History 101: Western Civilization- Constantine to Hundred Years’ War

Flashcard maker : David Dunn
-Emperor of Rome (reigned for 21 years from 284-305)
-Called himself the Sun-God which demonstrated political and religious power
-Birthday was December 25
-Known for worst and longest persecution of Christians
-Wanted to divide the Church through a) scandal and b) persecution and imprisonment
-Issued an edict in 303 that all Christians must be imprisoned, tortured, and killed
-Followed the Persian prophet Mani
-Manicheanism was much like Zorastrianism
-Believed there was one supreme God of the universe
-A Germanic people
-Threatened Rome’s eastern side (Asia Minor)
-Caused Diocletian to shift his focus towards them ultimately causing the separation of the Roman empire
-Means literally 4 rule
-Diocletian was emperor in the east with sub-emperor Galerius
-Maximianus was emperor in the west with sub-emperor Constantius
-Not considered two empires, but two rulerships
-reigned from 324 to 337
-Moved the capital of the Roman empire from Rome to Constantinople
-This represented the transfer of power from Rome (west) to Constantinople (east).
-This created two political states and two versions of Christianity
-Legalized Christianity through the entire Roman empire which led to the spread over the whole world.
-Believe oneness of God
-God is one substance with three professions
-Jesus appeared to be human but was actually just Divine
-Jesus was a human and not divine
-It was impossible for a god to be human
-God was 3 persons
-3 persons had different statuses
-Believed Son and Father were co-eternal but there was still a hierarchy.
-Father _ Son_ Holy Spirit
Council of Nicea
-Started in 325
-Called by Constantine
-Meant to figure out dogmatic theology
-Condemned heresies and supported Trinitarianism but not the beliefs of Origen
-\”The Father, Son, and Holy Spirit are one equal being\”
-All trinitarian Christians support the Nicean Creed
Synod of Chalcedon
-God is one but 3 persons
-God the Son has two natures: a) Fully human b) Fully Divine
-Believed visible Church had to be as perfect as the invisible one
-Just as saints are perfect, those on Earth must be perfect
-To achieve perfection in this life by their own will and choosing
St. Augustine of Hippo
-Supported neither Donatists or Pelagians
-Faith is a gift from God (unable to earn a gift)
-Gives an account of the \”City of God and the City of Man
-If one lives their life for God, they are of the City f God
-If one lives their life for themselves (pride) they belong to the City of Man
-Helped define the relationship between sacred authority of the Church and the secular authority of the rulers
-He was a patriarch for the administrative capital at Milan
-Rebuked the emperor Theodosius for killing innocent villagers during a purge of pagans
-Admired Cicero
-Wrote a book \”On the Duties of Ministers\”
-Had St. Augustine as a disciple
-Translates to \”New Platonism\”
-Drew upon the more mystical aspects of Plato’s thought
-Its founder was Plotinus who was a Hellenistic philosopher from Egypt.
-Said that humans were composed of both bodies and a soul
-Neoplatonism became even more popular than Stoicism
Monastic Living
-Christians who formed distinct groups were called monastaries
-Monastic living was different in the East and West
-Same basic structure of living in a community while focusing solely on god (united by faith)
-Monasteries were examples of St. Augustine’s City of God
Basil the Great
-Eastern monastic living
-Believed in the power of communal work
Simeon Stylites
-Eastern monastic living
-Believed in solitary living and surviving alone (hermit-like)
Marana and Cyra
-Eastern monastic living
-Chained themselves in a small room as a sacrifice to god
-Lived from 347-420 AD
-He knew many languages and translated the Bible into Latin
This Bible was called the Vulgate
-Founded a monastery in Bethlehem
-Jerome’s Bible written entirely in Latin
-Became the standard bible for all Catholics
Benedict of Nursia
-Son of a Roman nobleman
-Founded a monastery at Monte Cassino
-Made up a rule for beginners for his followers
-His rule included prayers, lessons, and worship
-Basic guidelines for monastic life
-Roman senator and philosopher
-lived in the early 6th century AD
-was put in prison for conspiring against Odoacer
wrote ‘Consolation of Philosophy’ which went on to become the most influential work of the middle ages.
-eventually executed in 524 AD
-Justinian wanted to revive the empire’s greatness
-also aimed to re-conquer the lower western half of the Roman Empire
-Last emperor to speak Latin as a first language
-Created Justinian’s Code
-Died on the 14 of November
-Wife was Theodora
-he was considered unsuccessful because he left the empire with hopeless bankruptcy and the loss of land
Justinian Code
-Previously known as the body of civil law
-included statutes, legal writings, principles, and legislation.
-Known as the most collective and authoritative Roman code of law
-Became known throughout the world as a foundation for laws
-created in full by Justinian and his successors
Nika Riot
-breaking out in Constantinople
-Justinian wanted to flee to protect himself
-Theodora convinced him to re-assert his power
-gathered thousands of people in the hippodrome and slaughters 30,000 of them
-overcomes the rioters and aims to rebuild Constantinople
-Built the largest in the world at the time called the Hagia Sofia
-name came from ‘es ten polis’ which translates to ‘going to the city’
Byantine State
-State was ruled by one person
– characterized by bureaucracy
-people who served the state were men and eunuchs
-state preserved many documents like Plato and Homer
-vanguard on front lines of Islamic troops
Orthodoxy Christianity
-began to form different hierarchies
-religion was one thing the Roam and orthodox things had in common
-delicate relationship between ecclesiatial power and political power
-emperor appoints patriarch but patriarch can excommunicate the emperor
-big issues were icons
-people who were against icons
-Leo III was an iconoclast
-iconoclast means breakers of images
-iconoclasts were influenced by Muslims and Jews
-icons created much controversy
-two main groups were the goths and anglo-saxons
-goths were split into Visigoths and Ostrogoth while
anglo saxons were British
-located in southern France and Spain
-wanted to unify France and Spain through religion and law
-leaders were Arian (believed Jesus was human and not divine)
-wanted to force Visigoth people to be arrian too
-Visigoths were defeated by the Roman Catholic Franks
-located in Italy, Austria, and Slovakia
-Romans and Ostrogoth lived in peace
-Justinian tried to take over the Ostrogoths and take their land
-Pope ultimately establishes authority and puts an end to the invasion
-Located in Britain
-11 distinct groups with in the anglo-saxons
-Since they were in the North, they were never touched by the Roman world
-their central military values were honor and glory
-they often moved from place to place
-born in 17 AD
-founded Islam
-came from the bedouin society
-did not have parents
-became a business manager for an old wealthy widow and eventually marries her
-became very spiritual at age 30 and ten years later reported having a vision from God that made him a prophet
-could not read or write so he gave revelations orally
-taught there was only one person in God and about judgement at the end of life
-Faith if the book (Quran)
-founded by Muhammad
-set of guidelines were known as the five pillars of Islam which included when to pray, alms giving, and pilgrimages
-Shari’a was a set of rules compiled by Muslim scholars as a law code for how to live
– believed in holy war against non muslims
– lived between 8-9 century AD
-emerged from the barbarians
-he was a military leader who defeated many people
-said to be tall but with a small voice
-ushered in the Carolingian renaissance
-never learned to read
-firm believer in education for everyone
-developed caroline minuscule for clearer and easier writing
-very good Catholic
-built the Aexle shepel
-firm supporter of the pope and in return, pope gave spiritual help
-Charlemagne was crowned by the pope and this brought questions about authority

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