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HSC4600 – Flashcard

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If you wanted a career in which you focus on detecting, assessing, and treating abnormal patterns of functioning, you should look into becoming a clinical:
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Practitioner
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One who systematically gathers information in order to describe, predict, and explain abnormality is a clinical:
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Scientists
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eccentricity
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unusual pattern with which others have no right to interfere. Variation btw human beings IE: someone who wants to live with 12 cats
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people who engage in frenetic, manic activity may not experience distress. They are: A) nevertheless considered to be abnormal. B) not abnormal because abnormality requires distress. C) doing something illegal, not abnormal. D) no longer considered abnormal, but were in the past.
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A
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1. A person who is so miserable that he or she can see no reason for living BEST fits which of the following definitions of abnormality? A) deviance B) distress — upsetting/unpleasent to individual C) dangerousness D) dysfunction
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B
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21. Defining abnormal behavior, using “the four Ds”: A) allows us to create diagnoses that are clear-cut and not debatable. B) allows us to eliminate those who are merely eccentric. C) allows us to include those who experience no distress. D) is still often vague and subjective.
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D
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Ancient Views and Treatments
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Stone age: trephination (cut hole in skull as treatment for abnormal behavior). Released evil spirits that were causing the problem
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Exorcism
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Treatment for abnormality in early societies -coax the evil spirits to leave or to make person;s body uncomfortable place to live -Shaman (priest) may say prayers, plead evil spirits to leave, or have person drink potions. -If these failed, shaman perfumed more extreme exocrisms like whipping or starving the person
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Hippocrates treatment Greeks & Romans
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Correct underlying physical pathology -rebalance the four humors (body chemicals) -phlegm, blood, yellow bile, black bile -focused on internal/natural causes of these problems!!
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Middles Ages Europe
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Shift back to DEMONOLOGY MODEL Church in charge! (CLERGY) Rejected all scientific forms of investigations -Controlled education
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Renaissance
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-Demonological views of abnormality continued to decline -German physician Johann Weyer believed that the mind was as susceptible to sickness as the body -Across Europe, religious shrines were devoted to the humane and loving treatment of people with mental disorders Unfortunately, this time also saw a rise of asylums – institutions whose primary purpose was care of the mentally ill. But once they began to overflow they became virtual prisons for mentally ill -became tourist attractions -treatment harsh and cruel
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19th Century: Reform and moral treatment
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Treatment for mental disorders improved *Moral treatment:* offer moral guidance and humane and respectful treatment! Patients are potentially productive humans whose mental functions had broken down UNDER STRESS -State mental hospitals created in US -William Tuke: England -Philippe Pinel: France -Benjamin Rush: US -Dorthea Dix: Boston. Opened state hospitals
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he decline in the use of moral treatment and the rise in the use of custodial care in mental hospitals at the end of the twentieth century is due to all of the following EXCEPT: A) the total lack of success of moral treatment. B) too many hospitals, resulting in funding and staffing shortages. C) prejudice against poor, immigrant patients in hospitals. D) lack of public and private funding for hospitals.
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A
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19th century decline of moral treatment because
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1. Speed that moral treatment moved. Too fast so severe money and staffing problems raised 2. Assumed all people could be cured with humanity and dignity. Proved not to be the case with SOME. On some it did work:) 3. New wave of prejudice emerged that saw them as strange and dangerous — changed their mind about making donations or allocating gov funds 4. Most of them were forge in immigrants, who they had no interest in donating/helping
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20th century Somatogenic Approach
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Emil Kraepelin’s textbook argued that PHYSICAL FACTORS or organic factors (like fatigue) are responsible for mental dysfunction Richard von Krafft-Ebing: Syphilis lead to general paresis = disorder = supported this theory *However, most medical techniques failed to work – disappointing results *BIOLOGICAL VIEW!!!* -effective psychotropic drugs inspired this (anti anxiety, depressant, psychotic) -best treatment for patients in HOSPITALS
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20th century Psychogenic Approach
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The rise in popularity of this perspective was based on work with hypnotism: -Friedrich Mesmer and *hysterical disorders*(patients with bodily problems but no physical basis) -Sigmund Freud’ s theory of psychoanalysis -The psychoanalytic approach had little effect on the treatment of severely disturbed patients in mental hospitals -Now outpatient therapy
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“Hysterical” and psychogenic approach
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suffering from bodily problems with no physical basis. His patients’ disorders are termed
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Acquiring insight about unconscious psychological processes is a feature of:
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Psychoanalysis -developed as “outpatient” therapy
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Which of the following patients is MOST likely to benefit most from psychoanalytic treatment? A) a person who needs to make profound behavioral changes very quickly B) a person who has difficulty expressing ideas and feelings verbally C) someone who is insightful and thinks clearly D) someone who is severely disturbed and in a mental hospital
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C
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114. The specialty that presently has the largest number of practitioners is: A) psychiatry. B) psychiatric social work. C) psychology. D) counseling. (women most)
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B
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What model of mental illness did MOST people believe in during the Middle Ages? A) the moral model B) the medical model C) the psychogenic model D) the demonology model
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D
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Which of the following patients is MOST likely to benefit most from psychoanalytic treatment? A) a person who needs to make profound behavioral changes very quickly B) a person who has difficulty expressing ideas and feelings verbally C) someone who is insightful and thinks clearly
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C
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Which of the following BEST reflects the impact of deinstitutionalization? A) Fine; most people with severe disturbances are receiving treatment. B) Not so well; many people with severe disturbances are in jail or on the street. C) Better than hospitalization; at least care is consistent and there is no shuttling back and forth through different levels of care. D) Well; communities have been able to pick up the care of those with severe disturbances and provide effective treatment for most all of them.
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B
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83. A medical researcher develops a drug that decreases symptoms of depression and other “mood” disorders. The general term for this type of drug is: A) psychogenic. B) somatogenic. C) psychotropic.
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C
