HIST 50H – Flashcard

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What was the first metal alloy invented by Mesopotamians c. 3300 BCE?
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Bronze
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One of Hammurabi’s most significant acts as king of Babylonia was to
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create and publicize a law code.
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After the death of her husband, the pharaoh of Egypt, what did Hatshepust do with the kingship?
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Took it for herself.
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The first mention of the people called Israel occurs in 1207 BCE in the records of what conquering people?
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Egypt
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Mesopotamian cuneiform script was usually written on what material?
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Clay
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Unification of Egypt under the pharaohs involved linking upper and lower Egypt; where is lower Egypt located?
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North
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What part of their ancestors’ bodies did the Natufians remove to place in their altar niches?
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skulls
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The battle of Qadesh in 1274 BCE was the largest chariot battle in the Middle East and was fought between Egypt and
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Hittites
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The Assyrian army utilized armor, helmets, and weapons made out of
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iron.
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The potter’s wheel was introduced in the Mesopotamian city of Uruk and allowed for pottery to be standardized in size and shape.
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True
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How does the Egyptian creation myth differ from the Mesopotamian creation myth?
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The Egyptian myth is less violent than the Mesopotamian story of creation.
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Greek sculpture was influenced by the sculpture and statuary of
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Egypt.
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In the Mesopotamian epic of Gilgamesh, what does the hero/king go on a quest to find?
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Immortality
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Greeks learned about Mesopotamian literature, and the artistic tradition of depicting winged animals and muscular gods from what Mesopotamian people?
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Assyrians
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In Homer’s The Odyssey, peace in Odysseus’s kingdom is restored only when the hero
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killed his wife Penelope’s suitors.
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The Edwin Smith Papyri is a collection of texts that is concerned with what field of study?
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mathematics
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The pattern of transitioning from animism to polytheism is tied to the transition from forager to cities, and to the rise of
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kings.
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Hesiod, a Greek writer who crafted a creation story, won what kind of contest?
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Poetry
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What mathematical measurement do you use every day can we trace back to the Babylonians?
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time
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In Enuma Elish, what did Marduk use to create humanity after he defeated Tiamat?
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Blood of his stepfather
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The most valued skill in the Vedas was
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military.
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The Aryans used ghee in religious rituals; what is ghee?
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clarified butter
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What is the significance of the Rig Veda in world literature?
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oldest poetry in any Indo-European language
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The Vedic god Varuna was associated with
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law.
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Most of the hymns of the Rig Veda feature what deity?
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Indra
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Wealth in Aryan society was measured by how many ________ one possessed.
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cows
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One of the most significant challenges to the theory that the Aryans defeated Harappa is that
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the Harappan cities were already abandoned by the time the Aryans appear in India.
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The political theorist Kautilya is associated with what state in Aryan India?
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Vajjian
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In the Bhagavad-Gita, the god Krishna urges Arjuna to act according to dharma, which means according to
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one’s prescribed role.
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Janapadas were states built on what economic base?
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agriculture
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Sites in China dating to 7000 BCE are among the earliest for the cultivation of
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rice.
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What evidence indicates the use of chariots in Shang society?
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Burial sites include chariots.
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In Shang society, social rank was based on
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size of cattle herds.
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Shang and Zhou women held prominent places in society and the economy, especially with the production of
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silk.
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Wang Zhihuan’s poem about “Climbing Stork Pavilion” describes a scenic view of the
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Yellow River.
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The economic center of China shifted to South China because of
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intensive rice farming.
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Xia buildings, and many in China today, had their entrance facing
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south.
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Wen, Wu, and Cheng were kings of what client state of the Shang?
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Zhou
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One of the most innovative aspects of Wu Ding’s attempts to contact the spiritual realm is that he used
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a writing system.
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The Banpo Village houses had early examples of a kang, which is a
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heated bed.
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Evidence indicates that in the Shang period, the death of a ruler was the occasion to sacrifice what animal?
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humans
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In the oracle bone divination ritual, what on the bone gave “answers” to the questions written on the bone?
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cracks
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The Chinese in the sixth century BCE produced the world’s first
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cast iron.
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According to tradition, the cultural hero Fuxi discovered writing by observing symbols
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etched on a turtule.
