their traditional trade routes difficult.
question
The Vikings are generally regarded as being a destructive force in European history
answer
but such a view may not be correct in light of the principalities they established across northern Europe
question
The Byzantine church of Hagia Sophia was influential in the history of architecture because it
answer
placed a massive dome on a building with a square shape.
question
The stability of Byzantine government was the product of:
answer
An efficient bureaucracy
question
The rotation of crops:
answer
Spread labor more evenly throughout the year
question
At Canossa in the winter of 1077
answer
King Henry IV did penance before Pope Gregory VII.
question
The new class of lords that arose after 900:
answer
claimed descent not from Roman or Carolingian families but Viking warlords like Rollo the Viking.
question
In 1099 the crusaders
answer
seized Jerusalem, slaughtering much of its population in the process.
question
In 1059, Pope Nicholas II issued a new decree on papal elections, which gave the power to elect future popes to the
answer
college of cardinals
question
In northern Europe, increasing use of the heavy-wheeled plow between 800 and 1050 coincided with
answer
fundamental changes in settlement patterns of peasants
question
The tenth century was known for ineffective kingship throughout Europe and:
answer
an incompetent and largely corrupt papacy
question
One factor that contributed to the growth of some urban centers such as Paris and London was
answer
their ability to draw on the wealth of the immediate area around the city.
question
The motive for knights to participate in the Crusades was clearly religious including:
answer
a promise to be freed from all penances imposed by the Church.
question
The Investiture Conflict was finally resolved by a compromise known as the:
answer
Concordat of Worms
question
The most powerful of the heirs of Charlemagne was the Saxon king Otto who:
answer
tried but largely failed to dominate the papacy and northern Italy.
question
Simony refers to
answer
the use of ecclesiastic office for personal gain
question
Compared to their Carolingian predecessors, the kings of tenth- and eleventh-century Germany
answer
relied heavily on ecclesiastical leaders to carry out royal administration.
question
Beginning in the eleventh century, the Church asserted its independence from secular rulers.
answer
True
question
The European political structure in the tenth and eleventh centuries was typified by social mobility and egalitarianism.
answer
False
question
In 1071, Byzantium lost Armenia and wealthy Anatolia to the
answer
Seljuq Turks
question
Although it represented a monumental struggle for power at the highest levels of society, the Investiture Conflict was a largely private affair that had little impact on local political or religious relationships.
answer
False
question
Modern universities can trace their origin back to the
answer
cathedral schools
question
Wolfram von Eschenbach was a German poet known primarily for his
answer
story depicting the search for the holy grail
question
By 1200, access to some form of education was
answer
open in principle to all who wanted an education.
question
The tradition of French administration that balanced local diversity of custom with bureaucratic centralization in Paris began with
answer
Phillip II
question
Venice benefited from the Crusades by
answer
providing ships and supplies to Crusaders.
question
The French Parlement never attained the importance of Parliament in England because
answer
the French nobility, unlike the English nobility, was exempt from taxation.
question
The term university originally meant a
answer
corporation or guild
question
The ultimate purpose of the Albigensian Crusade was
answer
to justify the colonization of the south of france
question
Twelfth-century literature focused on courtly themes and motifs and avoided discussion of the profane and mundane.
answer
False
question
In 1250, the most powerful guild in Arras was a guild of professional entertainers.
answer
True
question
The earliest cities in Mesopotamia were founded by the:
answer
Ubaid people
question
Although hominid existence extends back many millennia, human civilization was fully achieved around the year
answer
3000 BCE
question
Which of the following is NOT true regarding women in Egyptian society during the Pharaonic period?
answer
They could practice sexual freedom
question
The Neolithic Revolution allowed women to
answer
have more children and devote more time to child care.
question
Labor among Paleolithic peoples was strictly divided along gender lines, as men did the hunting and women the gathering.
answer
False
question
Hammurabi's Law Code is the first law code that exacted equal punishment for crimes across the social spectrum.