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91. In the United States today, one is MOST likely to find a severely ill mental patient: A) in a mental hospital. B) on the street or in jail. C) receiving drug counseling in a shelter. D) in private therapy paid for by the state.
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B
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92. Which of the following statements BEST reflects the current care for people with less severe disturbances? A) Many are treated by generalists who specialize in a number of different types of disorders. B) Private insurance companies are likely to cover outpatient treatment. C) It is difficult to find treatment for someone experiencing a “problem in living.” D) Private psychotherapy is available only to the wealthy.
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B
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which of the following pairs of words best describes the current emphasis in mental health?
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Prevention and positivism The community mental health approach has given rise to the prevention movement Prevention programs have been further energized by the growing interest in positive psychology – the study and enhancement of positive feelings, traits, and abilities
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If your university had a first-year program designed to ease the transition from high school to college and to decrease the dropout rates, that program would have elements MOST similar to: A) mental health prevention programs. B) positive psychology programs. C) deinstitutionalization programs. D) outpatient therapy.
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A
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If you were receiving multicultural therapy, you could expect all of the following EXCEPT: A) greater sensitivity to cultural issues in therapy. B) a focus on the uniqueness of the issues you face. C) a focus on healthy feelings and actions rather than on problems. D) sensitivity to the traditions of your particular culture.
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c
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Which of the following sequences is correct in terms of prominence of mental health treatments in the United States during the twentieth century and beyond? A) sociocultural, biological, psychoanalytic, behavioral B) psychoanalytic, biological, cognitive, sociocultural C) humanistic, sociocultural, biological psychoanalytic D) biological, humanistic, psychoanalytic, sociocultural
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B
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112. A physician who offers psychotherapy is called a:
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psychiatrist. They go to medical school and then 3-4 years of additional training (residency) Vs clinical psychologist earn doctorate in psychology in about 4-5 years and then 1 year internship in mental health setting
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Challenges faced by clinical researchers include all of the following EXCEPT: A) measuring abnormal concepts such as mood change, assessing private though, and measuring unconscious motives is difficult B) there are very few graduate students trained in clinical research. C) rights of research participants must be carefully guarded. D) there are many variables to consider, such as gender, race, and culture.
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B
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22. Internal validity reflects how well a study: A) rules out the effects of all variables except those being studied. B) can be generalized to others that are not studied directly. C) appears to be measuring what it is designed to measure. D) predicts some future behavior.
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a
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What three features allow correlational/experimental investigators draw a board conclusion on abnormality?
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1. Observe many individuals = collect enough info to draw a BROAD conclusion 2. Apply procedures uniformly so other researchers can replicate a study to see whether it gives the same findings 3. Use statical tests to analyze results which indicate whether broad conclusions are justified
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Epidemiological Correlation Studies
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Reveal/DESCRIBE the incidence and prevalence of a disorder in a particular population -Incidence = number of new cases that emerge in a given period -Prevalence = total number of cases in a given period
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Longitudinal Correlation Studies
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Researchers observe the same individuals on many occasions over a long period -Their correlations provide clues about which events are more likely to be causes and which are more likely to be consequences since you know the order of events
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Statistical vs clinical significance
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Stastical= participants improvement in functioning (large or small) occurred bc of treatment (experiments can determine this) Clinical= whether the amount of improvement is meaningful in the individuals life (only individuals and their clinicians can determine)
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Which of the following distinguishes a quasi-experimental study from a true experiment? A) The quasi-experiment does not use a control group. B) The quasi-experiment uses multiple groups for comparison. C) The quasi-experiment does not use any experimental control. D) The quasi-experiment does not allow for manipulation of the independent variable.
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d
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Generalized Anxiety Disorder
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disorder marked by persistent and excessive feelings of anxiety and worry about numerous events and activities. general & persistent feelings of worry & anxiety. DSM 5 requires it to be present for at least 3 months and it used to be 6 months
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sociocultural theory (GAD)
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GAD most likely in those faced with dangerous societal conditions and threatening environments. war, poverty, natural disasters, race & ethnicity. *note- sociocultural variables not only factor at work because not all people in threatening environments develop GAD
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psychodynamic theory (GAD)
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Freud- everything goes back to childhood. Kids experience realistic (anxiety when facing actual danger), neurotic (anxiety when repeatedly prevented from experiencing id impulses), and moral (anxiety when punished for expressing id) anxiety. Today’s psychodynamic theorists say that GAD can be traced to inadequacies in childhood relationships.
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psychodynamic therapies (GAD)
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free association, transference, resistance, and dreams. Object relations therapists (identify and settle the childhood relationship problem) studies suggest these are only of MODEST help and are best used short term psychodynamic in therapy.
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humanistic theory (GAD)
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sufferers fail to receive unconditional positive regard & have conditions of worth -Client centered therapy -Not much support for this approach, only sometimes superior to placebo
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Metacognitive theory of GAD (cognitive)
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people with GAD have both positive and negative beliefs about worrying Positive: worrying useful way of appeasing and coping with threats in life Negative: society teaches them that worrying is bad so they come to believe their repeated worrying is harmful and uncontrollable! METAWORRIES: worry about the fact that they are worrying!! *Research has supported this theory
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Metaworry
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Intolerance of uncertainty theory for GAD (cognitive)
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Consider it unacceptable negative events may occur -Worry constantly such events are about to occur *supported by research
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Avoidance theory of GAD (cognitive)
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People with GAD have greater bodily arrousal than other people and that worrying actually serves to reduce this arrousal by distracting the individual from unpleasant physical feelings *supported
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Cognitive Therapies for GAD
