History 180

Flashcard maker : Viola Marenco
Conquistador
soldiers, explorers, and adventurers at the service of the Spanish & Portuguese Empires
Columbian Exchange
exchange of good between East & West; Mostly between the Americas & Europe; unequal exchange- brought in diseases that had a major impact on Americans
Ferdinand Magellan
Circumnavigated the world; conquered Philippines, but died on his way back to Spain
Encomienda
Form of Native American History; assigned lands to the conquistadors; natives were forced to work for the conquistadors with minimum wages; natives had to pay taxes
Francisco Pizzaro
Spanish conqueror; Destroyed the Inca Empire
Mita
was a mandatory public service in the society of the Inca Empire; Historians used the hispanicized term mita to differentiate the system as it was modified and intensified by the Spanish colonial government.
Martin Luther
father of the Protestant Reformation; people should believe in the Bible and not the Pope; he wanted the translation of the Bible to be Vernacular instead of Latin; attached church hierarchy; Peasants refused to pay taxes to landlords; was uprising against any form of hierarchy in society; people were not protesting against the Church in Europe; challenging authority of Catholic Church
John Calvin
codified Protestant teachings; rejected the power of the clergy; insisted on living a simple life; wanted to bring about a religious change in society; wanted to help people to know their rights and not just blindly follow the church
Shamans
Physician and a storyteller; Aztecs would follow them a lot; conducted sacrifices; intermediaries between common people and king; could be men or women
Global Bazaar
Place that brought merchants together (market)
Isaac Newton
Laws of gravitation and motion; Believed in God, but wanted to conduct experiments; very secretive about his experiments
Johannes Kepler
Planets moved in an ellipitical orbit around the sun; time taken to complete revolution depends on the distance from the sun
Emillie du Chatelet
earliest women scientist & mathematician; Principia Mathematician; Energy of moving body was squared of its velocity; Father was Noble of Louis XIV Church
Portuguese East India Company
short-lived ill-fated attempt by Philip II to create a national chartered company to look after interests in Portuguese India faced on encroachment by the Dutch and English following the union of the Portuguese and Spanish Kingdoms.
Dutch East India Company
was a chartered company that wanted to carry out colonial activities in Asia. It is often considered to have been the first multinational corporation in the world and it was the first company to issue stock. It was also agruably the first megacorporation, possessing quasi government powers , including the ability to wage war, imprision and execute convicts, negotiate treaties, coin money, and establish colonies.
Middle Passage
The trans-Atlantic journey. It was very crowded and filthy. 50% percent of the slaves died on this trip. The slaves were going to the new world from africa. The trans-atlantic trade route was considered a triangle trade route because slaves were going to the new world from africa, resources from the new world were going to Europe, and guns from Europe were going to Africa.
Potosi
city and capital in Bolivia. One of the highest cities in the world and it was the location of the spanish colonial mint.
Sawhili
East Africa- involved in slave trade; were forced to pay heavy tribute by Vasco da Gama; Mombasa, Malindi, Lamu, Kismayo are important European ports
Kingdom of Benin
West Coast of Africa – important to the Portuguese for ivory, pepper, & slaves; African received European firearms
Kingdom of Kongo
important for slaves; East Africa; slave trading was very common. It allowed slave traders to get as many slaves as possible. Portuguese developed diplomatic relation with the kingdom.
Janissaries
Christian Prisoners of War; were trained to join the Turkish Army; formed an important part; Trained by muslim families; were responsible for the decline of the Empire; presence of European Missionaries; Ottoman Empire
Safavid Empire
Shia Kingdom; developed problems with neighboring kingdoms especially the Ottoman Empire because of religion- both Islamic States; Stunnis – mona- leader of religion; Shias – mona ali – son in law
Akbar
Consolidated the Mughal Empire; followed a policy of religious tolerance; gave land grants to military officials – would collect taxes; brought southern parts of India under his control; illiterate- could not read or write; Representatives of different religions: Jesuits, Budda Monks, Hindu Priests, Muslim Maulvis; wanted to know all religions, criticized male prostitutes; Portuguese were present in India and conducting trade; would introduce his own religion; brought Hindu kingdoms in under his control, but allowed them to practice their own religion
Aurangzeb
considered the ruler responsible for the decline of the Mughal Empire; followed a policy of religious intolerance; re-imposed the jizya tax; faced opposition from regional Hindu Kingdoms like Marathas & Rajputs
Marathas
western India
Rajputs
North western India; followed a policy known as Matrimonial alliance; Akbar married a Hindu princess of Rajputs
Sikhas
Northern part of India; separate religious group ( not Hindus); Aurangzeb wanted control of this region.
Chinese Examination System
Ming Empire; very difficult to pass and only meant for males; women restricted to homes and helped husbands with agriculture; could not hold a position in government, could not take part in discussions; women were allowed to inherit property; followed system of foot binding- bend womens feet so they will be little to fit in certain shoes; important so women could have better husbands
Ming Empire
founded by Hongwu; Revivded Neo-Confucianism; Patriarchal economy; agricultural economy; desparted government – power rests in the hands of the ruler; followed strict examination system; wanted to be self sufficient; women allowed to inherit property
Did the Catholic and Protestant churches retard or foster scientific discoveries?
The Catholic and Protestant churches did try and hold back the scientific discoveries. In Galileo’s letter to the Grand Dutchess Christiana, he stated that the churches failed to approve the scientific proof. Many believed that the Earth was the center because in the Bible someone read that the sun moves and the Earth stands still. He also stated that anyone who disagrees with the church is considered a heretic.
What were the political and religious consequences of the thirty years war in Europe?
The Thirty Years War in Europe was a war between the Catholics and Protestants. It did end with peace in Aubsberg. However, even though there was a truce between the two, there was still a conflict. The peace of Aubsberg recognized Lutheranism. This had a devastating influence on Europe. The war destroyed half of the population of Europe. It damaged the economy and society. This war failed to bring about any kind of unity between the two sets. The southern part of Europe remained Catholic, while the North German states remained Protestant.
What were the central concepts of Enlightenment? Name 3 Philosophies:
The three philosophies included Montequieu, Voltaire, and Jean Rousseau. Montequieu’s work was called \”Spirit of Laws\”. He argued that political power should be dispersed in the society rather than being concentrated in single hands. The laws had to be changed according to the needs of the people. Lawmakers had to understand the relation between condition of countries and also how to formulate laws so it can satisfy the needs of people. Voltaire challenged authority of the Catholic church. He opposed religious intolerance that was practiced in France. Jean Rousseau’s work was called \”From Social Contract; Popular Sovereignty and General Will\” where he suggested that humans must submit to general will in order to protect individual liberty.
What was the social status of women in the 16th and 17th century Europe? Did it change with enlightenment?
Women were not given much power at all. Most women had to stay home and be out in the fields to help their husbands. Women during this time could inherit property, but were not allowed to be in any kind of discussion pertaining to government. There was maybe one woman ruler, but that was it. During the Enlightenment period, it changed. Emillie du Chatelet became the earliest women scientist and mathematician.

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