History true or false questions
According to Social Darwinism, government should seek to help the poor and build an activist state to regulate the nation’s corporations
Vertical integration is defined as one company controlling every phase of the business from raw materials to transportation, manufacturing, and distribution
in 1900, Andrew Carnegie earned $23 million
General George Armstrong Custer’s troops were victorious at the Battle of Little Bighorn.
The most famous Indian victory in American history took place in June 1876 when General George A. Custer and his 250 men perished.
The Civil Service Act of 1883 marked the first step in establishing a professional civil service and removing office holding from the hands of political machines.
The Sherman Antitrust Act of 1890, which banned combinations and practices that restrain free trade, proved an immediate success, both for its clarity of language and ease of enforcement.
With the mechanization of manufacture, skilled workers virtually disappeared from industrial America.
In 1869, President Ulysses S. Grant announced a new \”peace policy\” in the West.
The Haymarket Affair resulted in the hanging of four convicted anarchists.
Wage reductions were commonplace during economic downturns.
The West was a remarkably homogeneous region—only in the twentieth century would it become ethnically diverse.
On December 29, 1890, soldiers killed between 150 and 200 Indians, mostly women and children, near Wounded Knee Creek in South Dakota.
The Knights of Labor regarded inequalities of wealth and power as a growing threat to American democracy.
According to Social Darwinism, government should seek to help the poor and build an activist state to regulate the nation’s corporations.
During the second industrial revolution, wage labor became America’s leading source of livelihood.
During the two decades following the Civil War, which were known as the golden age of the cattle kingdom, cowboys were highly paid.
Inspired in part by President Garfield’s assassination by a disappointed office seeker, the Civil Service Act of 1883 created a merit system for federal employees.
The extermination of the North American bison (buffalo) drastically undermined the livelihood of the Plains Indians.
\”Vertical integration\” is defined as one company controlling every phase of the business from raw materials to transportation, manufacturing, and distribution.
Neither of the two main political parties embraced any serious federal program to cushion citizens from poverty or unemployment.
By the 1880s, the labor situation was such that Texas cowboys went on strike for higher pay.
American presidents during the Gilded Age exerted strong, effective, executive leadership.
Government intervention was vital to the defeats of the 1892 Homestead strike and the 1894 Pullman strike.
The election of 1896 is sometimes called the first modern presidential campaign, in part because of the amount of money spent—William McKinley raised some $10 million, while William Jennings Bryant raised only around $300,000.
Segregation was more than a form of racial separation; it was one part of an all-encompassing system of white domination.
Ironically, the Farmers’ Alliance found greater support among industrial workers than among small farmers.
Southern Populists forged notable alliances between black and white farmers
Turn-of-the-century segregation laws were passed in clear defiance of Supreme Court rulings.
As the subordination of blacks grew more rigid, American attitudes toward immigrants grew more tolerant.
Like the American Federation of Labor, the National American Woman Suffrage Association was infused with the social elitism of the times.
Only after Spain threatened to invade America did the United States elect to go to war.
An oversupply of cotton on the world market, which led to a sharp decline in prices, contributed to a farmers’ revolt and gave rise to the Populist Movement.
In a show of democratic solidarity on the part of the American people, the Farmers’ Alliance, especially in the southern states, welcomed black farmers into the Alliance.
Populists in western states endorsed woman suffrage
In the late nineteenth century, urban workers rallied in support of Populist farmers.
With the exception of some dockworkers’ and mine laborers’ unions, blacks were excluded from membership in the few unions that existed in the South in the late nineteenth century.
In the 1880s and 1890s, blacks no longer served in the U.S. Congress.
In 1915, the U.S. Supreme Court invalidated the \”grandfather clause\” for violating the Fifteenth Amendment.
Southern Democrats raised the threat of \”black rule\” to justify denying blacks the right to vote.
One consequence of the bitter attacks on African Americans’ political rights across the South was that by 1940, 97 percent of adult black Southerners were not registered to vote.
The 1890s saw a widespread imposition not only of disfranchisement, but also of segregation in the South.
Segregation was more than a form of racial separation; it was one part of an all-encompassing system of white domination.
Beginning in 1880, \”new immigrants\” were welcomed with open arms by the American people.
In 1882 and again in 1902, the United States Congress passed laws excluding immigrants from China.
Most Americans who looked to expand America’s influence overseas were interested not in territorial possessions, but in expanded trade.