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*Rational-emotive therapy* -therapists point out the irrational assumptions held by clients and suggesting more appropriate assumptions and give them hw to challenge these assumptions -Also for social anxiety *Mindfulness-based cognitive therapy* -acceptance and commitment therapy -Help clients become ware of their thoughts and accept such thoughts!
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Your worries? They’re only thoughts. Don’t try to stop them, but recognize that they’re thoughts, and don’t let them upset you so much.” This statement MOST likely would come from someone using which form of therapy for generalized anxiety disorder? A) rational-emotive therapy B) mindfulness-based cognitive therapy C) intolerance of uncertainty therapy D) biofeedback
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B
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GABA
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receptors receive this neurotransmitter to stop firing and stop anxiety Benzodiazpine helps GABA bind to these receptors!
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Biological treatments for GAD
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o Sedative-hypnotic drugs: help calm people with anxiety o Relaxation Therapy: teach clients how to relax when faced with stressful situations o Biofeedback: client given info about physiological reactions as they occur and learns to control he reactions voluntarily (via EMG) learn voluntary muscle tension reduction
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52. According to current research, using relaxation training to treat generalized anxiety disorder is: A) the best treatment available. B) simply not effective. C) better than similar treatments such as meditation. D) better than nothing, and about as effective as meditation.
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D
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Narrow social phobia
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fear of talking in public or eating in front of others Ex: public speaking
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Broad social phobia
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fear of functioning poorly in front of people or being evaluated by others
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74. The first step in systematic desensitization treatment is: A) role playing. B) relaxation training. C) construction of a fear hierarchy. D) graded pairings with the phobic object.
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B
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What forms can obsessions be
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Wishes Impulses Ideas Images (germs lurking everywhere) Doubts (one will make a wrong decision)
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Common themes of OCD and the MOST COMMON
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MOST COMMON: dirt/contamination -religion -sexuality -orderliness -sexuality
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Psychodynamic perspective of OCD
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ID impulses: obsessions ED defense mechanism: compulsions = isolation, undoing, reaction formation (lifestyle that opposes their unacceptable impulses) Freud said it was from the ANAL stage of development Conflict btw ID and EGO = OCD
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People with OCD tend to have what according to the cognitive perspective
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1. Be more depressed than others 2. Have exceptionally high standards of conduct and morality 3. Believe thoughts are equal to actions and are capable of bringing harm 4. Believe that they can, and should, have perfect control over their thoughts and behaviors
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biological perspective (ocd)
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biological perspective (ocd) twin studies show partial genetic link. -Serotonin levels low so ANTI-DEPRESSANTS MAY HELP -glutamate, GABA, and dopamine may also play a role. -Brain may function abnormally, specifically the *orbitofrontal cortex & caudate nuclei* -treatments involve drugs but high relapse occurs with drug therapy only.
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Mindfulness-based cognitive therapy
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Guide patients to become aware of their painful thoughts and feeling that streamy brought heir minds and to accept many thoughts and feelings rather than try to eliminate them
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Diatethesis-stress explanation of biopsychosocial theories
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People 1st have biological, psychological, or sociocultural predisposition to develop a disorder and then subjected to episodes of severe stress!
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The model of abnormality that focuses on the role of values and choices in behavior is the: A) cognitive model. B) sociocultural model. C) psychodynamic model. D) humanistic-existential model.
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D
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An assumption of determinism is that abnormal behaviors: A) are learned. B) are not accidental. C) have physiological bases. D) are due to unconscious conflicts.
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B
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53. If a patient relives past repressed feelings, that patient is said to have experienced ______, according to psychoanalysts. A) repression B) transference C) resistance D) catharsis
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D
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Teresa has been told that her course of therapy is likely to take a year or more because it involves the reshaping of her personality and that takes many sessions. Her therapy is MOST likely: A) client-centered therapy. B) psychodynamic therapy. C) cognitive-behavioral therapy. D) existential-humanistic therapy.
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B
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Evidence of the effectiveness of psychodynamic therapy: A) is research based. B) comes from pharmaceutical companies. C) comes from double-blind studies. D) is limited to case studies.
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D
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76. Today, ______ clinical psychology is the MOST popular theoretical orientation among professional psychologists. A) behavioral B) psychodynamic C) cognitive D) interpersonal
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C
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Henry goes into a fit of depression and self-abuse when anyone criticizes or expresses disapproval. Much of what he does is for the purpose of getting people to like him. Cognitive theorists would say that Henry’s depression results in large part from: A) modeling. B) self-efficacy. C) illogical thinking. D) unconscious feelings of loss.
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C
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If you are being encouraged to see the link between the way you interpret your experiences and the way you feel, and to question the accuracy of your interpretations, you are probably receiving: A) humanistic therapy. B) existential therapy. C) cognitive therapy. D) psychoanalytic therapy.
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C
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So-called “new wave of cognitive therapy” differs from traditional cognitive therapy in that it emphasizes: A) challenging irrational cognitions. B) accepting problematic thoughts. C) working to change unacceptable thoughts. D) researching the effectiveness of the therapy.
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B
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Humanists would say that an individual who cares about others, is spontaneous, courageous, and independent is: A) authentic. B) self-actualizing. C) role playing. D) experiencing catharsis.
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B Believe that humans have this natural tendency to self-afctualize by accepting weaknesses and strengths
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If you recognize your worth as a person, Carl Rogers would say that you have developed: A) spontaneity. B) unconditional self-regard. C) unconditional positive regard. D) conditions of worth.
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B
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Gestalt Therapy of Humanistic Appraoch
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Drive patient to self-regintion by frustrating and challenging them! -Role playing -Skillfull frustration -“I language”
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Existential Theories and Therapy
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Belief that psychological dysfunction is caused by (self-deception;* people *hide from life’s responsibilities* and fail to recognize that it is up to them to give meaning to their lives –In therapy, people are encouraged to accept personal responsibility for their problems –Goals more important than technique –Great emphasis placed on client-therapist relationship
