History to 1877- Unit 2 Exam: President Jefferson, Purchase Louisiana, Alexander Hamilton

Flashcard maker : August Dunbar
Which of the following elements appealed to Americans in search of a new government?
A. dictatorship and a strong national government
B. the development of a new, uniquely American governing aristocracy
C. protection of individual liberty and property
D. full equality in the eyes of the law
E. a limited monarchy
C. protection of individual liberty and property
The Virginia Statute of Religious Freedom was written by:
A. John Adams
B. Alexander Hamilton
C. Patrick Henry
D. Thomas Paine
E. Thomas Jefferson
E. Thomas Jefferson
During the war, Tories:
A. refused to take prisoners
B. probably outnumbered Patriots
C. generally lived at peace with their Whig neighbors
D. controlled large areas for an extended time
E. came from all classes of society
E. came from all classes of society
In August 1776, General Washington had 28,000 men under his command. By December, he had:
A. 15,000
B. 13,000
C. 20,000
D. 3,000
E. 35,000
D. 3,000
Under the Articles of Confederation, Congress:
A. combined legislative and executive power
B. shared power with a supreme court
C. was superior to the various state governments
D. was largely a debating society with no clear areas of authority
E. would elect the president
A. combined legislative and executive power
The Articles of Confederation were fully ratified and became effective:
A. in 1781
B. in 1789
C. in 1776
D. because most people wanted a strong central government
E. never
A. in 1781
Most of the state constitutions adopted during the Revolution:
A. gave governors extensive powers
B. granted universal manhood suffrage
C. contained bills of rights
D. abolished slavery
E. were rejected by Congress
C. contained bills of rights
The peace treaty was signed in:
A. Brussels
B. London
C. Madrid
D. Amsterdam
E. Paris
E. Paris
The British shifted their military effort to the South:
A. to protect their settlements in Florida
B. to fight in a milder climate
C. to destroy rebel plantations
D. to utilize the strength of local Tories
E. to utilize the strength of their navy
D. to utilize the strength of local Tories
The great exploit of George Rogers Clark was the:
A. conquest of the Canadian side of the Great Lakes
B. conquest of the western frontier
C. termination of Pontiac’s Rebellion in the Ohio Valley
D. destruction of the Cherokees on the Carolina frontier
E. defeat of the British in a major naval battle
B. conquest of the western frontier
In late December 1776, George Washington was able to reverse American fortunes by:
A. recapturing New York City from the British
B. convincing Congress to give the army all the resources it needed
C. getting France and Spain to enter the conflict
D. destroying a British force outside of Boston
E. winning battles at Trenton and Princeton
E. winning battles at Trenton and Princeton
The Revolution did all of the following EXCEPT:
A. foster a spirit of social equality
B. lower property requirements for the vote
C. limit opportunities to acquire land in the West
D. encourage greater participation in politics
E. establish American independence
C. limit opportunities to acquire land in the West
Thomas Paine’s The American Crisis:
A. stated the impossibility of beating the British
B. urged Congress to make Washington a temporary dictator
C. bolstered American morale
D. supplied Washington with battle plans
E. blamed Congress for the army’s defeats
C. bolstered American morale
When John Adams insisted that the Revolution began before the shooting started, he meant:
A. the British could not hold onto the uncooperative colonies
B. guerrillas had already been operating throughout the colonies
C. France and Spain had pledged their support prior to 1776
D. American public opinion had already turned against the British by the time of Lexington and Concord
E. there were movements afoot attempting to overthrow British control of the colonies
D. American public opinion had already turned against the British by the time of Lexington and Concord
The war in the South was characterized by:
A. massive civilian casualties
B. killing of prisoners by both sides
C. conventional military tactics
D. an unbroken series of British victories
E. massive use of slave soldiers by the Americans
B. killing of prisoners by both sides
When the British attacked New York in late August 1776:
A. Washington ambushed and routed them
B. Washington met them with a larger, more experienced force
C. Washington learned the superiority of the militia to regular troops
D. the American army was fortunate to escape into New Jersey
E. the Americans received French reinforcements just in time
D. the American army was fortunate to escape into New Jersey
The treaty with Britain that ended the Revolutionary War:
A. protected the rights of Loyalists
B. gave Florida to the United States
C. recognized American independence
D. gave America a claim to Newfoundland
E. imposed war damages on the British
C. recognized American independence
Which of the following was NOT a power of the national government under the Articles of Confederation?
