history for me

Flashcard maker : Kelly Fisher
What distinguished the 1st Centuries of Islamic History from the early history of Christianity & Buddhism ? What similar & difference characterized their religious outlooks?
-islam differ: founder was religious figure and military and political leader
-from the start, the i community found itself constituted as a state. cuz of this, i didn’t devpt as clearly defined a separation between church & state as C & B did
– i conception of monotheism was stronger then C
* all 3 were founded by single historical figures who had powerful religious experiences.
*all 3 provide a clear path to salvation
*all 3 proclaim the equality of all believer
*each religion was shaped in part by cultural traditions in which it emerged
What changes did Islamic expansion generate in those societies that encountered it, and how was Islam itself transformed by those encounters
-the pop of many regions converted wholly or partly to the Islamic faith
-regions of I world were tied more closely together through trade and exchange of technology, crops and ideas
-older religous & political traditions were at times swept away or at lest altered
-islam was trans through these encounters, esp when the norms of those societies tht converted had impact on social and cultural implications of the faith
-the Islamic world & understanding of i was shaped by contact with intellectual & cultural tradition like Greek philosophy
How does the core message of Islam compare with that of Judaism and Christianity
– all are monotheistic, Allah is the only God, all powerful
-as \” the messenger of God,\” Muhammad presented himself in the tradition of earlier prophets like Abraham, Moses and Jesus
–like Jewish prophet and Jesus, Muhammad demanded in social justice and laid out prescription for its implementation
What accounts for widespread conversion to Islam
-Jews,Christians,Zoroastrians could find familiar elements of their own faiths in i
-from start, i was associated with sponsership of powerful state
-conquest called into question the power of old gods, while growing prestige of Arab empire attracted many to Allah
-living in i-governed state provided a variety of incentices for claiming Muslim identity (better official jobs available -convert=aid to social mobility-, no tax)
-in i, merchants found religon friendly to commerce, and in Arab empire they enjoyed a huge secure area for trade
Why were Arabs able to construct such a huge empire so quickly?
-for 1st time, shared faith in i allowed the newly organized state to mobilize the military potential of entire Arab pop.
-the Byzantine and Persian empires were weakened by decades of war with each other and by internal revolts, they also underestimated Arab threat
-merchant leaders of the new i community wanted to capture profitable trade routes and wealthy agricultural regions
-indiv. Arabs found a route to wealth and social promotion in military expansion
-expansion provide common task for Arab community, which enforced fragile unity of umma
-Arabs motivated by religious dimension, as many viewed the mission of empire in terms of jihad, bringing rightous gov to people they conquered
How might you account for the immense religious and political/military success of Islam in its early centuries
-for 1st time, shared faith in i allowed the state to mobilize the military potential of entire Arab pop.
-the Byzantine and Persian empires were weakened by decades of war with each other and by internal revolts, they also underestimated Arab threat
-merchant leaders of the new i community wanted to capture profitable trade routes and wealthy agriculture regions
-indiv. Arabs found a route to wealth and social promotion in military expansion
-expansion provide common task for Arab community, which enforced fragile unity of umma
-Arabs motivated by religious dimension, as many viewed the mission of empire in terms of jihad, bringing righteous gov to people they conquered
– Islam success in attracting converts ( m’s religous message was attractive to many, J, C and Zoro coulf find familiar elements
-growing prestige of Arab empire attracted many, conquest made them question power of old gods
-merchants found i was friendly to commerce and in Arab empire a huge and secure area for trade, people who want official positions find social mobility
What similarities and difference can u identify in spread of Islam to India, Anatolia, west africa and spain
– i spread to India, anatolia, Spain in part through conquest, while i arrived in west arfica with Muslim traders
-Sufis facilitated conversions by accomodating local traditions, esp in Indian and Anatolia, but played llittle role in W. Africa until atleast 18th C.
-In India, W. Africa, Spain, i became one of several faiths within the wider culture, while in Anatolia it became dominant faith
In what ways did the early history of Islam reflect its Arabian origins
– i drew on an older Arab identification of Allah with Yahweh, the Jewish High God, and Arab self identification as children of Abraham
-the quran denounced the prevailing social practices of an increasingly prosperous Mecca and sought a return to older values of Arab tribal life
-message of the Quran also rejected the Arab tirbal and clan structure, which was prone to war, feuding, and violence. instead the Q sought to replace this structure with the umma

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