HIST 356 Women’s History 1865-Present

question

Gender vs. Sex
answer

– \”Sex\” refers to the biological and physiological characteristics that define men and women. – \”Gender\” refers to the socially constructed roles, behaviours, activities, and attributes that a given society considers appropriate for men and women. – To put it another way: \”Male\” and \”female\” are sex categories, while \”masculine\” and \”feminine\” are gender categories.
question

Liberal Feminism
answer

Form of feminist theory that believes that gender inequality is produced by unequal access to civil rights and certain social resources, such as education and employment, based on sex. Liberal feminists tend to seek solutions through changes in legislation that ensure that the rights of individuals are protected. (Problems stem from legal construction) – National Organization for Women, Feminist Majority Foundation, Ms. Magazine; Eleanor Roosevelt, Betty Friedan, Gloria Steinem – Vocal up to the 1920s, then again in the 1960s during the civil rights movements Significance: Worked to pass the Equal Rights Amendment in the hopes it will ensure that men and women are treated as equals under the democratic laws
question

Radical Feminism
answer

Form of feminist theory that believes that gender inequality is the result of male domination in all aspects of social and economic life. Aims to overthrow patriarchy through radical reorganization of society. (Problems stem from construction of gender hierarchy/patriarchy) – Arose within second-wave feminism in the 1960s; part of the women’s liberation movement Significance: locate the root cause of women’s oppression in patriarchal gender relations – sex politics (personal is political?)
question

Conservative Feminism
answer

Not a distinct form of feminism, yet many feminists align more conservatively; holds the idea that women are entitled to political, legal, social, and economic equality to men, in the framework of a lightly regulated market economy. It rejects the politicization of sexuality, supports families, gender differentiation, femininity, and mothering, and deprioritizes opposition to male domination. – Seen throughout the entire women’s movement, more so among individuals rather than organized groups as a whole.
question

The Personal is Political Essay
answer

– – Anita Hill (women realized)
question

Intersectionality Essay
answer

It was coined by Crenshaw, but it traces back to slavery(Jacobs/Truth). Sources: – Incidents of a slave girl – \”NOW Statement of Purpose\” – The Combahee River Collective Statement – National Black Feminist Organization Statement of Purpose. (Schneir 171-174) – Michelle Goldberg, \”What is a Woman?
question

Intersectionality
answer

encompass in a single word the simultaneous experience of the multiple oppressions faced by Black women. But the concept was not a new one. Since the times of slavery, Black women have eloquently described the multiple oppressions of race, class, and gender—referring to this concept as \”interlocking oppressions,\”
question

\”The Second Sex\” – Simone de Beauvoir
answer

– Man occupies the role of the self, or subject; woman is the object, the other. He is essential, absolute, and transcendent. She is inessential, incomplete, and mutilated. – Women bear the burden of domestic life even if their husbands let them work. – Women are torn between their careers and their sexuality. \”The most sympathetic of men never fully comprehend woman’s concrete situation.\” Men have innate benefits that they would not be willing to give up. Can you be female, but not feminine? – Separate gender from sex.
question

\”The Feminine Mystique\” – Betty Friedan
answer

– examined \”the problem that has no name\”women felt frustrated and repressed. Book came from interviews with her former classmates at Smith College in 1957. – What she discovered was a campaign that began after WWII to convince women that they could only achieve happiness through marriage and motherhood – an ideology she labeled \”the feminine mystique.\” \”Our culture does not permit women to accept or gratify their basic need to grow and fulfill their potentialities as human beings.\” Shortcomings of the document: She offers few remedies for the situation Neglected subject of men’s self-interest in sustaining their privileged position, which resulted in underestimation of what it would take to free women. It was narrowly directed at housewives. Ignores working class/poor/immigrant/minority women who are still working to support families. From the article: Women felt that with all the choirs they no, none of them are really important. Women feel their identity is wife and mother instead of their own goals and aspirations. Having more and more children to be fulfilled.
question

Carol Hanisch
answer

Wrote \”The Personal is Political\” 1969 – her essay was written as a response to the argument that consciousness raising was just \”therapy.\” – \”Consciousness raising\” refers to the early women’s liberation movement activity of women getting together in groups to discuss their own oppression. – Theory that many of the personal problems women experience in their lives are not their fault, but are the result of systematic oppression. – massive structural inequalities
question

