HIST 50H – Flashcard

Flashcard maker : Lily Taylor
What was the first metal alloy invented by Mesopotamians c. 3300 BCE?
Bronze

One of Hammurabi’s most significant acts as king of Babylonia was to
create and publicize a law code.

After the death of her husband, the pharaoh of Egypt, what did Hatshepust do with the kingship?
Took it for herself.

The first mention of the people called Israel occurs in 1207 BCE in the records of what conquering people?
Egypt

Mesopotamian cuneiform script was usually written on what material?
Clay

Unification of Egypt under the pharaohs involved linking upper and lower Egypt; where is lower Egypt located?
North

What part of their ancestors’ bodies did the Natufians remove to place in their altar niches?
skulls

The battle of Qadesh in 1274 BCE was the largest chariot battle in the Middle East and was fought between Egypt and
Hittites

The Assyrian army utilized armor, helmets, and weapons made out of
iron.

The potter’s wheel was introduced in the Mesopotamian city of Uruk and allowed for pottery to be standardized in size and shape.
True

How does the Egyptian creation myth differ from the Mesopotamian creation myth?
The Egyptian myth is less violent than the Mesopotamian story of creation.

Greek sculpture was influenced by the sculpture and statuary of
Egypt.

In the Mesopotamian epic of Gilgamesh, what does the hero/king go on a quest to find?
Immortality

Greeks learned about Mesopotamian literature, and the artistic tradition of depicting winged animals and muscular gods from what Mesopotamian people?
Assyrians

In Homer’s The Odyssey, peace in Odysseus’s kingdom is restored only when the hero
killed his wife Penelope’s suitors.

The Edwin Smith Papyri is a collection of texts that is concerned with what field of study?
mathematics

The pattern of transitioning from animism to polytheism is tied to the transition from forager to cities, and to the rise of
kings.

Hesiod, a Greek writer who crafted a creation story, won what kind of contest?
Poetry

What mathematical measurement do you use every day can we trace back to the Babylonians?
time

In Enuma Elish, what did Marduk use to create humanity after he defeated Tiamat?
Blood of his stepfather

The most valued skill in the Vedas was
military.

The Aryans used ghee in religious rituals; what is ghee?
clarified butter

What is the significance of the Rig Veda in world literature?
oldest poetry in any Indo-European language

The Vedic god Varuna was associated with
law.

Most of the hymns of the Rig Veda feature what deity?
Indra

Wealth in Aryan society was measured by how many ________ one possessed.
cows

One of the most significant challenges to the theory that the Aryans defeated Harappa is that
the Harappan cities were already abandoned by the time the Aryans appear in India.

The political theorist Kautilya is associated with what state in Aryan India?
Vajjian

In the Bhagavad-Gita, the god Krishna urges Arjuna to act according to dharma, which means according to
one’s prescribed role.

Janapadas were states built on what economic base?
agriculture

Sites in China dating to 7000 BCE are among the earliest for the cultivation of
rice.

What evidence indicates the use of chariots in Shang society?
Burial sites include chariots.

In Shang society, social rank was based on
size of cattle herds.

Shang and Zhou women held prominent places in society and the economy, especially with the production of
silk.

Wang Zhihuan’s poem about “Climbing Stork Pavilion” describes a scenic view of the
Yellow River.

The economic center of China shifted to South China because of
intensive rice farming.

Xia buildings, and many in China today, had their entrance facing
south.

Wen, Wu, and Cheng were kings of what client state of the Shang?
Zhou

One of the most innovative aspects of Wu Ding’s attempts to contact the spiritual realm is that he used
a writing system.

The Banpo Village houses had early examples of a kang, which is a
heated bed.

Evidence indicates that in the Shang period, the death of a ruler was the occasion to sacrifice what animal?
humans

In the oracle bone divination ritual, what on the bone gave “answers” to the questions written on the bone?
cracks

The Chinese in the sixth century BCE produced the world’s first
cast iron.

