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HN Exam 3 Connect-Vitamins

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Vitamins A, D, E, and K are considered to be _______ vitamins.
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fat-soluable
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Our bodies are able to synthesize which of the following vitamins?
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Niacin, A, and D
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Our bodies are able to synthesize vitamin ___ from exposure to sunlight.
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D
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The organic compound that is needed in small amounts in the diet to help regulate and support chemical reactions and processes in the body is a…
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vitamin.
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The water soluble vitamins include…
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vitamin C and the B vitamins.
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Vitamins are considered to be _______ nutrients.
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essential
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To be classified as a vitamin, a substance should meet what criteria?
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Over time, a lack produces deficiency symptoms. The body is unable to synthesize enough to maintain health.
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If the supply of a specific vitamin is inadequate, a deficiency disease related to that vitamin’s function will develop…
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gradually over a period of time.
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Examples of a vitamin deficiency include…
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pellagra and scurvy.
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Under what conditions would a megadose of a specific vitamin be acceptable?
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Under medical treatment for a non-deficy disease or for extreme deficiency disease.
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Vitamins isolated from foods are classified as…
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natural.
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Which vitamin is more potent in the synthetic form than the natural form?
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Folate
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The ____-soluble vitamins are more readily stored in the body than ____-soluble vitamins.
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fat, water
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The organ responsible for excreting excess amounts of the water-soluble vitamins is the…
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kidney.
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It is necessary to consume water-soluble vitamins on a regular basis because…
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most are not stored in the body to any great extent, and they are readily excreted from the body via urine.
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Vitamins A, D, E, and K are considered to be _____ vitamins.
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fat-soluble
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The amount of a nutrient that is absorbed and available to the body is called the…
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bioavailability.
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Name the B vitamin that is required to be added to refined grain products with the aim of preventing neural tube defects.
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Folate
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The protein called avidin in raw egg whites binds _____, a B vitamin, and inhibits its absorption.
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biotin
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Food sources of riboflavin include…
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enriched grains, milk, and eggs.
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Why is there a risk of consuming toxic amounts of the fat-soluble vitamins?
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They are stored in fat cells.
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Excessive intakes of preformed vitamin A during pregnancy may result in…
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spontaneous abortions and fetal malformations.
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Someone with a _____ deficiency might experience impaired red blood cell synthesis leading to megaloblastic anemia.
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folate
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Which of the following foods is the best source of niacin?
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Tuna, 3 oz
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_____ enhances iron absorption.
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Vitamin C
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Identify the fat-soluble vitamin most likely to be deficient.
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Vitamin D
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Which of the following are good sources of vitamin C?
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citrus fruits, potatoes, and strawberries
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Which B vitamins are important in DNA synthesis?
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Vitamin B-12 and Folate
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Thiamin is a key component required to release energy from…
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carbohydrates.
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The category of vitamins that need to be replaced daily are the ____-soluble vitamins.
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water
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Foods that are good sources of vitamin E include…
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whole grains, plant oils, and nuts.
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Rickets is the deficiency disease caused by the lack of vitamin…
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D.
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Identify three food sources of thiamin.
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enriched flour, whole grains, and pork
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A deficiency of _____ results in megaloblastic anemia because of its role in DNA synthesis.
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folate
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Inadequate levels of Vitamin K could lead to an ______ risk of hip fractures.
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increased
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_____ allows certain cells in the eye to adjust from bright to dim light.
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Retinal
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The most nutrient-dense food source of choline is…
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eggs.
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Good food sources for pantothenic acid include…
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eggs and mushrooms.
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Risk factors associated with osteomalacia include…
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poor intestinal absorption and kidney disease.
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A vitamin can be described as a(n) _____ when it is thought to be responsible for reducing the risk of cancer by destroying free radicals.
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antioxidant
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Why would consuming fresh fruits and vegetables contribute more folate?
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Folate is destroyed by heat.
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Which of the following are functions of vitamin C?
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Wound healing and formation of collagen.
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Enriched grain products remain low in…
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fiber.
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Sources of retinoids, the preformed source of vitamin A, include…
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fortified milk, beef liver, and fish.