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The model with its roots in the philosophical idea that people are dynamic beings, giving meaning to their existence through their actions, is the: A) humanistic model. B) existential model. C) cognitive model. D) behavioral model.
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B
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The proper conclusion from research studies that show a relationship between devout religious people who see God as warm and caring and psychological health is that: A) religion causes people to deal better with the challenges of life. B) psychologically healthy people have more time and energy for religion. C) people who have a religious community to support them are healthier. D) people who are more devout are also psychologically healthier.
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D
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If a therapist advised you to pay attention to how you were communicating with family members and to change harmful patterns, the therapist would MOST likely to be practicing: A) structural family therapy. B) conjoint family therapy. C) feminist therapy. D) self-help therapy.
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B
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CH 4 A functional analysis involves: A) using projective tests. B) learning about a person’s behaviors. C) learning about unconscious conflicts in the client. D) obtaining information about the components of a person’s personality.
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B Assumes behaviors are learned
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The clinical interviewer MOST interested in stimuli that trigger abnormal responses would have what orientation? A) cognitive B) psychodynamic C) humanistic D) behavioral
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D
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Which of the following is a reason to question the validity of clinical interviews? A) People respond differently to different interviewers. B) People may respond differently to clinicians who are not of their race. C) On different days, people might describe themselves differently. D) Clinicians might overemphasize pathology.
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d
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If a clinician wanted to know more detailed information about a person’s functioning in a specific area, the clinician would use: A) a response inventory. B) a validity assessment. C) a measure of reliability. D) standardization.
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A
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5. Which of the following is a valid critique of the use of response inventories? A) Response inventories don’t have good face validity. B) Response inventories are not used much these days. C) Response inventories are standardized too rigidly. D) Response inventories are improvised as the need arises and are not well-tested.
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d
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How does an MRI make a picture of the brain? A) It measures the degree of activity in the various areas scanned. B) It uses X-rays, and pictures are taken at several different angles. C) It relies on the magnetic properties of the atoms in the cells scanned. D) It uses a recording of the electrical impulses produced by the neurons in the brain.
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c
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Symptoms such as sadness, loss of appetite, and low energy cluster together to form a: A) treatment. B) classification system. C) syndrome. D) medical condition.
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C
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tudies show that errors in diagnosis MOST commonly involve information gathered: A) early in the assessment process, and in a hospital setting. B) late in the assessment process, and in a hospital setting. C) early in the assessment process, and in a private office setting. D) late in the assessment process, and in a private office setting.
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A
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The _____ movement has tried to identify a set of common strategies that are present in the work of all effective therapists, regardless of the clinician’s particular orientation. ecumenical uniformity rapprochement naturalistic
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Reapproachement
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Imagine that you are asked to give a scientific opinion on the use of polygraphic evidence. Your BEST response would be: A) “Although they are used widely, they are not particularly reliable.” B) “The APA endorses their use.” C) “On average, 50 out of 100 truths are categorized as lies.” D) “Most courts admit evidence from polygraphs in criminal trials.”
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A
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A prisoner eligible for parole is required to take a polygraph test. Although the prisoner tells the truth in response to one question, the polygraph operator records the response as a lie. According to recent research, this kind of error is: A) extremely common; over one-third of true statements are interpreted as lies. B) unusual; less than 10 percent of true statements are interpreted as lies. C) rare; less than 3 percent of true statements are interpreted as lies. D) very rare; less than 1 percent of true statements are interpreted as lies.
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B
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The experience of feeling like weeping constantly would be considered a(n) ______of depression. A) cognitive B) emotional C) behavioral D) motivational
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b…
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23. To receive a diagnosis of major depressive episode, melancholic, the individual must display: A) repeated episodes. B) fluctuation in mood during the year. C) motor immobility or excessive activity. D) almost no emotional response to pleasurable events.
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D
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Jamal is experiencing a major depressive episode that appears to have begun three weeks ago. He is miserable and suffers from at least five symptoms of depression. No unusually stressful events have occurred in the past year. Based on these data, the diagnosis would be: A) postpartum depression. B) reactive depression. C) exogenous depression. D) endogenous depression.
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d
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A woman who has just given birth is anxious, has trouble sleeping, and feels sad. These symptoms diminish in the next couple of weeks. What she has experienced is most likely: A) the “baby blues,” something experienced by under half of new mothers. B) the “baby blues,” something experienced by over half of new mothers. C) postpartum depression, something experienced by over half of new mothers. D) postpartum depression, something experienced by under half of new mothers.
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A
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For women experiencing postpartum depression, which of the following is true regarding psychotherapy for depression? A) Most women stop having depressive symptoms within four weeks after the birth of their child. B) A psychodynamic approach works particularly well. C) Many women with postpartum depression find self-help support groups particularly helpful. D) They should avoid antidepressant medications. Such medications work well for unipolar depression but not for postpartum depression.
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c
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. Assume that a new study suggests the corpus callosum may cause unipolar depression by moving messages too slowly from one cerebral hemisphere to the other. This study would be: A) very unusual; previous studies have most strongly connected other brain areas to depression. B) one-of-a-kind; previous studies do not connect specific brain areas to depression. C) unusual; only a few previous studies connect this brain area to depression. D) expected; many previous studies connect this brain area to depression. This study is a replication.
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a
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5. A person suspected of having unipolar depression has a smaller-than-normal hippocampus, although it produces a normal number of new neurons. This is: A) normal. B) unusual; those with unipolar depression usually have a smaller-than-normal hippocampus, causing it to produce a low number of new neurons. C) unusual; those with unipolar depression usually have a normal-sized hippocampus, causing it to produce a low number of new neurons. D) very unusual; those with unipolar depression usually have a normal-sized hippocampus, causing it to produce a normal number of new neurons.
