History Midterm Study Guide

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Late 19th century effects of competition in the transportation industry
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– access to affordable goods – competitive shipping rates – expansion of intercontinental railroads
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One purpose of the Settlement House movement in the United States
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to facilitate the assimilation of immigrants
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Pull factor that had the greatest effect on westward migration in the United States during the mid-1800s
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free land
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In the late 1840s what name was given to the view that supported the growth of the American nation from coast to coast
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manifest destiny
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What was a result of this act in the late 19th century? (Homestead Act, 1862)
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the migration of people created new population centers
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Why were these policies enacted by the US government? (four-day bank holiday to prevent exportation of gold out of country, illegal to hoard all forms of gold, US abandoned gold standard, further regulation of gold hoarding and exportation)
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to stabilize a volatile economy
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The formation of trusts in the late 1800s
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– control of resources and transportation needed for production – lack of government regulation or oversight – decreased prices to force competitors out of business
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19th-century farm innovations – grain elevator – reaper – steel plow
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made it possible for American farmers to shift from subsistence farming to commercial farming
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Which innovations in the second Industrial Revolution transformed the nature of economic activity in the US?
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railroads and assembly lines
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What led to the Battle of Little Bighorn?
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the US government’s attempt to open the Black Hills to development
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How were the “new” immigrants of the late 1800s MOST like “old” immigrants?
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“new” immigrants believed the United States offered personal freedom
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In the late 1800s, federal policies such as the Dawes Act encouraged the division of tribal landholdings among individual tribe members. How did the Dawes Act negatively affect American Indians?
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tribal lands were lost as tribe members were forced to sell their lands cheaply
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How did the construction of the Transcontinental Railroad affect the demographics of the United States during Reconstruction?
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it encouraged westward expansion
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This statement shows an example of corporate mergers that produced a trust
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the actions of Andrew Carnegie to control the mining to manufacturing of steel
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Which statement is BEST supported by this information?
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populations in rural areas near cities are growing faster than the cities themselves
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Which African American led the “Back to Africa” movement during the early 20th century?
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Marcus Garvey
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How was this act supposed to promote the assimilation of Native Americans into mainstream society? (Dawes Severalty Act, 1887)
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by encouraging Native Americans to own private property
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Advanced in manufacturing aided the development of the United States as an industrial power by
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increasing production levels
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Which major difficulty did the people who participated in the Klondike Gold Rush endure?
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harsh natural conditions
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What was the purpose of the treaties described in the excerpt? (Native Americans living on reservations)
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to promote the assimilation of Native Americans into mainstream culture
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Religious persecution led to the large-scale settlement of which religious community in Utah beginning in the 1840s?
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mormons
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Factors that influenced the growth of political machines
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– corrupt public officials – industrialized economy – increased immigration
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What is the main reason for the enactment of these laws? (Chinese Exclusion Act, Quota Act, National Origins Act)
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anti-immigrant backlash
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What was the intended effect of this act? (The Federal Reserve Act)
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to control the money supply
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Which factor led to the passage of this act? (Chinese Exclusion Act)
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native-born citizens resenting Chinese immigrants for accepting lower wages
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According to this excerpt, living standards were determined by which factors in the early 1900s?
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widespread availability of consumer good
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Which factor contributed most to the creation of new states in areas acquired as a result of the Mexican War?
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completion of the Transcontinental Railroad
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Which factor contributed most to the rise of inner-city overcrowding in the late nineteenth century?
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industrialization
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Pull factors for immigrants to the United States
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– job opportunities – educational system – close proximity – personal freedom
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The act by the United States government ended religious expression for the Sioux Nation and closed the American Frontier
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Massacre at Wounded Knee
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How did the completion of the Transcontinental Railroad impact the economy of the West?
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it provided access to new markets for local goods
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Which factor most motivates people from different countries to live in the United States?
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the desire for democracy and economic opportunity
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Which statement best describes how the construction of the Transcontinental Railroad contributed to the closing of the American frontier?
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the coasts of America were connected by industry
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The Great Migration refers to the shift of the African-American population from the
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rural South the the urban North
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Why did Andrew Jackson’s administration support the removal of Native Americans from the eastern states?