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Beriberi is a deficiency disease caused by a lack of…
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thiamin.
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When we are more active, our need for the B vitamins…
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increases.
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Pellagra, the deficiency disease for niacin, is characterized by…
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diarrhea, dementia, and dermatitis.
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Dark green and yellow-orange vegetables are sources of…
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cartenoids.
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The stomach produces the intrinsic factor that is necessary in order to absorb which vitamin?
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B-12
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A person with dark skin would need a _____ exposure time to sunlight to synthesize vitamin D.
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longer
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Exposure to _____ can cause a loss of certain vitamins. Select all that apply.
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heat, oxygen, and light
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Name the B vitamin that is required to be added to refined grain products with the aim of preventing neural tube defects.
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Folate
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Which vitamin is given as an injection to infants at birth due to the inability of the bacteria in the intestines to produce enough?
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Vitamin K
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True or false: Megadoses of vitamin C prevent colds.
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False
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The disease associated with a vitamin D deficiency that affects older adults is…
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osteomalacia.
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A severe vitamin A deficiency can lead to xerophthalmia, which results in…
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blindness.
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An upper level of intake for vitamin A has been established to prevent…
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liver damage.
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Niacin serves as a(n) _____ in energy metabolism.
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coenzyme
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True or false: Pernicious anemia is related to inadequate vitamin B-12 absorption.
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True
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Studies have shown a benefit in preventing cardiovascular disease in persons at high risk due to the adequate intake of _____, a form of vitamin A from plant sources.
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carotenoids
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The deficiency disease for vitamin C is called…
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scurvy.
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The best source of vitamin B-12 would be…
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a hamburger.
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Smokers need more vitamin C daily than non-smokers because…
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smoking increases exposure of the lungs to free radicals.
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Sources of provitamin A carotenoids include…
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carrots, sweet potatoes, and broccoli.
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Animals, unlike humans, do not need a daily source of vitamin C because they…
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are able to synthesize the vitamin.
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Dietary sources of niacin include…
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fish, beef, poultry.
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Cow’s milk is an excellent source of…
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riboflavin.
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Why would taking a “one-a-day” multivitamin be safer than a large dose of a single supplement?
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“One-a-day” vitamins do not exceed safe daily levels. There is a risk of toxicity by large single supplement intake.
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Vitamin C may reduce cancer risk due to its _____ properties.
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antioxidant
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The protein called _____ in raw egg whites binds _____, a B-vitamin, and inhibits its absorption.
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avidin, biotin
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The fact that fat-soluble vitamins are stored in fate cells ______ our risk of toxicity if megadoses are consumed.
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increases
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Vitamin C enhances the absorption of the mineral _____.
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iron
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Why is there an upper level for preformed Vitamin A but not for the carotenoids?
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Carotenoid absorption decreases as intake increases. Preformed Vitamin A is stored in fat cells and can build to toxic levels.
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Identify the functions of vitamin A.
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Growth, development, and reproduction; light-dark vision; maintenance of epithelial cells; vision.
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The category of vitamins that need to be replaced daily are the _____-soluble vitamins.
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water
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How do IUs (International Units) compare to RAEs (retinol activity equivalents)?
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IUs are less precise, and there is no easy way to convert IU units to RAE units for foods that naturally contain provitamin A carotenoids.
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The functions of vitamin B-6 include…
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synthesis of neurotransmitters, homocysteine metabolism, and synthesis of nonessential amino acids.
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Why could a person with adequate calcium intake but a deficiency of vitamin D be at risk of bone fractures?
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Vitamin D is necessary for calcium ansoption.
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The UL for vitamin B-6 has been established due to the risk of…
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nerve damage.
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True or false: An athlete has a greater need for vitamin B-6 to convert tryptophan into niacin.
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False
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Older people are at risk of folate deficiency because they…
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tend to have inadequate consumption, and have decreased absorption.
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Those at increased risk for a vitamin C deficiency include…
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alcoholics and smokers.
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Coenzymes play an important role in metabolism because they…
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aide in the function of activating enzymes.