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B
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46. The belief that the prefrontal cortex has a very important part to play in the development of depression: A) is probably wrong; current studies focus on the hypothalamus. B) is probably correct; higher activity in the prefrontal cortex is associated with depression. C) is probably correct: lower activity in the prefrontal cortex is associated with depression. D) is probably correct, although researchers haven’t identified the specifics of the relationship.
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c
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Recent research indicates that all of the following brain structures or regions are part of the brain circuit involved in unipolar depression, EXCEPT: A) Brodmann Area 25. B) the corpus callosum. C) the hippocampus. D) the amygdala.
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B
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53. In general, object relations theorists follow which theoretical perspective? A) cognitive B) humanistic C) existential D) psychodynamic
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D
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. Behaviorists explain the downward spiral of depression by theorizing that: A) depressed behavior leads to even fewer opportunities for social rewards. B) depressed people aren’t responsive to normal social rewards. C) depressed family members give inaccurate self-reports. D) depressed mood cannot be alleviated by positive experiences.
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a
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The dean of academic affairs visits a professor’s class as part of a tenure review. At the conclusion of the lecture, the dean exits hurriedly, without saying a word to the professor. The professor, who is prone to depression, concludes, “The dean hated my class so much he was too embarrassed to speak to me.” This is an example of a(n): A) overgeneralization. B) arbitrary inference. C) selective abstraction. D) magnification and minimization.
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b
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67. Which of these statements would NOT reflect a part of the cognitive triad? A) Everyone is out to get me. B) Life is just too overwhelming. C) I don’t even want to wake up tomorrow. D) I just can’t go on.
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A
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70. If I’m in a depressed mood and all I do is think about my mood, without trying to change it, I’m making what kind of response? A) helplessness B) hopelessness C) ruminative D) perseverative
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c Your aunt says, “I know I’m depressed, and I think and worry about my depression constantly; however, I never actually do anything about it.” She is: A) providing an example of the cognitive triad. B) making ruminative responses. ** C) committing errors in logic. D) regressing toward the oral stage of development.
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71. All of Beck’s cognitively based explanations for depression have received research support, EXCEPT for: A) the cognitive triad. B) automatic thoughts. C) maladaptive attitudes. D) All of these explanations have received research support.
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d
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A woman who was frequently but unpredictably beaten by her husband was finally taken to a shelter by the police. While there she did not take advantage of educational and job training opportunities. How would cognitive theorists explain her behavior? A) automatic negative thoughts B) faulty cognitive triad C) learned helplessness D) arbitrary attribution
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c
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90. Which of the following statements is NOT generally accurate regarding gender and depression? A) Women are more likely to be diagnosed with depression. B) Men have less frequent bouts of depression. C) Women have longer-lasting bouts of depression. D) Men respond less successfully to therapy for depression.
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d
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Pierre feels terrible. He is sad, tired, and depressed, but he refuses to show it. This is consistent with the: A) hormone theory. B) artifact theory. C) quality-of-life theory. D) social pressure.
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b
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Artifact theory differs importantly from other sociocultural theories of depression because it suggests: women and men are equally likely to develop depression. B) hormone changes mask the development of depression in women. C) concern about body weight can be both a cause and a result of depression. D) depression is caused by examining one’s feelings too closely.
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c
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101. Of the following, the MOST accurate description of the symptoms of mania would be that they: A) are highly correlated with positive life events. B) are the same as those of depression (e.g., sadness), but accompanied by aggressiveness. C) don’t include a sense of the impact of one’s actions on others. D) very seldom include physical activity, usually including only mental activity.
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c
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A person experiencing mania goes out with friends, looking for adventure. Additionally, the individual talks loudly, runs rather than walks, and has given away a lot of money to random people on the street. These symptoms are primarily: emotional and cognitive. B) physical and cognitive. C) motivational and behavioral. D) motivational and emotional.
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c
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On an impulse, David decides to throw a huge party. It takes four days of round-the-clock work to get everything ready, then David welcomes over 200 guests. When the police stop by because David has blocked a public road to have room for the party, he flies into a rage. MOST likely, David is experiencing: A) a manic phase of bipolar II disorder. B) a manic phase of bipolar I disorder. C) a manic phase of cyclothymic disorder. D) mania.
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B
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Somene who experiences a half-dozen alternations between mild mania and major depression within a one-year time span would be classified as: A) bipolar II seasonal. B) bipolar II rapid cycling. C) bipolar I mixed episodes. D) bipolar I.
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b
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Assume you have a friend who is a talented artist, and has occasional short-term hypomania. What is the best thing, in terms of being a creative, productive artist, that your friend could do? A) Seek immediate, in-depth treatment; hypomania severely limits artists. B) Do nothing; sometimes, hypomania increases artistic creativity and productivity. C) Try, at least occasionally, to feel mildly depressed; cyclothymic disorder is characteristic of most great artists. D) Try, at least occasionally, to feel severely depressed; bipolar II disorder is characteristic of most great artists.
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B Aritsitic ability occurs in mild cases BUT NOT SEVERE
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118. Biochemical explanations for bipolar disorder focus on all of the following EXCEPT: A) neurotransmitter activity. B) ion activity. C) hormonal functioning. D) genetic factors.
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C– It is focused on in unipolar
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Studies reporting abnormalities in the basal ganglia of individuals with bipolar disorder provide the strongest support for which of the following causes of biopolar disorder? A) inappropriate neurotransmitter levels B) genetic linkage patterns C) brain structure D) ion activity at the cellular level
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C & cerbellum
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124. Recent research using genetic linkage studies has looked for possible patterns of inheritance of bipolar disorders. The results suggest that: A) there does not appear to be a genetic component in the development of bipolar disorders. B) there may be several different genes that establish a predisposition to develop bipolar disorders. C) the close relatives of people with bipolar disorders have an 80 percent chance of having one of these disorders. D) careful studies in other countries suggest that environmental factors are of far greater importance than genetic factors in the development of bipolar disorders.
answer