answer
False
question
After 2500 B.C.E., the tombs of Sumerian lugals often included armor and jewelry. This demonstrates both the wealth of the lugals and shows that Sumerians believed
answer
items such as these would be useful in the afterlife.
question
The Egyptians made notable advances in:
answer
Measuring time
question
While both Egypt and Mesopotamia used the wheel in pottery making, in the Early Bronze Age only Mesopotamia used the wheel for transport and war chariots.
answer
true
question
One of the notable characteristics of civilization was the development of:
answer
occupational specialization
question
Although early writing was produced using pointed sticks, Sumerian scribes circa 3100 B.C.E. advanced writing with durable reeds that
answer
produced wedge-like script called cuneiform.
question
Which comparison between Egypt and Mesopotamian civilizations is NOT true?
answer
Each enjoyed significant political and cultural interactions.
question
Which period saw Egypt expand its borders, abandon its isolationism, and change its ideal of pharaoh from a god to a "good shepherd"?
answer
the Middle Kingdom
question
Sumerian distrust of nature and fear of the world were paralyzing to their culture as they lacked motivation to make significant advances in science, technology, and trade.
answer
false
question
A mysterious wave of invasions entered the Mediterranean world and destroyed almost all of the preexisting civilizations:
answer
in the second millennium B.C.E.
question
By 1500 B.C.E.:
answer
huge Mycenaean citadels were scattered across some of Greece.
question
The division of property and wealth in New Kingdom Egypt
answer
favored the pharaoh, the military aristocracy, and the temples of the gods.
question
The Mitannians introduced lighter chariots to carry archers, but
answer
their opponents soon copied them and their technological advantage was lost.
question
The followers of Zoroastrianism believed in
answer
a god of light who constantly battled a god of darkness
question
Zarathustra attempted to redefine religion
answer
as ethical practices common to all people.
question
The division of the ancient kingdom of Israel was:
answer
provoked by Solomon's oppressive regime.
question
In the 1100s B.C.E. a wave of destruction swept across the Near East and the Mediterranean world as a result of the invasions of the:
answer
Sea Peoples
question
Members of the group known in the Hebrew Bible (Old Testament) as the Philistines shared cultural affinities with the
answer
Mycenaeans.
question
Savage violence and terror were characteristic of Assyrian warfare and foreign policy from Assyria's rise as a power in 1900 B.C.E.
answer
False
question
When Akhenaten died and was succeeded by Tutankhaten
answer
the new pharaoh returned to traditional ways of worship
question
Darius believed that a preemptive strike against Athens and Eretria was necessary because
answer
Greek poleis in Asia Minor could always revolt against Persia when they could look for support in this endeavor from Athens, Eretria, and other Greek poleis.
question
The Archaic Age of Greece begins with the emergence of the polis and the return of writing, but most of what we know of the period comes from the particular perspective of the
answer
Athenians
question
The best men or aristoi of early Greece modeled their behavior on
answer
the heroes of the Iliad and the Odyssey.
question
The "Ionian revolution in thought," epitomized by Xenophanes and other philosophers from Miletus, can best be described as
answer
relativism
question
Hubris is:
answer
excessive pride, which was punished by the gods.
question
Although the history of Greece before the rise of the polis is largely undocumented and therefore difficult to study thoroughly, it seems clear that the
answer
early Greeks were living in a period of cultural isolation and economic stasis.
question
Cleisthenes is important in the history of Athenian government because he:
answer
championed the cause of the demos and took steps to limit the power of aristocrats.
question
The origins of Greek democracy can be identified, in part, in the rule of the Athenian aristocrat:
answer
Solon
question
The Dionysia celebrated
answer
Athenian democracy and the greatness of the polis.
question
After Hoplites were introduced in Greece:
answer
aristocrats lost their monopoly on military prowess
question
In preparation for war with Persia, Athens financed the
answer
creation of a naval fleet.