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Most of Shang religion consisted of offering sacrifices to and seeking divination from
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Shangdi
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Taotie were highly abstract and stylized depictions of
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animals
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The “carved clay” technique is unique to China and involves the production of
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bronze vessels.
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The primary deity of the Zhou dynasty was known as
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Tian.
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By the late Zhou era, the Chinese came to believe that what was the guiding cosmic force?
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Heaven
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The Shijing, or Poetry Classic, is an important source for what aspect of Zhou society?
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commoners
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Wealth at Dhar Tichitt and Dhar Oualata, c. 2000 BCE was probably measured in
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livestock.
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In the 4th century CE, Aksum took over trade with the Roman Empire and converted to
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Coptic Christianity
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What evidence did the foragers leave behind as they retreated away for the drying Sahara?
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cave paintings
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Aksum took its only attempt at imperialism in the early sixth century when it invaded
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Yemen
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One of the key debates about Meroe is whether it acquired the ability to smelt iron from the Middle East or from
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sub-Saharan Africa.
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As human moved further south in the sub-Saharan Africa, they encountered diseases such as
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malaria
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The Sahara began to expand across North Africa c. 5000 BCE when what weather pattern shifted eastward?
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monsoon rains
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One of the criteria for describing Jenne-jeno as a city is that had a sizeable population of
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nonagricultural craftsmen
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Archaeologists working in the 1990s discovered the earliest version of the Mayan ______ at Tabasco, Oaxaca.
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calendar
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How were rainforest areas south of the Sahara prepared for agriculture?
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slash and burn
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The Teotihuacan Temple of the Sun is built upon a
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cave.
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As Mayan villages expanded into towns, what did the elite have more of than the commoners?
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better farmland.
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One primary difference between Teotihuacan and the Maya is that Teotihuacan lacked a writing system.
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False
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The main sacrifice performed by the Maya to honor the gods was a blood gift taken from a
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king.
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Among the four calendars used by the Maya, the Long Count measured time in what way?
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From the beginning of the universe.
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Mayan villages built up farmland in the Yucatan peninsula to support agriculture based on what key crops?
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squash and beans
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The shift from the Paracas chiefdoms to the Nazca chiefdoms is marked by a change in the manufacture of
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pottery.
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What are the puquios of the Nazca?
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irrigation tunnels
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The first ceremonial centers of the Maya were
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rectangular platforms
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The earliest archaeological evidence for the chiefdom of Moche is found in what structure?
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tomb
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What did Bactrian Menander and Kushan ruler Kanishka have in common?
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Both men converted to Buddhism and promoted it in their kingdoms.
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The Gupta rulers were Hindu and banned the practice of Jainism and Buddhism in their empire.
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False
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Chandragupta Maurya abdicated his throne in 297 to
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join a Join a Jain monastery.
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Why was Fa Xian traveling around India in 399-414 CE?
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He was on pilgrimage to sacred Buddhist sites.
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The kingdom of Menander in Bactria spoke what language?
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Greek
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Chandragupta’s first attempt to create an empire in northern India was based on what religious threat from the Nandas?
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The Nanda dynasty was from the lowest caste, the shudra varna.
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Meeting with Sandrokoptros, or Chandragupta Maurya, may have convinced Alexander to
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not invade India.
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The Mandapa Temple, Mahabali Purana pagodas, and complex of Krishna I at Kailsantha were all Hindu temples in southern India that were
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carved from solid rock.
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The Gupta Dynasty began somewhere near
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Magadha.
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Ashoka’s conversion to Buddhism followed a fierce battle between the Mauryans and
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Kalinga.
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Buddhist monasteries in Southeast Asia and Asia were used for hostels as well as for prayer.
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True
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In the practice of sati, a wife shows her loyalty to her husband by committing ritual suicide by
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self-immolation.
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Why did Siddhartha Gautama’s father have the young prince secluded in a palace?
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to protect him from evil and suffering
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Although some Hindus in the Gupta period celebrated women’s sexuality, others viewed it as a problem because it distracted men from
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ahieving moksha.
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What mathematical concept were the Indians the first to use?
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zero
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What is the concept of “jiva” in the Jain system?