B
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Of the following statements, which is accurate, based on current research? A) Unipolar depression and bipolar disorder both have several important factors. B) Unipolar depression has one major factor; bipolar disorder has several important factors. C) Unipolar depression has several important factors; bipolar disorder has one major factor. D) Unipolar depression and bipolar disorder have one major factor.
answer

c BIPOLAR is one factor (biological)
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Which form of depression treatment lacks strong supportive evidence of its effectiveness in treating unipolar depression? psychodynamic behavioral cognitive biological
answer

psychodynamic -RARELY EFFECTIVE BY ITSELF IN TREATING UNIPOALR
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As many as 30 percent of patients with depression who use these two treatment modalities, as well as cognitive-behavioral therapy, are likely to relapse after cessation of symptoms. biological and cognitive biological and behavioral cognitive and interpersonal
answer

cognitive and interpersonal
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If your therapist tried to reintroduce you to pleasurable activities, reinforced nondepressive actions, and improved your social skills, your therapist would be using: A) psychodynamic therapy. B) behavioral therapy. C) cognitive therapy. D) sociocultural therapy.
answer

B BEST FOR MILD UNIPOLAR DEPRESSION
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Which of the following is important in using contingency management effectively? A) Increase the total number of activities, both positive and negative, so the person can learn to tell the difference. B) Make sure that the person receives reinforcement for engaging in positive activities. C) Be sure the person receives feedback from a group regarding which activities are positive and which are negative. D) Develop ways for the person to express depressed feelings through journal writing.
answer

B part of behavioral approach for unipolar
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Which of the following is the BEST example of the therapy technique known as behavioral activation? A) systematically ignoring the patient’s depressive behavior B) asking patients to say whatever comes into their minds C) adding positive activities to the patient’s life D) asking family members to help reinforce the patient’s positive behavior
answer

c
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. Current research regarding the effectiveness of behavioral therapy for depression is MOST consistent with which of the following statements? A) Therapy is most effective when techniques are used one at a time, in isolation. B) Increasing one’s positive activities is more effective than just keeping track of them. C) Using a combination of behavioral techniques works better than using just one. D) Behavior therapists usually reject the addition of cognitive techniques to their therapy.
answer

c
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A depressed individual receiving therapy is told that many, even most of the negative thoughts that an individual experiences and records, have no basis in fact. MOST likely, the therapist is: A) changing primary attitudes. B) challenging automatic thoughts. C) training the individual in dichotomous thinking. D) negatively reinforcing verbal avoidance responses.
answer

b
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Clients who tend to see everything that occurs as either all right or all wrong, with nothing in between, need to focus on which phase of Beck’s treatment for depression? A) increasing activities and elevating mood B) challenging automatic thoughts C) identifying negative thinking and biases D) changing primary attitudes
answer

C
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Clients who test their assumptions about what is causing their depression are working in which phase of Beck’s treatment program? A) changing primary attitudes B) challenging automatic thoughts C) identifying negative thinking and biases D) increasing activities and elevating mood
answer

A
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Interpersonal psychotherapists believe that therapy must address: A) maladaptive attitudes. B) ego-superego conflicts. C) role transitions in relationships. D) developing social skills to elicit reinforcement from others.
answer

c
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84. Apparently tricyclics work by: A) blocking the production of norepinephrine and serotonin. B) blocking the reuptake of the tricyclic by the neurotransmitter. C) blocking the ingestion of the tricyclic. D) blocking the reuptake of norepinephrine and serotonin.
answer

d
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87. Which of the following best represents how tricyclics work? A) tricyclic ingested, reuptake of norepinephrine and serotonin blocked, larger amounts of norepinephrine and serotonin released, less neuronal firing. B) tricyclic ingested, smaller amounts of norepinephrine and serotonin released, normal amounts of norepinephrine and serotonin released, reuptake triggers more neuronal firing. C) tricyclic ingested, less neuronal firing, more norepinephrine and serotonin released, reuptake slows release of norepinephrine and serotonin. D) tricyclic ingested, norepinephrine and serotonin blocked, neurons cease firing briefly, neurons begin firing without norepinephrine and serotonin.
answer

c
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90. Compared to earlier antidepressant drugs, “second-generation” antidepressant drugs: A) work faster and more effectively. B) work faster, but not more effectively. C) do not work faster, but do work more effectively. D) do not work either faster or more effectively.
answer

d
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4. Outcome studies on treatments for depression, comparing drug treatments with cognitive and cognitive-behavioral therapies, show that: A) cognitive therapies work quicker, but must be combined with drug therapy over the long run. B) all are equally effective, both initially, and in preventing recurrences. C) all three are equally likely to be prescribed by physicians. D) cognitive therapies are better at preventing relapses unless the drug therapy is continued even after the patient has improved.
answer

d
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Which of the following would a psychodynamic therapist be MOST likely to say about studies regarding the effectiveness of psychodynamic therapy for depression? A) The therapy does not lend itself to empirical research. B) Therapists’ reports of individual recovery and progress should be disregarded. C) The therapy is less effective than other methods. D) More empirical studies need to be done before drawing conclusions.
answer