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Whites wanted to settle and live on the Native American lands
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The Federal Reserve Act of 1913
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– formed a board of governors – created paper currency based on the gold standard
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During the Gilded Age many immigrants supported city political bosses in exchange for
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employment opportunities
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Which label best describes President Woodrow Wilson’s approach to foreign relations?
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moral diplomacy
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Which Supreme Court decision upheld Jim Crow laws?
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Plessy v. Ferguson
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At the beginning of the twentieth century, which group was best known for its attempts to reform US urban political machines?
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progressives
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During the Progressive Era, muckrakers such as Jacob Riis exposed the harsh realities of
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industrialization
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Which agency was created to protect the welfare of consumers using specific goods?
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Food and Drug Administration
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This amendment reflects which of the following purposes of the constitutional amendment process? (16th Amendment)
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to clarify the meaning of delegated authority
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How did the group referred to by the president earn their citizenship?
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by demonstrating knowledge of United States history
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Accomplishments of Jane Adams
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– advocated for women’s rights – established Hull House – won the Nobel Peace Prize
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Which statement about this amendment most accurately reflects the view of reformers during the Progressive Era?
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a tax on incomes can be used to increase federal government programs
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Which statement describes the impact of Upton Sinclair’s novel, The Jungle?
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it exposed the unsanitary conditions of the meatpacking industry
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What was the name of Roosevelt’s domestic policy?
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square deal
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Which factor contributed to the decline of political machines?
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passage of civil service reforms
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With which statement would a Progressive most likely agree?
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“The government is obligated to provide for the poor”
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What was the importance of this act? (Interstate Commerce Act)
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it was the first federal law to regulate industry
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The excerpt below describes which political party from the late 19th century? (labor unions, long work hours, graduated income tax)
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populist
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Which statement best describes the contribution made by Jacob Riis during the Progressive Era?
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his photographs and descriptions revealed the harsh conditions of tenement life
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Why did the Populist party promote these beliefs as part of its political platform?
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farmers suffered from unfair charges by railroad companies
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The United States forest service set aside more than 200 acres of land for conservation when it was established. Who was president at that time?
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Theodore Roosevelt
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How did Upton Sinclair’s novel The Jungle contribute to a change in the government’s role in the economy?
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it led to federal legislation to regulate the food industry
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Which activity is a modern function of the Federal Trade Commission?
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regulating corporate mergers to ensure market competition
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Which person is known for being a pioneer of the temperance movement?
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Frances Willard
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Which action by the Progressive movement of the early 20th century best exemplifies this principle?
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political reforms that increased democracy for common citizens
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Recognizing the need to preserve our natural environment and natural history, which president created a record number of national parks?
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Theodore Roosevelt
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Which factor most influence the creation of Hull House?
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the development of the Social Gospel movement
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What was one effect of the Open Door policy?
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increased access to Chinese markets
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Which term best describes Theodore Roosevelt’s “Big Stick” foreign policy?
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preventive intervention
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Which action best reflects the policies based on President Woodrow Wilson’s belief in Moral Diplomacy?
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the deployment of US forces to Haiti to restore stability
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Which conclusion is best supported by the events in this list? (events of the Spanish-American war)
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the United States planned to gain strategic territory in the Pacific
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Which statement supports the concern in this excerpt? “The March of the Flag”
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economic expansion is needed to keep the industrial market growing
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Why does Roosevelt assert that US control of the Panama Canal was necessary?
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to maintain national security
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Guam, Puerto Rico, and the Philippines all became US possessions as a result of which war?
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Spanish-American War
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Which explanation best justifies the presence of the United States in the Pacific in the 1890s?
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preservation of business interests
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Which of these options reflected President Theodore Roosevelt’s foreign policy?
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expansion of the Monroe Doctrine
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What was one effect of the event described in the excerpt? (“The Great War and the New Era”)
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an industry developed because of government requirements
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Based on this excerpt, what was the primary purpose of using this weapon during World War I?
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to overcome the stalemate of trench warfare
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Which factor first enabled a major expansion of the United States’ influence in Southeast Asia?