In the Progressive era, industry was on the rise and agriculture was in decline.
Working-class Americans showed little interest in emerging forms of popular entertainment such as amusement parks, dance halls, and nickelodeons.
As president, Theodore Roosevelt was determined to break up every business trust he could find.
At times Progressives sought to expand popular democracy, and at other times they sought to restrict it.
Theodore Roosevelt’s \”New Nationalism\” called for vigorous federal intervention in the economy, while Woodrow Wilson’s \”New Freedom\” called on government to stay out of business affairs.
Women reformers devoted little attention to labor conditions, regarding that as a \”man’s issue.\”
The 1911 Triangle Fire was a fire in a triangular region of Massachusetts between the towns of Worcester, Boston, and Salem.
Historians call the period of American history from the closing years of the nineteenth century into the second decade of the twentieth century the Progressive era.
The Progressive era was a time of economic expansion that produced millions of new jobs and brought unprecedented material wealth to millions of Americans.
During the Progressive era, the Imperial Valley of California was transformed by irrigation and became a major area of commercial farming.
Directly or indirectly, J. P. Morgan controlled 40 percent of the financial and industrial capital in the United States in the opening years of the twentieth century.
By the 1910s, women worked not only as domestic servants, but also as office workers, telephone operators, and store clerks.
\”Social legislation\” includes governmental action taken to address urban problems and the insecurities of working-class life.
The politics of Progressivism was almost solely a North American phenomenon.
The initiative, referendum, and recall were all early-twentieth-century means by which democracy was expanded.
During the Progressive era, city managers and nonpartisan commissions ran many municipalities.
One current of Progressive-era political thought promoted the view that experts—college professors and others able to apply scientific methods to modern social problems—ought to direct government policy.
By 1900, more than 80,000 women in the United States had earned college degrees.
After 1900, the campaign for woman suffrage became a mass movement; membership in the American Woman Suffrage Association was more than 2 million by 1917.
By 1900, more than half of the states allowed women to vote on school issues, and four Western states allowed women full suffrage.
Massachusetts became the first state east of the Mississippi to allow women the right to vote in presidential elections.
Feminists who supported mothers’ pensions believed these pensions would empower single women.
By 1913, twenty-two states had enacted workmen’s compensation laws.
Theodore Roosevelt was the youngest president in American history.
President Theodore Roosevelt distinguished between \”good\” and \”bad\” corporations, and in the Northern Securities Company case made his mark as a trust buster.
A significant step in the expansion of federal power over the economy was taken in 1906 with passage of the Hepburn Act, which allowed the ICC to set railroad rates.
Another important example of federal intervention and a new activism on the part of the national government into the economy was passage of the Pure Food and Drug Act (1906), by which the federal government became the agent policing the labeling and quality of food and drugs.
Gifford Pinchot held that logging, mining, and grazing on public lands should be eliminated.
The Sixteenth Amendment made the income tax constitutional.
The 1912 Progressive Party platform set out a blueprint for a modern welfare state.
The Underwood Tariff imposed a graduated income tax on the richest 5 percent of Americans.
The Federal Reserve System (1913) and the Federal Trade Commission (1914) were major examples of the remarkable expansion of the role of the federal government in the economy during the Progressive era.
President Roosevelt declined to assert U.S. authority over the Canal Zone until the citizens of Panama had a chance to vote on the matter.
Presidents Roosevelt, Taft, and Wilson shared a common belief that the United States had a right, even a duty, to intervene from time to time in the affairs of other countries.
Following the outbreak of World War I, the Allied and Central Powers each acted to block American trade with their adversaries.
President Wilson won reelection in 1916 on the slogan, \”We must fight to make the world safe for democracy.\”
After America entered the conflict, antiwar opposition disappeared.
While many were troubled by the ongoing slaughter overseas, most Progressives regarded wartime mobilization as an extraordinary chance to remake American society.
By 1900, measured by its acquisition of new territories, the United States was an imperialist power equal to that of Great Britain and France.
In intervening in Caribbean countries in the early twentieth century, the United States generally sought to promote peace, democracy, and freedom.
In 1903, when Panama declared its independence from Colombia, the United States stationed a gunboat off the Panamanian coast to prevent the Colombian army from taking back the area.
President Woodrow Wilson authorized more military interventions into Latin America than any other president in American history.
When U.S. troops landed at Vera Cruz, Mexico in an effort to stop weapons from being delivered to Victoriano Huerta’s forces, the Marines were greeted as liberators by the Mexican people.