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the soul that all things have
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For members of the “twice born” upper castes, which of the following was the fourth of the four stages of life according to Hindu tradition?
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wanderer
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The first depictions of the Buddha in human form closely resembled the Greek depiction of
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Apollo.
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Vedic rituals and sacrifices became less important after 500 BCE as what new social class appeared?
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merchants
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According to Hindu beliefs, what is “Bharata”?
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India as a land united by faith
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The Qin state’s wealth was based on
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agricultural surplus.
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Mencius compared human nature to what to illustrate his belief that humans were inclined to good?
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water
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The founder of the Han Dynasty, Liu Bang, was unusual among China’s rulers because he was
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a peasant.
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One of the ways Shi Huangdi and his advisors manged the message put out by the state was to
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burn all unapproved books.
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In 1138 CE, the first foundling hospitals were built in Sung China to deal with what problem?
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Unwanted daughters.
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One of the most important industries in China was the production of salt, which used natural gas in a process ot extract the salt from
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a salt-water brine.
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In Chinese texts, the man known to the west as Confucius is known by what title?
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The Master.
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As part of Han Wudi’s plan to Sinicize nomadic and Central Asian peoples, the Chinese encouraged these people to adopt
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the Chinese writing system.
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Legalists believed that education was an essential occupation for citizens.
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false
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For Confucius, the Duke of Zhao was an excellent example of
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a junzi
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What did Gregory the Great add to the traditions of the Catholic mass?
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music
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What concept held the feudal relationship together?
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loyalty
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The Carolingians came to power in which Frankish territory?
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Austrasia
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“Boon work” in the manorial system was free labor provided for the head of the manor by
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peasants.
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Because Pepin the Short was crowned with holy oil, he introduced the idea that he was king by the authority of
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God.
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In the feudal system that arose in ninth century Frankia, what was the basic service that vassals owed their lords?
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military
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In feudalism, what was a fief?
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grants of land
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Before Pope Gregory I was pope, he encountered a group of slave boys from ______ whom he described as angels.
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Britain
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Charles Martel of the Carolingians acquired the name Martel, “The Hammer,” because his military victory over whome at the Battle of Tours?
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Muslims
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What title did Charlemagne acquire in 800 from Pope Leo III?
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Emperor of the Romans
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A moldboard was a feature and technological development of what device?
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plow
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Of the new monastic orders of the thirteenth century which was dedicated primarily to preaching as a way to combat heresy?
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Dominicans
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In the thirteenth century, the Italians claimed what western Mediterranean port from Muslims?
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Gibraltar
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What was the advantage of the stern-post rudder, adapted by European ships in the 12th century?
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allowed for larger ships
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Adelard of Bath, in the early twelfth century, translated many Greek scientific texts from
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Arabic.
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Anti-Jewish feelings and violence increased after what eleventh century event?
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First Crusade
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As the Medieval English parliament evolved, the lower house of knight and burgesses came to be known as the House of
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Commons.
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In the scholastic debate of the twelfth century, St. Anselm represented those who favored ______ as the most important approach to understanding God.
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faith
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In the eleventh century, popular piety increased, related to an increase in the veneration of
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Blessed Virgin Mary
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Windmills were introduced to Western Europe in the twelfth century and were brought over from
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China
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One reason why gender roles tended to be less divisive in Korea was because of the intensive labor need for what cultivation?
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rice
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What uji was the first to be granted the title of Sei-i-tai Shogun, and thus began the Shogunates?
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Minamoto
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As part of their conquest of Korea, what did the Mongols do to approximately 250,000 Koreans, beginning in 1254?
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enslavement and deportation
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What is the best definition of uji in Japanese writing?
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clan
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The name “Vietnam” originated in the name for the region by what other Asian power?
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China
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What literary format did Murasaki Shikibu contribute to world literature?
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novel
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What destroyed the second Mongol fleet which attempted to invade Japan in 1281?
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a typhoon
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“Chu nom” was a Vietnamese attempt at creating their own
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writing system.
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The weakness of the central authority in Heian Japan was highlighted during what epidemic from 733-737?
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small pox
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After the creation of han-gul, the highly elite men in Korean wrote in
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Chinese.

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