question
In portraying the human body, Hellenistic sculptors favored
answer
awkward poses and exaggerated postures
question
The beginning of the end of Alexander's conquests was his inability to fully subdue:
answer
Afghanistan.
question
After defeating Darius's armies, Alexander moved his capital to the Persian city of Persepolis.
answer
False
question
Aristarchus of Samos was unusual among Hellenistic astronomers because he
answer
believed that the earth revolves around the sun.
question
During the Corinthian War (395-387 B.C.E.), Sparta fought against
answer
an alliance comprised of Athens, Argos, Corinth, and Thebes.
question
To highlight their authority and status in the former Persian empire, Seleucid rulers
answer
used terms in proclamations reminiscent of earlier Mesopotamian rulers.
question
Xenephon's book, the Anabasis, provided Alexander with information about the
answer
culture of Persia.
question
One of Plato's philosophical concerns was
answer
to establish a just society.
question
The fourth century B.C.E. in Greece witnessed a confused political terrain, with many attempting to discover a direction for the Greeks; among these was _________ , who believed that the Greeks could rediscover their lost unity by an invasion of Persia.
answer
Isocrates
question
The greatest Roman Stoic, Cicero, believed that
answer
virtue leads to happiness, and peace of mind is the highest goal.
question
After Rome had twice defeated Carthage, a third Punic War:
answer
was provoked by war hawks who thought Carthage must be destroyed.
question
The division between Roman patricians and plebeians was
answer
between the wealthiest (2 percent) and the rest (98 percent) of the people
question
Since the Romans employed slaves for all forms of manual labor
answer
little technological innovation took place, and urban underemployment was common.
question
The Augustan system refers to
answer
the political reforms instituted by Augustus and continued under his successors.
question
Changes in the Roman law of marriage in the second century B.C.E. meant that
answer
wives retained control of their own property, guaranteeing them more independence
question
Prior to Julius Caesar's appointment as Dictator for Life, only one other Roman had been appointed to that position without the traditional six-month term, and he was
answer
Sulla
question
Rome's conquest of the Hellenistic world reinforced its commitment to strict paternal authority.
answer
False
question
The war between Pompey and Caesar was a direct result of Pompey's election as sole consul in 52 B.C.E.
answer
True
question
When Julius Caesar adopted Octavian as his heir
answer
Octavian had to fight his rivals and kill his republican opponents
question
The death of Cleopatra
answer
meant that Egypt became a Roman province
question
Roman religion was not exclusive; new gods could be added and honored or removed.
answer
True
question
Our knowledge of the Etruscans is extensive because of their prolific writing.
answer
False
question
On the City of God
answer
was a new, Christian interpretation of human history by Augustine.
question
Christianity went from being a persecuted faith in the early fourth century to being the recognized faith of the empire; this last step was the result of the action by the emperor:
answer
Theodosius, who prohibited pagan worship.
question
By 300 C.E., Christians accounted for no more than 10 percent of the population of the Roman Empire; this low percentage might be due to
answer
Diocletian's policy of persecuting any group deemed to be subversive.
question
Once the Christian Church gained ascendancy in the Roman Empire, the highest authority in deciding doctrine was
answer
the emperor, as a newly styled pontifex maximus of the Christian Church
question
Boethius's interest in logic while remaining thoroughly Christian:
answer
established a link between classical Greek thought and intellectual Christianity.
question
Realizing that the Roman Empire had become too large for a single ruler to control it
answer
Diocletian divided the empire in half and appointed a co-emperor to rule the western part.
question
The differences between the eastern and western parts of the Roman Empire
answer
in culture, economy, and language were great and grew larger over time.
question
By the end of the third century, the involvement of women in the Church had:
answer
shrunk to the point that they were completely excluded from all positions of power.
question
During the third century, Rome underwent a prolonged period that came very close to destroying the empire. This period is known as the time of
answer
the Barracks Emperors, when Rome had no fewer than twenty-six emperors in about fifty years.
