Please enter something

History of Occupational Therapy

question

Birthplace of Occupational Therapy
answer

Clifton Springs, NY
question

Age of Enlightenment (1700s)
answer

-took chains off of mentally ill clients and gave them more freedom – prior to enlightenment they were chained up like prisoners and referred to as a danger to society
question

In what year was “Moral Treatment and Occupation” started? By who?
answer

1793 Phillipe Pinel – developed an approach for treating mentally ill clients
question

What did William Tuke do?
answer

Developed many principles that advocated for “moral treatment” for the mentally ill Treat these people with consideration, kindness, and compassion
question

How did Tuke maximize function and minimize symptoms for mentally ill?
answer

He felt occupations, religion (sense of family), and purposeful activities would help this.
question

What did Tuke find?
answer

Tuke founded a retreat center in England based on some of his ideas regarding engaging clients in a variety of employment or amusement activities (called leisure activities today).
question

What was the moral treatment movement referred to as?
answer

Social reform movement Occupations were considered an essential component of “moral treatment” for those who were mentally ill.
question

First definition of occupation is given credit to:
answer

Moral treatment movement – defined occupation as: “Man’s goal-directed use of time, energy, interests, and attention.”
question

What was treatment of mentally ill based on
answer

engagement in purposeful activities
question

When were the Golden years? Why were they referred to as this?
answer

(1840-1860) -application of the Moral Treatment and Occupation -Benefits of arts and crafts became noticed -relaxation and feelings of productivity
question

Rest-Cure Method
answer

The nervous system sends messages via electrical impulses. The belief was to rest in order to calm the nervous system.
question

Christian Science Movement recommended
answer

exercising the mind They initiated thoughts regarding the mind-body connection
question

When did the moral treatment almost become extinct?
answer

After the chaos and aftermath of the Civil War. there seemed to be no one to carry out the ideas and philosophies.
question

Who brought back the idea of the use of occupation?
answer

In the early 1900s, Susan Tracey (nurse) Herbert Hall (physician)
question

What was Susan Tracey’s purpose?
answer

-educating nurse students on the therapeutic use of activities as part of treatment -made up the term “Occupational Nurse” for those she trained in the specialty
question

What happened in 1914?
answer

William Dunton and George Barton founded an organization for individuals interested in “Occupation Work” (another name for Occupational Therapy)
question

Who was George E Barton?
answer

An architect who was interested in the therapeutics of occupation and he contacted Dunton
question

Who is Adolf Myer
answer

-psychobiologist/pschiatrist -Wrote a paper that discussed importance of “time” -use of time in a person’s life -engagement in everyday activities
question

When was the NSPOT established?
answer

March 15, 1917 -National Society for the Promotion of Occupational Therapy -Goal – bring the practice of Occupation together -met in Clifton Springs, birth place of OT -eventually became AOTA
question

How did WWI help OT?
answer

– began treating injured soldiers -NSPOT was recruited by the military to train them in “reconstruction aides” and to help with the soldiers rehabilitation
question

Who established the first education standards for OT?
answer

-Eleanor Clarke -Began a 12 month program that expanded to 18 months in educating individuals about the OT field. -During the Great Depression
question

What approach did OT take during Great Depression?
answer

It aligned with organized medicine, and created a more “scientific approach” to the profession
question

What happened during WWII
answer

Demand for OT’s increased significantly Many new educational programs started Included in its treatment Activities of Daily Living (ADLs) OTs treated physical disabilities which were sustained from war 1947 OT’s recruited to be part of military
question

What was published in 1947
answer

`Journal: Occupational Therapy and Rehabilitation Textbook: Willard & Spackman’s Principles of Occupational Therapy
question

When was COTA job established?
answer

1956 Certified Occupational Therapy Assistant Relieve Demand of the OT Aide/Assisting body
question

Who is Jean Ayres
answer

She introduced the Sensory Integration Approach which is based on neuroscience
question

Who are Carl and Berta Bobath
answer

They introduced Neurodevelopmental Therapy approach which is based on neuroscience
question

How did Dr. Mary Reilly, OTR feel?
answer

She advocated for a return to the profession roots of occupation.
question

Gary Kielhofner formulated which model
answer

The Model of Human Occupation – became a major theory in OT
question

Goals of De-Institutionalized (1970s)
answer

assist people with mental illnesses become independent and productive members of society.
question

What happened in 1975?
answer

The Education of Handicapped Act was passed and allowed Occupational Therapy in School as a related service
question

Related Service
answer

Assist in a child’s education Help the special educator’s
question

What happened in 1980
answer

OT’s were authorized for early intervention (ages birth to 3yrs and preschoolers with disabilities (ages 3-5) Primary Source of Occupational Therapy Known as the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (expaned from earlier Act)
question

What were some goals of OTs?
answer

Focus on prevention, quality of life, screenings, and maintaining independence
question

Who can someone be referred by?
answer

His/her physician, school, or parents can refer but script must come from a physician
question

Who can be referred?
answer

Anyone with a physical, emotional, or developmental defect can be referred.
question

Why could someone be referred for services?
answer

Premature, Disabilities evident at birth, Spina Bifida, ADD, D.D., Sensory Dysfunction, Autism, Hyperactivity, Down Syndrome, Amputations, Stroke, Arthritis, Burns, Head Injury, Dementia, Diabetes, and Cardiac Conditions, etc.