More people were killed by the flu epidemic at the end of World War I, than died during all the years of fighting in that war.
At the outbreak of war in Europe in the summer of 1914, the U.S. population quickly unified in its support for Great Britain and France.
In the 1916 election, Wilson carried ten of the twelve states that had adopted woman suffrage; without women’s votes, Wilson would not have been reelected.
No one was ever convicted under the 1917 Espionage Act or the 1918 Sedition Act.
Eugene Victor Debs, a Socialist Party leader, was imprisoned for delivering an antiwar speech.
In 1911, the United States immigration commission listed forty-five immigrant \”races\” in a dictionary published that year.
Eugenics studied the mental characteristics of different ethnicities and races, only to discover that, overwhelmingly, all human beings possess \”good genes.\”
In general, settlement house workers, social scientists, and progressives all placed demands for black suffrage at the forefront of their efforts.
W. E. B. Du Bois asserted the need for the \”talented tenth\” of the African-American community to step forward and take the lead in education and training to challenge inequality faced by black Americans.
The 1905 Niagara movement derived its name from the fact that a group of black leaders met at Niagara Falls, Canada, since no hotel on the American side would accommodate them.
The National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP) launched a long battle for the enforcement of the Fourteenth and Fifteenth Amendments.
Major strides toward the advancement of equality for American blacks was one significant consequence of the war’s aftermath due to the heroism, courage, determination, and patriotism demonstrated by black soldiers during World War I.
Between 1910 and 1920, half a million blacks moved away from the South; many migrated into northern cities like Chicago, New York, Akron, Buffalo, and Trenton.
During 1919, more than 250 people died in riots in northern cities.
In the 1919 steel strike, workers demanded union recognition, higher wages, and an eight-hour day.
Attorney General A. Mitchell Palmer sent federal agents to raid the offices of radical and labor organizations in November 1919 and January 1920 as part of the Red Scare.
The Treaty of Versailles that ended World War I was a savvy and fair, if short, document that equitably distributed culpability for the war among all warring factions.
The Treaty of Versailles that ended World War I demanded Germany make reparations payments in effect to repair the damages it had inflicted on the Allies.
President Woodrow Wilson’s Fourteen Points had asserted the principle of \”self-determination,\” and in this spirit, W. E. B. Du Bois organized a Pan-African Congress in Paris that put forward the idea of a self-governing nation to be carved out of Germany’s African colonies.
American women overwhelmingly supported the Equal Rights Amendment; American men overwhelmingly opposed it.
American agriculture slid into economic depression years before the stock market crash of 1929.
During the 1920s, the U.S. government showed little interest in world affairs.
Remarkably, the stock market crash and subsequent depression did little to diminish popular reverence for big business.
The 1920s—prior to October 1929—saw a sharp decline in the American economy.
President Warren G. Harding died suddenly of a heart attack in 1923
By 1929, the United States produced more than 40 percent of the world’s manufactured goods.
By 1929, three-quarters of American households had washing machines
Farmers experiences booming profits during the 1920s.
Business leaders like Henry Ford, and engineers like Herbert Hoover were cultural heroes in the 1920s
Women’s freedom in the 1920s was characterized by unapologetic use of birth-control methods such as the diaphragm.
In marriage, according to advertisements in the 1920s, women were expected to find happiness and freedom within the home, especially in the use of new labor-saving appliances.
Consumerism was a principal component of the American character in the 1920s.
The rights an individual may assert even against Democratic majorities—including freedom of speech—are called \”civil liberties.\”
In 1925, John Scopes, a public school teacher in Tennessee, was convicted of violating the state’s law against the teaching of Charles Darwin’s theory of evolution.
Nearly 1 million African Americans migrated from the American South during the 1920s.
Herbert Hoover preferred \”associational action\” to government intervention in directing regulatory and welfare policies.
Quick action by President Hoover’s administration kept millions of American families from losing their life savings, when, in the early 1930s, hundreds of banks across the United States failed.
In the three years after 1929, gross domestic production fell by one-third in the United States.
President Hoover and his Secretary of the Treasury Andrew Mellon took quick, decisive action to curtail the economic downturn that began in October 1929.
A repeal of the grandfather clause and women’s suffrage were part of the Populist platform.
Homer Plessy walked onto and sat in a \”white\” car of a train in Louisiana, full well knowing that he would be arrested and charged/