According to tradition, the cultural hero Fuxi discovered writing by observing symbols
etched on a turtule.

Most of Shang religion consisted of offering sacrifices to and seeking divination from
Shangdi

Taotie were highly abstract and stylized depictions of
animals

The “carved clay” technique is unique to China and involves the production of
bronze vessels.

The primary deity of the Zhou dynasty was known as
Tian.

By the late Zhou era, the Chinese came to believe that what was the guiding cosmic force?
Heaven

The Shijing, or Poetry Classic, is an important source for what aspect of Zhou society?
commoners

Wealth at Dhar Tichitt and Dhar Oualata, c. 2000 BCE was probably measured in
livestock.

In the 4th century CE, Aksum took over trade with the Roman Empire and converted to
Coptic Christianity

What evidence did the foragers leave behind as they retreated away for the drying Sahara?
cave paintings

Aksum took its only attempt at imperialism in the early sixth century when it invaded
Yemen

One of the key debates about Meroe is whether it acquired the ability to smelt iron from the Middle East or from
sub-Saharan Africa.

As human moved further south in the sub-Saharan Africa, they encountered diseases such as
malaria

The Sahara began to expand across North Africa c. 5000 BCE when what weather pattern shifted eastward?
monsoon rains

One of the criteria for describing Jenne-jeno as a city is that had a sizeable population of
nonagricultural craftsmen

Archaeologists working in the 1990s discovered the earliest version of the Mayan ______ at Tabasco, Oaxaca.
calendar

How were rainforest areas south of the Sahara prepared for agriculture?
slash and burn

The Teotihuacan Temple of the Sun is built upon a
cave.

As Mayan villages expanded into towns, what did the elite have more of than the commoners?
better farmland.

One primary difference between Teotihuacan and the Maya is that Teotihuacan lacked a writing system.
False

The main sacrifice performed by the Maya to honor the gods was a blood gift taken from a
king.

Among the four calendars used by the Maya, the Long Count measured time in what way?
From the beginning of the universe.

Mayan villages built up farmland in the Yucatan peninsula to support agriculture based on what key crops?
squash and beans

The shift from the Paracas chiefdoms to the Nazca chiefdoms is marked by a change in the manufacture of
pottery.

What are the puquios of the Nazca?
irrigation tunnels

The first ceremonial centers of the Maya were
rectangular platforms

The earliest archaeological evidence for the chiefdom of Moche is found in what structure?
tomb

What did Bactrian Menander and Kushan ruler Kanishka have in common?
Both men converted to Buddhism and promoted it in their kingdoms.

The Gupta rulers were Hindu and banned the practice of Jainism and Buddhism in their empire.
False

Chandragupta Maurya abdicated his throne in 297 to
join a Join a Jain monastery.

Why was Fa Xian traveling around India in 399-414 CE?
He was on pilgrimage to sacred Buddhist sites.

The kingdom of Menander in Bactria spoke what language?
Greek

Chandragupta’s first attempt to create an empire in northern India was based on what religious threat from the Nandas?
The Nanda dynasty was from the lowest caste, the shudra varna.

Meeting with Sandrokoptros, or Chandragupta Maurya, may have convinced Alexander to
not invade India.

The Mandapa Temple, Mahabali Purana pagodas, and complex of Krishna I at Kailsantha were all Hindu temples in southern India that were
carved from solid rock.

The Gupta Dynasty began somewhere near
Magadha.

Ashoka’s conversion to Buddhism followed a fierce battle between the Mauryans and
Kalinga.

Buddhist monasteries in Southeast Asia and Asia were used for hostels as well as for prayer.
True

In the practice of sati, a wife shows her loyalty to her husband by committing ritual suicide by
self-immolation.

Why did Siddhartha Gautama’s father have the young prince secluded in a palace?
to protect him from evil and suffering

Although some Hindus in the Gupta period celebrated women’s sexuality, others viewed it as a problem because it distracted men from
ahieving moksha.

