Honors World History Unit 2 Study Guide

Government of Ancient Egypt
Pharaohs had absolute power, a ruler named Menes established dynasties

Religion of Ancient Egypt
Polytheism until Akhenaten established monotheism, polytheism restored by King Tut

Writing of Ancient Egypt
Hieroglyphics, hieratic, and demotic

Art of Ancient Egypt
Distinct, detailed, colored, torsos are head on but arms, heads, and legs are side view. Great Sphinx, Great Pyramids.

Math & Science of Ancient Egypt
Pyramids of Egypt- brick like invented

Trade of Ancient Egypt
Using the Nile and Mediterranean Sea, caused army build up.

Government of Ancient China
Monarchy, governors ruled distant parts of the kingdom, dynasties. Mandate of Heaven.

Religion of Ancient China
Asked ancestors for advice, sought this through oracle bones

Writing of Ancient China
Used pictures, symbols to represent ideas, tied closely with Oracle bones, questions written directly on the bones

Art of Ancient China
Tombs, palaces, walls

Math & Science of Ancient China
Bronze used for religious rituals, later iron. Calendar based on cycles of the moon. First money system.

Trade of Ancient China
Geography such as Himalaya Mountains isolated and defended China.

Government of Ancient India
Settlements well planned, carefully laid out in a grid pattern

Religion of Ancient India
Unknown.

Writing of Ancient India
Had writing system beginning 2500 BC, but historians cannot decipher it.

Art of Ancient India
Specialized in crafts like pottery, metalwork, jewelry.

Math & Science of Ancient India
Unknown.

Trade of Ancient India
Brought goods to locations as distant as Central Asia, Arabian Peninsula, Mesopotamia.

Government of Sumer
City state.

Religion of Sumer
Polytheism, ziggurat.

Writing of Sumer
Cuneiform, Epic of Gilgamesh.

Math & Science of Sumer
Math system based on 60.

Arts of Sumer
Standard of Ur.

Trade of Sumer
Textiles for metals, timber, and stone.

Government of Babylonians
Hammurabi’s Code

Writing of Babylonians
Cuneiform.

Math & Science of Babylonians
Ziggurats (Tower of Babbel).

Trade of Babylonians
Traded food for raw materials such as timber, copper, gold.

Government of Hittites
Indo European, centralized government.

Religion of Hittites
Theocracy.

Writing of Hittites
Cuneiform.

Math & Science of Hittites
Horse drawn war chariots, iron working techniques.

Arts of Hittites
Made iron ornaments.

Trade of Hittites
Diffusion of their language to Greek, Hindi, and Russian.

Government of Assyrians & Chaldeans
Relied on military and terror for power.

Writing of Assyrians & Chaldeans
A library that had more than 20,000 cuneiform tablets collected, including Epic of Gilgamesh.

Arts of Assyrians & Chaldeans
Hanging gardens of Babylon.

Trade of Assyrians & Chaldeans
Trade routes rerouted through 2nd Babylon.

Government of Phoenicians
A wealthy trade society, built colonies around Mediterranean Sea (Carthage).

Religion of Phoenicians
Sacrifice to avoid disasters.

Writing of Phoenicians
Created an alphabet of 22 characters.

Math & Science of Phoenicians
Ship builders.

Trade of Phoenicians
Expert sailors.

Basic Teachings of Hinduism
One of the oldest religions, brahman, atman, devas, samsara, moksha.

Area of Origin of Hinduism
India.

Name of Hindu Gods
Brahman.

Sacred Texts of Hinduism
Vedas, sacred epics.

Key Figures of Hinduism
Mahavira, who created Jainism (non-violence).

Basic Teachings of Buddhism
Four Noble Truths, Eightfold Path, nirvana, The Middle Way.

Area of Origin of Buddhism
India.

Sacred Texts of Buddhism
Not written until first century BC.

Key Figures of Buddhism
Siddhartha Gautama, the Buddha.

Brahman
Eternal being that created, preserved, the world, all-encompassing.

Atman
Your soul.

Devas
Manifestations of Brahman, believed to be either one or thousands.

Karma
Sum effect of deeds and actions.

Moksha
Goal of human existence.

Samsara
Reincarnation.

Dharma
Spiritual duties and obligations.

Four Noble Truths
Central truths of Buddhism.

Eightfold Path
The path to overcoming desires in Buddhism.

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