History of Jazz Quiz #2

Flashcard maker : Stephanie Landry
Congo Square
a place where slaves were permitted to dance, now called Louis Armstrong Park, danced in ring-shouts
Minstrel show
developed before the Civil War. White performers would wear black makeup and mimic and ridicule the slave population, replaced by Vaudeville by 1900
Work songs
purely African in nature, since slaves were not allowed to talk in the fields, they communicated through song.
Fisk Jubilee Singers
strayed from minstrel shows, got their name from the Jubilee in \”leviticus\” where the slaves are set free, fund-raising group
Great Migration
many slaves migrated to the north to escape racial strife after WWI, affected where jazz music was recorded
Ragtime
usually thought of as piano genre, does not swing, came from military march form, AABBACCDD, even division of the beat
Maple Leaf Rag
composed by Scott Joplin and Jelly Roll Morton. Joplin’s was played on a piano roll. Morton’s had more improv
Race Records
made music specifically for african american listeners, connected to Okeh Rcords, name not a perjorative
Bessie Smith
followed lead of Ma Rainey, sang Lost Your Head Blues, 1926
Sidney Bechet
black saxophonist, played Blue Horizon, 1944 part of Dixieland Revival,
Jelly Roll Morton
black pianist, performed Black Bottom Stomp, Maple Leaf Rag
Robert Johnson
black guitarist, sang Hell Hound on my Trail, 1937 nasal quality and difficult to count measures, influenced Eric Clapton
Louis Amrstrong
nicknamed \”Satchmo,\” known for scat singing, being an \”Uncle Tom,\” and stressing solo improv rather than group improv
Struttin with some Barbecue
Louis Armstrong and his Hot Five, 1927
Hotter than That
Louis Armstrong, example of scat singing, response to a song \”Hotter than Hell\”
West End Blues
Armstrong’s most famous opening cadenza, Earl Hines on piano
Weather Bird
1928, duo between Armstrong and Hines, slight competition in the song
Leon Bix Beiderbecke
played the cornet, more introspective music than Armstrong, first white performer to be admired by blacks, self taught, wanted to be remembered as a composer in \”In a Mist\”
swing music
emphasis on all 4 beats, only entertainment value, started in late 1920’s, only time when jazz music was popular to listen to
important developments in swing music
stronger focus on arranging, musical literacy an essential, big band became the standard group, consolidation of the drum set.
Fletcher Henderson Orchestra
The Stampede and Wrappin it up, 1926 and 1934
Count Basie’s band
Takes over Bennie Moten’s band: Freddie Green-guitar, Jo Jones-drumes, Walter Page-bass, Count Basie-piano,
Count Basie songs
songs were part of Kansas City Swing Style: Doggin Around and Jumpin at the Woodside,
Duke Ellington
started playing jungle floor shows in NO, sophisticated background, moved to NYC, had a son Mercer, composer, pianist and bandleader. master of the three minute form because of the material he could pack in 3 mins. featured stronger players in his band, would write AABA | BAA
Categories of Ellington’s music
Jungle pieces, Popular dance pieces, Mood Pieces, Solo features the suites
East St. Louis Toodle-Oo and New East St. Louis Toodle-Oo
1926 and 1937, Ellington wrote about a homeless man in STL
Concerto for Cootie
focused on composition rather than improv, 1940, used different mutes throughout
Golden Section
based on Fibonacci series of numbers, found in Ellington’s Warm Valley
Benny Goodman
King of Swing, extensive classical training, played with Bix at 14, defined jazz clarinet, autocratic method of conducting a band, popularized swing
Benny Goodman Quartet
first racially integrated band. Lionel Hampton-vibrophone, Gene Krupa-drums, Teddy Wilson-trumpet, Benny-clarinet,
Sing, Sing, Sing
featured Krupa on drums
Swing Low Sweet Chariot
Fisk Jubillee Singers
Original Dixieland Jazz Band
first jazz recording, \”Livery Stable Blues\” all white group
Three Bix Period
Wolverines, Frankie Trumbauer, and Paul Whiteman (more commerical)
Brass v. Reeds concept
call and response, also musicians can be doublers for two different instruments

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