question
Boethius's Consolation of Philosophy is a(n)
answer
excellent example of the pairing of classical philosophy and the Christian worldview
question
Augustine's theological ideas revolved around
answer
human sinfulness and divine omnipotence.
question
Augustine is recognized as one of the greatest early fathers of Christianity and Christian thinkers of all time; he believed that what he did was to
answer
draw out the basic truths from the Bible so that people could understand the text.
question
As a result of the Iconoclastic Controversy:
answer
political legitimacy was fundamentally linked to the defense of religious tradition.
question
An important figure who founded several Merovingian monasteries was:
answer
Columbanus.
question
In their worship of Allah, Muslims worship
answer
the same deity worshiped by Christians and Jews.
question
Charles Martel is regarded as one of the founders of the Frankish kingdom due to his defeat of a Muslim force near Paris.
answer
True
question
The pandemic known as Justinian's plague spread rapidly through the eastern and western part of the Roman Empire because it
answer
traveled along well-established trade routes both within and outside the empir
question
Pope Gregory I:
answer
significantly advanced Benedictine monasticism as the major monastic movement in the West
question
Although the Iconoclastic Controversy was eventually resolved, its lasting effects included the
answer
destruction of nearly all pre-eighth-century religious art in the Byzantine empire.
question
As a Christian king responsible for ruling a Christian society, Charlemagne:
answer
took responsibility for reforming the religious life of his kingdom just as he reformed its government.
question
The Iconoclastic Controversy of the eighth century C.E. was about
answer
the use or prohibition of images in church, where people might worship the objects.
question
The economic base of the Abbasid caliphate lay in
answer
the Tigris-Euphrates basin of Mesopotamia.
question
Women from wealthy Byzantine families
answer
were educated at home by tutors, but did engage in more public intellectual discussions.
question
Byzantine culture was the means by which the heritage of Western civilization was preserved for the Europe where Greek had become very rare.
answer
True
question
Underlying the Carolingian Renaissance was the basic conviction that
answer
learning was the foundation on which Christian wisdom rested.
question
The armies of Abu-Bakr were able to expand Islam northward out of Arabia largely because of:
answer
the weakness of Byzantine and Persian armies because of their wars against each other.
question
From the Islamic world come some of the best-known poetry in the world, among which is the poetry of
answer
Umar Khayyam
question
Partly as a result of the Crusades, Europe:
answer
learned much from the Islamic world that shaped European civilization in the twelfth century.
question
The merging of small individual land holdings into larger, common fields that could be worked by a whole village resulted in the emergence of:
answer
manors
question
When Alexius Comnenus asked for western help against the Seljuq Turks, he was hoping for a
answer
force of heavily armored knights to deploy against the lightly armored Turkish cavalry.
question
Although moneylending was an important factor in the success of early Italian merchant activity
answer
the Western Christian church condemned the practice as usurious.
question
Islamic theology and philosophy had no influence on Catholic philosophy and theology.
answer
False
question
The importance of the Investiture Conflict was that it
answer
formally, though not in practice, separated the church and the state in European politics
question
Monasteries and secular lords often supported the founding of towns in their territories because
answer
they saw the economic advantages of having towns in their territory.
question
The agricultural revolution was the foundation on which the commercial revolution of the High Middle Ages rested.
answer
True
question
In 1099 the Crusaders:
answer
seized Jerusalem, slaughtering much of its population in the process.
question
A major source of mechanical power in medieval Europe after 1050 was the
answer
water mill, which was used to grind grain, crush paper pulp, and press oil.
question
The genre of literature most representative of urban culture during the High Middle Ages was the
answer
fabliau.
question
The first ruler to rule a united crown of Aragon was
answer
King Alfonso II.
question
The first proponent of scholasticism is thought to have been
answer
Saint Anselm of Canterbury.