A
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What would be your BEST recommendation (i.e., MOST scientifically valid) about behavioral therapy for an adolescent experiencing depression? A) There is really no difference in treatment effectiveness among adults and adolescents. B) Avoid drug therapy because of the side effects for adolescents. C) Use a combination of drug therapy and cognitive therapy. D) Focus on the brain stimulation treatments—ECT, in particular.
answer

c but in adults its psychotherapy and drugs
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53. What appears to be the KEY factor in determining the types of food that are likely to be eaten in a binge? A) oral stimulation through crunchiness B) high protein through meat C) rapidity through soft texture D) taste of the food
answer

C
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Vomiting as a compensatory behavior for those experiencing bulimia: A) prevents the absorption of about 90 percent of calories consumed. B) ironically, leads to greater hunger and more frequent binges. C) helps one to feel full quicker during the next binge. D) is often done in public with no attempt to hide the behavior.
answer

B 1/2 caloriies
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68. In which of the following disorders would you expect nearly equal numbers of men and women? A) restricted-type anorexia nervosa B) binge eating disorder C) purging-type anorexia nervosa D) bulimia nervosa
answer

b
question

According to Hilde Bruch, which of the following characterizes ineffective parents whose children are prone to eating disorders? A) They feed children crying from hunger and comfort ones crying from fear. B) They feed children too much, regardless of whether they are crying or not. C) They feed anxious children and comfort tired ones. D) They decide when their children are hungry and misinterpret the actual condition of their children
answer

d
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76. People with alexithymia are NOT able to: A) tell when they are hungry. B) admit what is causing their eating disorder. C) put descriptive labels on what they are feeling. D) accurately represent how large they are.
answer

c an inability to describe one’s feelings accurately
question

Support for the idea that mood disorders set the stage for eating disorders comes from evidence that shows: A) high levels of serotonin in the brain. B) that eating disorders have been successfully treated using anti-anxiety medication. C) that close relatives of people with eating disorders have a high rate of mood disorders. D) that people with eating disorders are not more likely themselves to be diagnosed with depression.
answer

C
question

melinda is a 23-year old woman who complains of chronic abdominal pain, dizziness, nausea, and lack of sexual desire, for which there was no organic cause. She would most likely be diagnosed with:
answer

Somatization disorder
question

todays leading explanations for hysterical somatoform disorders come from the
answer

psychodynamic, behavioral, and cognitive models
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9. In which of the following cases are you MOST likely to develop an eating disorder? A) if you have a fraternal twin with anorexia nervosa B) if you have a fraternal twin with bulimia nervosa C) if you have an identical twin with anorexia nervosa D) if you have an identical twin with bulimia nervosa
answer

c
question

If you are overweight, the development of which of the following is MOST likely to appeal to you? A) a way to safely block GLP-1 in humans B) a way to safely activate the lateral hypothalamus in humans C) a way to safely deactivate the ventromedial hypothalamus in humans D) a way to safely increase GLP-1 in humans
answer

d
question

Which of the following conclusions about family patterns and eating disorders is MOST supported by systematic research? A) People with eating disorders come from enmeshed families. B) Children who take on a “sick role” will likely develop eating disorders. C) Individuality and independence are related to the development of eating disorders. D) Families of those with bulimia nervosa and anorexia nervosa vary widely.
answer

d
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The first step in treating anorexia nervosa is to: A) correct family coping patterns. B) resolve unresolved oral conflicts. C) correct maladaptive thought patterns. D) help the person start to regain the lost weight.
answer

d
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129. A person who was receiving the best and most current treatment for an eating disorder would receive treatment designed to: A) deal only with changing the poor eating habits. B) deal first with what caused the eating disorder, then correct it. C) deal only with what caused the eating disorder. D) deal first with changing the eating habits, then with what caused them.
answer

d
question

For which of the following individuals is recovery from anorexia MOST likely? A) someone who is a teenager rather than a young adult B) someone who has lost a relatively large percentage of body weight C) someone who also has sex problems D) someone who enters therapy late in his or her disorder
answer

a
question

141. All the treatment methods for bulimia nervosa share the immediate goal of: A) changing distorted self-perceptions. B) addressing the underlying causes of the bulimic patterns. C) assisting patients to eliminate their binge-purge patterns. D) forcing patients to accept the responsibility for their actions.
answer

c
question

All treatments for anorexia nervosa share the long-term common goal of: A) producing weight gain in the patient. B) addressing the underlying causes of the disorders. C) moving the patient out of the situation that caused the problem. D) forcing the patient to accept responsibility for his or her actions.
answer

b
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A factor increasing the likelihood of a relapse of bulimia is: A) length of time in treatment. B) age at onset of the disorder. C) age at which treatment is implemented. D) development of a pattern of frequent vomiting.
answer

d
question

8. Freud believed that the three central forces that shape the personality were the: A) instincts, the ego, and the self. B) biological forces, culture, and learning. C) consciousness, unconsciousness, and instincts. D) instinctual needs, rational thinking, and moral standards.
answer

d
question

If a patient chose a dynamic focus for therapy, the patient would MOST likely be receiving: A) relational psychoanalytic therapy. B) psychoanalysis. C) extended psychoanalytic therapy. D) short-term psychodynamic therapy.
answer

d
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96. If you recognize your worth as a person, Carl Rogers would say that you have developed: A) spontaneity. B) unconditional self-regard. C) unconditional positive regard. D) conditions of worth.
answer

b
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7. The term for the form of psychotherapy pioneered by Carl Rogers is: A) client-centered. B) insight. C) Gestalt. D) existential.
answer

a
question

Taijin kyofusho
answer

Japanese fear of offending or embarrassing others -so avoid social situations (anxietY)
question