What mathematical concept were the Indians the first to use?
zero

What is the concept of “jiva” in the Jain system?
the soul that all things have

For members of the “twice born” upper castes, which of the following was the fourth of the four stages of life according to Hindu tradition?
wanderer

The first depictions of the Buddha in human form closely resembled the Greek depiction of
Apollo.

Vedic rituals and sacrifices became less important after 500 BCE as what new social class appeared?
merchants

According to Hindu beliefs, what is “Bharata”?
India as a land united by faith

The Qin state’s wealth was based on
agricultural surplus.

Mencius compared human nature to what to illustrate his belief that humans were inclined to good?
water

The founder of the Han Dynasty, Liu Bang, was unusual among China’s rulers because he was
a peasant.

One of the ways Shi Huangdi and his advisors manged the message put out by the state was to
burn all unapproved books.

In 1138 CE, the first foundling hospitals were built in Sung China to deal with what problem?
Unwanted daughters.

One of the most important industries in China was the production of salt, which used natural gas in a process ot extract the salt from
a salt-water brine.

In Chinese texts, the man known to the west as Confucius is known by what title?
The Master.

As part of Han Wudi’s plan to Sinicize nomadic and Central Asian peoples, the Chinese encouraged these people to adopt
the Chinese writing system.

Legalists believed that education was an essential occupation for citizens.
false

For Confucius, the Duke of Zhao was an excellent example of
a junzi

What did Gregory the Great add to the traditions of the Catholic mass?
music

What concept held the feudal relationship together?
loyalty

The Carolingians came to power in which Frankish territory?
Austrasia

“Boon work” in the manorial system was free labor provided for the head of the manor by
peasants.

Because Pepin the Short was crowned with holy oil, he introduced the idea that he was king by the authority of
God.

In the feudal system that arose in ninth century Frankia, what was the basic service that vassals owed their lords?
military

In feudalism, what was a fief?
grants of land

Before Pope Gregory I was pope, he encountered a group of slave boys from ______ whom he described as angels.
Britain

Charles Martel of the Carolingians acquired the name Martel, “The Hammer,” because his military victory over whome at the Battle of Tours?
Muslims

What title did Charlemagne acquire in 800 from Pope Leo III?
Emperor of the Romans

A moldboard was a feature and technological development of what device?
plow

Of the new monastic orders of the thirteenth century which was dedicated primarily to preaching as a way to combat heresy?
Dominicans

In the thirteenth century, the Italians claimed what western Mediterranean port from Muslims?
Gibraltar

What was the advantage of the stern-post rudder, adapted by European ships in the 12th century?
allowed for larger ships

Adelard of Bath, in the early twelfth century, translated many Greek scientific texts from
Arabic.

Anti-Jewish feelings and violence increased after what eleventh century event?
First Crusade

As the Medieval English parliament evolved, the lower house of knight and burgesses came to be known as the House of
Commons.

In the scholastic debate of the twelfth century, St. Anselm represented those who favored ______ as the most important approach to understanding God.
faith

In the eleventh century, popular piety increased, related to an increase in the veneration of
Blessed Virgin Mary

Windmills were introduced to Western Europe in the twelfth century and were brought over from
China

One reason why gender roles tended to be less divisive in Korea was because of the intensive labor need for what cultivation?
rice

What uji was the first to be granted the title of Sei-i-tai Shogun, and thus began the Shogunates?
Minamoto

As part of their conquest of Korea, what did the Mongols do to approximately 250,000 Koreans, beginning in 1254?
enslavement and deportation

What is the best definition of uji in Japanese writing?
clan

The name “Vietnam” originated in the name for the region by what other Asian power?
China

What literary format did Murasaki Shikibu contribute to world literature?
novel

What destroyed the second Mongol fleet which attempted to invade Japan in 1281?
a typhoon

“Chu nom” was a Vietnamese attempt at creating their own
writing system.

The weakness of the central authority in Heian Japan was highlighted during what epidemic from 733-737?
small pox

After the creation of han-gul, the highly elite men in Korean wrote in
Chinese.

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