question
The Magna Carta, signed by King John of England, was a
answer
legal document defining particular rights of nobles and freemen and limiting royal power.
question
Which religious themes did Saint Francis of Assisi emphasize in his ministry and his new monastic order?
answer
apostolic poverty and an imitation of the life of Christ
question
In the late Middle Ages, Jews were routinely expelled from Italy, England, France, Germany, and Spain.
answer
True
question
The last emperor who effectively ruled all the disparate pieces of the Holy Roman Emperor was
answer
Frederick II
question
Marie de France
answer
wrote romances
question
King Henry II's important dispute with Archbishop Thomas Becket was related to
answer
whether priests should be tried in royal courts like other subjects of the king.
question
One of the crusading orders founded during the Crusades that maintained a sovereign political presence in the eastern Mediterranean long after the Crusades was over was the
answer
Knights Hospitaller.
question
In the twelfth century, the central act of worship for Christianity was
answer
prayer
question
Students who attended medieval universities
answer
generally drank to excess, gambled, fought, and were generally rowdy.
question
Historians typically divide ancient Egyptian history into _________ to facilitate the discussion of Egyptian politics and culture.
answer
kingdoms and periods
question
Due to recent research, the method of numbering Egyptian dynasties now begins with the _________ dynasty.
answer
Zero
question
One of the earliest civilizations, Sumer, flourished in what the Greeks called Mesopotamia, between the Tigris and Euphrates rivers in modern-day
answer
Iraq.
question
Before entering an enjoyable afterlife, the deceased Egyptian supposedly
answer
would be judged by Osiris and other divine judges.
question
Sumerian mathematics was very sophisticated and based on multiplications and divisions of
answer
30s and 60s.
question
Myths can be considered an early form of history.
answer
True
question
Hierarchical structures of leadership were uncommon in early hunter-gatherer societies.
answer
True
question
Hammurabi's empire was founded on
answer
political strategy and diplomacy.
question
Human cultures down to the fourth millennium B.C.E. are referred to as belonging to the Stone Age because they
answer
made most of their tools out of stone.
question
The Hebrew people, according to archaeological and linguistic evidence, were essentially
answer
Canaanite.
question
Hatshepsut was regularly portrayed as masculine in Egyptian statuary because
answer
she needed to demonstrate that, like male pharaohs, she ruled in her own right.
question
During the Late Bronze Age (1500-1200 B.C.E.) in the ancient Near East, the two great imperial powers were
answer
New Kingdom Egypt and the Hittite empire.
question
In the Book of Judges, the Hebrew people
answer
begin to settle and organize themselves into twelve tribes.
question
The priests at the greatest Egyptian temple complexes at Thebes
answer
received special favor from the Eighteenth Dynasty, which worshiped Amon-Ra.
question
The Eighteenth Dynasty in Egypt produced many strong pharaohs, among them:
answer
Hatshepsut.
question
As part of his religious reform, Amenhotep IV changed his name to Akhenaten and
answer
founded a new capital called Akhetaten, located between Thebes and Memphis.
question
The Phoenicians are also known as the
answer
Canaanites.
question
As part of his religious reform, Amenhotep IV changed his name to Akhenaten and
answer
founded a new capital called Akhetaten, located between Thebes and Memphis.
question
Unlike other rulers, Cyrus of Persia (559-529 B.C.E.)
answer
granted self-rule and religious freedom to conquered peoples.
question
Heinrich Schliemann and Sir Arthur Evans
answer
were archaeologists who dug up Troy, Mycenae, and Knossos.
question
Socrates' aim was to show that
answer
truth is real and absolute standards of goodness and virtue do exist.
question
Lyrical poetry like that written by Sappho demonstrates
answer
that individual feelings could differ greatly from the dominant Greek culture.
question
The Greek historian Herodotus believed
answer
both the Greeks and Persians were great peoples.
question
What form of government did Sparta impose on the defeated Athenians and their allies?