Kimberle Crenshaw
answer

first to introduce internationality (1989), gender is always effected by class, looked at cultural and biological factor interaction, Intersectionality: The narrative of feminism is told through the eyes of white women, and the narrative of racism is told through black men. What about black women? Rather than being viewed as victims of discrimination, they are just completely ignored by both sides of the story. (Anita Hill: completely discredited) – argues that Black women are discriminated against in ways that often do not fit neatly within the legal categories of either \”racism\” or \”sexism\”
question

Equal Pay Act 1963
answer

severly limited, but precedent-setting measure requiring employers to offer equal pay for equal work, without regarding gender.
question

Civil Rights Act 1964
answer

Title VII – Equal employment opportunity for women was made the official national policy of the US for the first time. – The act was intended to eliminate injustices based on race, but women found a way in during congressional debate. Virginia Democrat Howard W. Smith entered an amendment to the act to bar discrimination based on race, color, religion, national origin, and sex. He hoped that by adding sex it would deter legislators from passing the act. His move backfired.
question

Equal Opportunity Commission (EEOC)
answer

1965, Created by the Civil Rights Act, to hear complaints of bias in the workplace Only had to power to remove biases my informal methods of \”conference, conciliation, and persuasion.\” 1972, EEOC given judicial power to enforce its decisions. 1972, EEOC extended to educational institutions
question

National Organization for Women (NOW)
answer

– Formed in 1966, after Betty Friedan and other women decided that there needed to be a feminist pressure group – a NAACP for women. – Women in the early meeting initially rejected the idea, but when they realized that conference officials were not taking them seriously
question

\”More Than a Lady: Ruby Doris Smith Robinson and Black Women’s Leadership in the Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee.\” – Cynthia Griggs Fleming
answer

Lesser known civil rights activist. Died at the young age of 25 Leadership style – very forceful Challenges: Married and had a child Had to get permission from her husband to go out and participate in civil rights/women’s rights events Racial Tensions Women who came from privileged complained about secretarial work She said she tried to help the movement any way she could participate and did not complain about what job she did. She puts on make up and tries to be feminine while at rallies.
question

\”Jane Crow and the Law: Sex Discrimination and Title VII.\” – Pauli Murray and Mary O. Eastwood
answer

Outlined how black working women were overlooked, argued that the \”bona fide occupational qualification\” exemption (allowed employer to hire on the basis of sex in certain instances) could open the door to a virtual repeal or nullification of the act, discussed how newspapers could help advertisers comply with sex-segregated help-wanted ads, and outlined conflicts between Title VII and state laws that were put in to \”protect\”(patriarchy) women workers’ health. Argues that in cases where states require special facilities for women, that it would be equal if they provided the same for men. The more problematic are laws that say women cannot work during the night, in excess of a certain amount or lift heavy objects. In order to treat men the same, the business would have to greatly restructure. Not allowing women to work overtime means they cannot make the same amount as male counterparts.
question

\”A Kind of Memo . . . to a Number of Other Women in the Peace and Freedom Movements.\” – Casey Hayden and Mary King
answer

– \”Assumptions of male superiority are as widespread and deep-rooted as assumptions of white supremacy.\” – Asked why women, who were equally qualified, were reserved to ‘female’ jobs like secretarial work, typing, cooking and not given equal say-so in group direction. Sex Caste System: – Assumed subordination to men in social mobility. Hierarchy – Leads to women being assigns a certain set of roles in movement The Personal is Political – Say that no one is writing, organizing, or talking publicly about women’s issues in jobs or the home. – They believe opening a dialogue up about it will help people understand the issue
question

\”The National Organization for Women Statement of Purpose\”
answer

– The purpose of NOW is to bring women into full participation in mainstream society Accept/Believe: – Innovation to the system to allow women to work i.e. national childcare – Education for girls that is fair, because there is a serious expectation that it will be used in society. Women must exercise their political rights Women must create a new image of women by acting, speaking out. By doing so women will develop confidence in their own ability. Reject: Women in token high-level positions Marriages where the man assumes he has to provide for the family. There must be a true partnership in marriage. The false image of women in mass media, text, and laws All policies and practices in church, state, college, factory, or office that is in the guise of protectiveness that foster women’s dependence and undermine women’s confidence.

Get instant access to
all materials

Become a Member