Rational-emotive therapy for cognitive theory of GAD
answer

Point out irrational assumptions Suggest more appropriate assumptions Assign related homework Studies suggest at least modest relief from treatment
question

Changing reaction to worry therapy for cognitive theory of GAD
answer

Educate pts about the role of worrying in GAD and have them observe their bodily arousal and cognitive responses across life situations Pt’s learn to identify their worrying and their attempts to control their lives by worrying Pt’s learn to see the world as less threatening, to adopt more constructive ways of coping, and to worry less
question

Biological challenge test for panic disorder -cognitive approach
answer

panic sensations -Induce physical sensations, which cause feelings of panic: Jump up and down && Run up a flight of steps -Practice coping strategies and making more accurate interpretations
question

How strong is the evidence supporting the usefulness of client-centered therapy for those with generalized anxiety disorder? A) not very strong: case reports of client-centered therapy’s usefulness are not strongly supported by controlled studies B) not very strong: controlled studies of client-centered therapy’s usefulness are not strongly supported by case reports C) very strong in both case reports and controlled studies D) very weak in both case reports and controlled studies.
answer

a
question

In terms of cognitive theories explaining generalized anxiety disorder, a good deal of research supports: A) only metacognitive theory. B) only intolerance of uncertainty theory. C) neither metacognitive theory nor intolerance of uncertainty theory. D) both metacognitive theory and intolerance of uncertainty theory.
answer

d
question

Of the following, the BEST description of the “avoidance theory of generalized anxiety disorder” is: A) worrying serves to reduce bodily arousal. B) worry interferes with our ability to cope with life. C) worrying keeps the focus on emotions, not cognitions. D) worrying is an uncontrollable part of life.
answer

a
question

Panic disorder appears to be related to abnormal activity of which neurotransmitter? A) norepinephrine B) epinephrine C) serotonin D) endorphin
answer

a –Assocaited with anti depression medicine too
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110. The cognitive explanation for panic disorders is that people who have them: A) have relatives who are atypically anxious. B) are prone to allergies and have immune deficiencies. C) misinterpret bodily sensations. D) experience more stress than average.
answer

c
question

Imagine that researchers investigating panic disorder gave you a drug that caused you to hyperventilate and your heart to beat rapidly. You would have been given a(n): A) in vivo test. B) modeling test. C) covert sensitization test. D) biological challenge test.
answer

d
question

Antidepressants that are effective in treating obsessive-compulsive disorder serve to: A) increase serotonin activity in the brain. B) increase norepinephrine activity in the brain. C) increase the level of all brain neurotransmitters. D) decrease serotonin activity in the brain.
answer

a Caudtate nuclei & orbiofrontal area in brain
question

Psycholgoical debriefing therapy for PTSD
answer

Normalize responses to the disaster Encourage expressions of anxiety, anger, and frustration Teach self-help skills Provide referrals
question

Mental status exam
answer

Type of structured clinical interview -set of interview questions and observations designed to revolt he degree and nature of a clients abnormal functioning -Evaluate client’s awareness, orientation with time and place, attention span, memory, judgement, mood, appearance
question

Bender Visual Motor Gestalt Test and Clinical tests
answer

Type of neuropsychological test –indirectly asseses brain function by assessing cognitive, perceptual, and motor functioning on certain tasks and interprets abnormal performances and indicators of brain problems —look at design on 9 cards and copy of paper than redraw from memory)
question

If a clinician wanted to know more detailed information about a person’s functioning in a specific area, the clinician would use: A) a response inventory. B) a validity assessment. C) a measure of reliability. D) standardization.
answer

A
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51. An inventory that asks about one’s level of anxiety, depression, or anger is a(n) ______ inventory. A) cognitive B) affective C) social skills D) functional
answer

b
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54. Which of the following is designed to disclose a patient’s thoughts and assumptions? A) the MMPI-2 B) the Rorschach C) an affective inventory D) a cognitive inventory
answer

d
question

149. The MOST well-developed understanding of the causes of suicide come from the: A) biological model. B) psychoanalytic model. C) behavioral model. D) sociocultural model.
answer

d
question

4. Support for the idea that mood disorders set the stage for eating disorders comes from evidence that shows: A) high levels of serotonin in the brain. B) that eating disorders have been successfully treated using anti-anxiety medication. C) that close relatives of people with eating disorders have a high rate of mood disorders. D) that people with eating disorders are not more likely themselves to be diagnosed with depression.
answer

c
question

127. Relaxation training, biofeedback, meditation, and hypnosis all illustrate the use of: A) psychological treatments for physical illnesses. B) physical treatments for psychological illnesses. C) combinations of physical and psychological treatments. D) insight and social support therapies.
answer

a
question

Which of the following statements MOST accurately reflects current research findings? A) Dysregulated immune systems produce stress, which may then produce unipolar depression. B) Unipolar depression produces stress, which produces dysregulated immune systems. C) Unipolar depression and stress both produce dysregulated immune systems. D) Stress produces dysregulated immune systems, which may then produce unipolar depression.
answer

d
question

53. In general, object relations theorists follow which theoretical perspective? In depression A) cognitive B) humanistic C) existential D) psychodynamic
answer

d
question

An older person retires and begins experiencing health problems. Consequently, the person loses contact with old friends and becomes unpleasant to be around. A behaviorist would explain the resulting depression in terms of: A) learned helplessness. B) object relations loss. C) sociocultural changes. D) loss of positive social rewards.
answer

d