answer
oligarchy
question
One major result of the Persian wars was:
answer
the vindication of hoplites in battle and a boost to Athenian and Greek confidence.
question
All Greek poleis except Athens and Sparta immediately surrendered to Xerxes' invasion forces.
answer
False
question
During the Persian invasion of Greece in 480 B.C.E., Themistocles persuaded his fellow Athenians to
answer
abandon the city of Athens and let the Persians burn it.
question
A result of the defeat of the Athenian expedition to attack Syracuse was:
answer
the Athenian assembly replaced its democracy with oligarchy.
question
One major result of the Persian wars was:
answer
the vindication of hoplites in battle and a boost to Athenian and Greek confidence.
question
The Corinthian League was the first political and religious confederation of independent poleis pledged to support each other in times of need.
answer
false
question
The Greeks referred to some people with whom they came into contact as barbarians because they
answer
did not speak Greek.
question
Milesian philosophers, known as the pre-Socratics:
answer
looked to physical explanations of the workings of the universe.
question
The decisive Greek military victory over the Persians at Salamis was won by the
answer
Athenian fleet.
question
Panhellenic festivals in ancient Greece included
answer
athletic contests honoring the gods.
question
Due to the Persian Wars, the center of Greek philosophical speculation shifted from Ionia to
answer
the Greek "far west."
question
"Hellenism" led to political cooperation between the poleis.
answer
false
question
Spartan soldiers were forbidden to engage in trade.
answer
True
question
Socrates urged his followers to
answer
understand the principles of proper conduct and one's actions.
question
Lyrical poetry like that written by Sappho demonstrates
answer
that individual feelings could differ greatly from the dominant Greek culture.
question
One purpose of tragedy was to help the audience purge their emotions.
answer
True
question
Those Greeks who were able to accumulate wealth during the chaotic, isolated period
answer
eventually emerged as the Greek aristocracy.
question
Homer's poetry describes a world in which:
answer
warrior aristocrats competed for status and power and reinforced social ties through hospitality and gift-giving
question
The Twelve Tables of Law, approved in 450 B.C.E., represent
answer
the codification of existing laws for all to see and obey.
question
In the early Roman Republic, Rome was technically a democracy, but
answer
the Roman constitution essentially ensured oligarchic rule.
question
The Gracchi brothers were farmers who pressured the Senate to pass land reform laws in the second century B.C.E.
answer
False
question
Italy was the least slave-based economy known to history.
answer
False
question
One way by which the Romans were able to maintain their empire was through
answer
a system of roads constructed to be able to move army units throughout the empire.
question
The Romans did not usually impose heavy taxes or tributes on the cities they conquered, but demanded soldiers to contribute to their army.
answer
True
question
The greatest honor a Roman could hope to achieve was to
answer
sacrifice himself, his family, and his friends for the state.
question
Why couldn't the Greek city-states unite during the fourth century B.C.E.?
answer
The independent temper of Greek political life made unity impossible.
question
The leading political figure urging Greek resistance to Macedonian expansionism under Philip II was
answer
Demosthenes.
question
Social and political crises occurred in many Greek city-states during the fourth century B.C.E. due to
answer
rising food prices, stagnant wages, and high unemployment.
question
Philip's elite cavalry squad, the Companions, was made up of freed slaves who owed their freedom and position to Philip
answer
False
question
What similarities did Stoicism and Epicureanism share?
answer
a desire to explain the meaning of human existence
question
Mystery cults were popular mainly with the elite members of society.
answer
false
question
The _________ believed that the cosmos is an ordered whole in which all contradictions are resolved for ultimate good.
answer
stoics
question
The Romans did not usually impose heavy taxes or tributes on the cities they conquered, but demanded soldiers to contribute to their army.
answer
True
question
Cicero, one of the most famous Stoics of the later republic, believed in all the tenets of Stoicism EXCEPT
answer
withdraw from pubic life
question
The myth of the rape of Lucretia appealed to Roman patriotism by emphasizing:
answer
the corruption of Etruscan morals and government.
