History Chapter 16 – French Revolution

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What is the Old Regime in France?
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the name given to the political and social order in France before the Revolution.
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What was the social system in France before the Revolution?
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Three Estates -1st Estate – Clergy – smallest group 100,000 -2nd Estate – Nobles 400,000 -3rd Estate – Everyone else – paid feudal dues and all the taxes – Corvee – 24,000,000
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What was the social system based on?
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The feudal system – where the people had to pay the nobles for the land they worked and lived on
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What is Corvee?
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when common peasants under the feudal system are forced to do labor for the government
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How did corvee effect the revolution?
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The peasants and commoners in the 3rd estates were angered by their lack of freedom and the government being able to force them into labor
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What was the economic situation before the French Revolution?
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-Tax Inequality – Richest paid none peasants paid the most -War Debts -Overspending at Versailles -Private banks denied credit to France -No budget
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Who was the King of France during the French Revolution>?
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King Louis XVI
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What did Louis XVI do that caused the French nobility to force him to call the Estates General into assmbly?
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Louis need money and was going to increase taxes but the nobility was angered and said only the Estates General could change the tax laws
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Did the Estates General meet regularly before the economic trouble?
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No – they hadn’t met in over 100 years
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How did they convene the Estates General?
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King Louis XVI sent out a decree for the people to elect deputies by Estate (1,2,3) and bring a list of grievances
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When was the Estates General to meet?
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May of 1789
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What estate had the most representatives?
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The 3rd Estate
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What did the 3rd Estate want out of the Estates General meeting?
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Greater social reform and freedom from the feudal system – highly influenced by the enlightment
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Was the 3rd Estate well received by Louis XVI at the Estates General?
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No, he treated them poorly and he declared that each estate would receive only one vot – which was unfair to the 3rd since it was by far the largest and wanted greater social reforms. they would be outvoted 2to1
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What new name did the 3rd Estate representatives give themselves after learning that Louis XVI would not allow them to vote?
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The National Assembly
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What happened when the King tried to prevent the National Assembly from meeting by locking them out of their meeting room at Versaille?
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The group went to an indoor royal tennis court nearby.
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What is the Tennis Court Oath?
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The representatives of the National Assembly swore by oath that they would not disband until a written constitution was established.
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What did King Louis XVI do when the National Assembly refused to diband?
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He met with all 3 estates and they began to draw up a constituion but the King called in the troops to Versaille and Paris and wanted to close down the assembly
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What was the other name for the National Assembly?
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The National Constituent Assembly
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What happened in Paris in July14, 1789?
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The parisians were rioting the prices for food and felt threatened by troops that the king had placed there – they began looking for weapons to defend themsevles and they stormed the Bastille.
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What happened after the storming of the Bastille?
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Peasants revolted against the feudal system and the National Constituent Assembly established the Declaration of the Rights of Men. and wrote 2000 laws abolishing feudalism
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What was the Declaration of Rights of Man?
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It established -Equality of men -Sovereignty resides in the people -Individual rights
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What was the Civil Constitution of the Clergy?
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It confiscated all the church land to get France out of debt -Clergy would be elected by the people -State controlled the church – Clergy had to pledge loyalty oath to the state
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What did King Louis XVI do when he saw that the new constitution would limit his power?
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He tried to flee France disguised in hopes of getting other monarchs to help him regain his throne – but he was stopped
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After the revolts the National Assembly established a new government – What body of representatives did the new constitution establish?
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The Legislative assembly
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What different political factions developed?
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The Jacobins – Radical Left wanted most change The Moderates – wanted some change but happy with new govt The Girondins – sided with the Monarch
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Who were the Jacobins?
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They were a group that met in France named after the bldg they met in – they wanted big changes and were not happy with the new constitution
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Who was the most influential leaders of the Jacobins?
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Jean Paul Marat George Jacques Danton Maximilien de Robespierre
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What did the Jacobins want?
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They thought that the new constitution only helped out the Middle Class – they wanted a greater voice in government
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Who were the Sans – culottes?
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They were the working class in Paris – their name literally meant without breeches – they did not have fashionable knee breeches but full length pants
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What did the Jacobins do with the Sans-culottes?
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They influenced them to riot and stir up trouble to get their ideas across.
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How did the Jacobins feel about the War with Austria and Prussia?
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They were against it because if France won it would limit their influence and the country would be happy with the Assembly Government
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What did Marat and Danton do during the War with Austria and Prussia?
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They sabotaged their own country – delaying supply requests etc.
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What was the Brunswick Manifesto July 1792?
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The Duke of Brunswick leader of the Austrian and Prussian forces issued a stmt encouraging the French people to rally behind their King and protect him from the Revolution – promised to restore King Louis XVI as king when he capture Paris
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What did Danton do when he heard the Brunswick Manifesto?
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He marched with a mob to the Legislative assembly and killed the Kings guard and demanded a new constitution be written
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What did the National Assembly do when Danton demanded a new constituion>?
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They caved and called for election of a National Convention
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What was the new govt established by the National Convention?
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It was a republic with no monarch
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On what date did the National Convention abolish the monarchy?
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September 22, 1792
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What happened to King Louis XVI and Queen Marie Antionette?
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They were tried and found guilty of treason and beheaded by guillotine

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