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involvement in the Spanish-American War
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What was the result of this battle? (Battle of Belleau Wood)
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the Allied victory marked a turning point in the war
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one main purpose of dollar diplomacy was to
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use economic influence to promote stability to Latin America
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Which phrase best completes this table? (construction of the Panama canal)
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opposition by US political leaders
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Which action best describes the purpose of the Monroe Doctrine?
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intervening to prevent European involvement in regional affairs
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How did the territorial acquisition resulting from the Spanish-American War affect the United States economy?
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the United States gained access to overseas markets
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Which event was a cause of the Spanish-American War?
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the sinking of the Maine
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“Yellow Journalists” influenced US participation in which conflict?
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the Spanish-American War
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The United States advocated this policy for which economic reason?
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to dissolve spheres of influence to minimize the advantages of other nations
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Which colony did Spain lose to the United States as a result of the Spanish-American War?
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Philippine Islands
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What was the purpose of the Open Door Policy?
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to gain US commercial access to China
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How did these developments affect the United States?
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the United States expanded territorial claims to secure natural resources
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Which event permitted Roosevelt to take the actions described in this speech?
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the revolt against the Colombian government by Panamanian rebels
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Which foreign policy from the early 1900s expanded on the goals of the Monroe Doctrine?
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Roosevelt Corollary
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Which concept is best related to these actions?
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imperialism
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What was a negative aspect of Dollar Diplomacy in Latin America and East Asia?
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it failed to address economic problems and government istabilities
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What was a result of this change in the US Army?
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The Triple Entente gained access to new resources
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Which of the following statements does not explain a reason why the United States failed to ratify the Treaty of Versailles?
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objections to Russia’s exclusion from the peace conference
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Which of the following best identifies the issues that led to the Supreme Court case Schenck vs. United States?
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the United States government restricted freedom of speech during World War I
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Which effect did the end of World War I have on US agricultural production in the 1920s?
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overproduction of crops resulted in lower food prices
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Which statement about the American Expeditionary Force (AEF) during World War I is correct?
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the AEF was critical to the success of the Triple Entente during the war
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Which government action was designed to discourage criticism of US involvement in World War I?
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the Espionage and Sedition Acts
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What is the significance of the event in this headline? (Battle of Argonne Forest Ends)
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it increased the pressure on Germany to surrender
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Which outcome of the Versailles Peace Conference reflected ideals expressed in President Woodrow Wilson’s Fourteen Points?
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the establishment of independent national states in Europe
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Senator Henry Cabot Lodge opposed which feature of the Treaty of Versailles?
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the committing of signatories to protect the independence of other member states
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The return to an isolationist foreign policy was signified by which US action following Wold War I?
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the rejection of the Treaty of Versailles
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Which factor contributed most to high unemployment in the United States after World War I?
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the supply of labor exceeded its demand
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what was the purpose of this organization? (US Government establishes office of war information)
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to encourage the American people to support the war
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Which event contributed to the US entry into World War I?
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the sinking of the Lusitania
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During World War I the United States government assisted the US economy through all of the following ways except
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the implementation of minimum wage
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Which phrase best describes the purpose of this speech by President Roosevelt? (Franklin D. Roosevelt)
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to encourage civilian sacrifices for the sake of the nation
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Which entry on the timeline best explains a reason for US entry into World War I?
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a German telegram is intercepted by the US government
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Most Dust Bowl migrants headed to which of the following states?
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California
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How did farmers such as Lawrence Svobida respond to the conditions described in this excerpt?
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by moving west to seek alternative employment
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The Dust Bowl in the 1930s resulted from
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the over-use of farmland
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What was one major result of the event shown in the illustration?
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migration of agricultural laborers to California
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How did the New Deal try to solve the problems caused by the Dust Bowl?
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by paying farmers to plant crops that would help the soil recover
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Which constitutional issue was raised by these events?
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separation of power between the judicial and executive branches
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Which New Deal program specifically hired young men for public works projects?
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Civilian Conservation Corps
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Which statement best describes an agricultural practice that led to the decline of the farming industry in the 1930s?
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technology was used to clear large tracts of land, resulting in the overproduction of crops
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Characteristics of the Great Depression
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unemployment rates rose to 25%, New Deal programs increased the authority of the federal government, soil conditions caused people to move from the Great Plains to western states
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What was the main cause for the need for soup kitchens during the 1930s?
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high rate of unemployment

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