question
The greatest honor a Roman could hope to achieve was to
answer
sacrifice himself, his family, and his friends for the state.
question
The Twelve Tables of Law, approved in 450 B.C.E., represent
answer
the codification of existing laws for all to see and obey.
question
The Augustan system of government:
answer
is known as the early empire or Principate, because Octavian ruled as first citizen.
question
The equestrian order (Roman knights) was established by:
answer
businessmen whose wealth made it possible for them to own and equip warhorses.
question
Revolts in Judea in the first and second century C.E. resulted in
answer
the destruction of the Temple at Jerusalem.
question
According to the patria potestas provision of the Twelve Tables, a Roman father
answer
had absolute power over his family, up to and including the power of life and death.
question
Cultural and intellectual developments in Rome reached their pinnacle during
answer
the Principate
question
In invading Persia, Alexander began to follow the example of Cyrus the Great and:
answer
offered amnesty to cities that surrendered and no mercy to those that did not
question
Hellenistic sculpture is best described as
answer
realistic and alive
question
After a period of instability, __________was finally able to establish rule over the homeland of Alexander's Empire—Macedonia and Greece.
answer
Antigonus.
question
The Aetolian and Achaean Leagues differed from previous Greek attempts at political organization between poleis because:
answer
they represented a real political unification, with some centralization of government functions.
question
Aristotle argued that good conduct is virtuous conduct and that virtue resides in aiming to
answer
act moderately in all things.
question
n comparison to classical Greek art, Hellenistic art became
answer
more of a commodity to be bought and sold.
question
Following Sparta's victory in the Peloponnesian War:
answer
Sparta alienated the other Greek cities by trying to dominate them.
question
The Greeks referred to some people with whom they came into contact as barbarians because they
answer
did not speak Greek.
question
By the sixth century B.C.E., Greeks founded numerous colonies around the Mediterranean basin, the most significant of which were located where?
answer
Anatolia and Italy.
question
Aristotle argued that all members of Greek society ought to participate in democracy.
answer
False
question
Social and political crises occurred in many Greek city-states during the fourth century B.C.E. due to
answer
rising food prices, stagnant wages, and high unemployment.
question
Alexander the Great is said to have taken two books with him on his conquest of Persia; one was Homer's Iliad and the other was
answer
Xenophon's Anabasis.
question
Aristotle argued that good conduct is virtuous conduct and that virtue resides in aiming to
answer
act moderately in all things.
question
The league that influenced Alexander Hamilton, John Jay, and James Madison as a role model of cooperation and unification was the Achaean League.
answer
True
question
Greek rational thought began to separate in the Hellenistic world:
answer
and scientific inquiry began to be its own field of study.
question
According to Stoicism, evil does not exist.
answer
False
question
During the economic decline of Greece in the fourth century B.C.E.:
answer
former soldiers often worked as mercenaries who disrupted the household-based culture of the Greek poleis.
question
Alexander the Great is a difficult figure for historians to evaluate because
answer
so many legends grew up around him during his lifetime.
question
Following Sparta's victory in the Peloponnesian War:
answer
Sparta alienated the other Greek cities by trying to dominate them.
question
Since every polis needed hoplites
answer
poleis were forced to grant more political power to them.
question
A tyrant was often able to seize power because
answer
the hoplites supported him militarily.
question
In the Book of Judges, the Hebrew people
answer
begin to settle and organize themselves into twelve tribes.
question
The earlier Assyrian empire had been devastated by the _________ , but in the ninth century B.C.E., the foundations for a neo-Assyrian empire were laid by Assurnasirpal II
answer
Sea Peoples
question
Relations after 1500 B.C.E. are more appropriately referred to as "transnational" because
answer
the political and economic networks transcended national boundaries and identities.
question
The Late Bronze Age:
answer
was an age of superpowers.
question
The Phoenicians were descendants of the Peleset, one of the Sea Peoples. They introduced the olive and the grapevine to the Near East and exerted much of their power in the area from large citadels and control over local trade routes and a monopoly over metalsmithing that made it virtually impossible for their enemies to forge their own weapons.
answer
False
question
Mycenaean Greece played a central role in Bronze Age networks as evidenced by
answer
correspondence between Mycenaean leaders and Egyptian pharaohs and Hittite kings
question
In 1786, the scholar Sir William Jones suggested that
answer
ancient Greek and Sanskrit descended from a common, Indo-European linguistic source.
question
The people who settled in Anatolia around 2000 B.C.E. and built a powerful, militaristic kingdom there over the next four hundred years are known as the
answer
Hittites
question
Around 1200 B.C.E., an inscription by Pharaoh Ramses III records
answer
an Egyptian victory over the "Sea Peoples," invaders from the north.
question
Many small kingdoms arose in the Levant during the early Iron Age as a result of the
answer
collapse of the Hittite civilization.
question
The term thalassocracy means "sea empire."
answer
True
question
Sargon of Akkad (c. 2350 B.C.E.) is significant because he:
answer
subdued Sumer and exerted influence from Ethiopia to the Indus Valley.
question
Ur-Nammu built the great ziggurat at:
answer
Ur
question
During the Middle Kingdom, Egypt turned inward and lessened its trade and diplomatic contacts.
answer
False
question
Hammurabi might have been the first ruler in history to:
answer
have most of his laws aimed at free commoners.
question
Egypt in the Old and Middle Kingdoms was maintained chiefly through conquest.
answer
False
question
To the peoples of the ancient world, the characteristic manifestations of civilization—government, literature, science, and art—were necessarily products of
answer
city life
question
One of the significant technological achievements of the Sumerians was:
answer
the invention of the potter's wheel.
question
By becoming a "lawgiver," Hammurabi:
answer
set a new standard of kingship.
question
Since human beings in the Paleolithic period had no domestic animals
answer
they had no significant wealth beyond what they could carry.
question
Hammurabi's Law Code accorded no rights to women.
answer
False
question
The Phoenicians's greatest contribution to civilization was:
answer
their alphabet.
question
The culture of the Hittites was:
answer
strongly militaristic, prone to attacks on other peoples.
question
The Hebrew people became unified in their worship of Yahweh due to
answer
prophetic insistence on the need for a united Hebrew identity under neo-Assyrian rule.
question
Socrates' most important pupil was
answer
Plato.
question
The catalyst of the Persian Wars was
answer
a revolt instigated by the Ionian Greeks against the Persians.
question
Sparta
answer
depended on the enslaved labor of helots.
question
The role of the chorus in Greek drama was to
answer
present common Athenian opinion about the themes or action of the play.
question
Central to the Skeptical worldview is the idea that
answer
one must suspend judgment concerning everything.
question
Hellenistic cosmopolitanism differed from Persian and Roman cosmopolitanism because it
answer
was cultural rather than linked directly to a particular imperial power.
question
In comparison to classical Greek art, Hellenistic art became
answer
more of a commodity to be bought and sold.
question
The Ptolemies of Egypt promoted themselves as heirs of Alexander by
answer
ensuring Alexander's body was buried in Egypt.
question
The chief characteristics of Hellenistic architecture were:
answer
grandeur and ornamentation.
question
Alexander instituted the ritual of proskynesis to allow his Persian subjects to more easily accept him as their new ruler.
answer
True
question
Macedonian rule in Egypt was characterized by
answer
a revival of ancient traditions associated with the pharaohs.
question
The early pharaohs had difficulty establishing their rule over all Egypt due to the power of local civic and religious authorities.
answer
true
question
Tens of thousands of Sumerian clay tablets have survived
answer
telling us more about Sumer than we know about any other human society at the time.