A. full authority over foreign affairs
B. the right to levy taxes on trade and commerce
C. control of government in the western territories
D. authority to coin money, run a postal service, and direct Indian affairs
E. to settle disputes between states
B. the right to levy taxes on trade and commerce
American settlers who defended Kentucky were led by:
A. Daniel Boone
B. George Rogers Clark
C. Ethan Allen
D. Francis Marion
E. Andrew Jackson
A. Daniel Boone
A problem with the Spanish entry into the Revolution against Britain was that Spain:
A. entered as an ally of France rather than of the United States
B. demanded that the United States surrender Georgia as the price for its help
C. agreed to fight the British but only on the open seas
D. said it would attack only the British colonies in South America
E. demanded that the United States adopt monarchy
A. entered as an ally of France rather than of the United States
Abigail Adams’s appeal to her husband John to \”remember the Ladies\”:
A. resulted in more rights for women
B. proved her subordinate nature
C. showed her rejection of women’s domestic role
D. was basically ignored
E. revealed her political ambitions
D. was basically ignored
In the era of the Revolution, the northern states:
A. took steps to abolish slavery
B. elected a number of free blacks to office
C. gave free blacks full equality
D. outlawed racist language
E. sent many former slaves to Canada
A. took steps to abolish slavery
During the war, Benjamin Franklin’s son, William:
A. was a prominent American general
B. served as minister to France
C. stayed loyal to Britain
D. deserted from the Continental army
E. earned his father’s admiration
C. stayed loyal to Britain
With the end of the war, many Americans viewed the United States as a:
A. nation with a special destiny
B. future imperial power
C. temporary expedient until it could reunite with Britain
D. North American extension of Europe
E. leader in science and technological innovation
A. nation with a special destiny
During the period of the Revolution, a slave might gain his freedom:
A. claiming amnesty as a political prisoner
B. appealing to George Washington
C. suing for freedom in local courts
D. running away to northern states
E. joining the British army
E. joining the British army
The American victory at Yorktown would have been impossible without:
A. French assistance
B. divine intervention
C. British incompetence
D. favorable weather
E. superior weapons
A. French assistance
During the war, John Paul Jones became famous as an American:
A. spy
B. guerilla leader
C. diplomat
D. naval commander
E. sharpshooter
D. naval commander
Americans won a tremendous victory in October 1777 with the surrender at Saratoga of:
A. Lord Cornwallis
B. Banastre Tarleton
C. Johnny Burgoyne
D. Benedict Arnold
E. Lord Howe
C. Johnny Burgoyne
On the western frontier, Indian tribes such as the Mohawks, Shawnees, and Cherokees:
A. stayed neutral
B. supported the Americans
C. fled further west to escape the fighting
D. supported the British
E. switched sides constantly
D. supported the British
Which city did the British capture early in the American Revolution and hold for the remainder of the war?
A. Atlanta
B. Boston
C. Williamsburg
D. Philadelphia
E. New York
E. New York
Because of associations with the British, the Revolution was especially detrimental to the status of the:
A. Quakers
B. Baptists
C. Methodists
D. Presbyterians
E. Anglicans
E. Anglicans
Which of the following provided most of the money raised by the Continental Congress for the Revolution?
A. loans from foreign countries
B. requisitions from the states
C. contributions from patriotic citizens
D. direct taxes on the American people
E. new issues of paper money
E. new issues of paper money
Which of the following was NOT one of the provisions of the treaty ending the American Revolution?
A. Florida was given to Spain.
B. Congress would not prevent British merchants from collecting debts owed them by Americans.
C. The Mississippi River was recognized as the western boundary of the United States.
D. Congress would restore all property confiscated from Loyalists during the war.
E. Americans were allowed to fish off the Canadian coast.
D. Congress would restore all property confiscated from Loyalists during the war.
On Christmas night 1776, Washington crossed the Delaware to defeat the:
A. Loyalists
B. Hessians
C. British
D. Iroquois
E. Tories
B. Hessians
The news of Yorktown inspired the British to:
A. recruit more soldiers
B. end the war
C. replace George III
D. sign a peace treaty with France
E. replace their commanders
B. end the war
Elite Virginians despised Lord Dunmore because of his:
A. harsh treatment of captured rebels
B. offer of freedom to slaves who would join the British
C. abolition of the slave trade
D. belief in true racial equality
E. arrogant British manners
B. offer of freedom to slaves who would join the British
The Virginia Statute of Religious Freedom marked the general trend away from:
A. belief in God
B. religious diversity
C. public prayer
D. revivalism
E. state-supported churches
E. state-supported churches
The Baron von Steuben’s contribution to the American cause was to:
A. supply the army with weapons
B. instruct Washington in military strategy
C. drill American soldiers
D. train the American cavalry
E. use his fortune to pay the troops
C. drill American soldiers
The Patriot militia:
A. favored conventional European tactics in battle
B. frustrated Washington with their lack of discipline
C. enlisted for a three-year term of service
D. basically won the war against the British
E. was completely worthless
B. frustrated Washington with their lack of discipline
In its winter camp at Valley Forge, Washington’s army was decimated by all of the following EXCEPT:
A.hunger
B.desertion
C. enemy attack
D. resignations
E. brutal cold
C. enemy attack
The state militia units:
A. generally refused to ambush the British or to engage in hand- to-hand combat
B. often seemed to appear at crucial moments and then evaporate
C. provided the most seasoned troops of the war because of their past experience fighting the Indians
D. were highly successful as organized units even though they refused to wear uniforms
E. frequently mutinied and joined the British
B. often seemed to appear at crucial moments and then evaporate
During the war, Margaret Corbin and Molly Pitcher were examples of women who:
A. wrote patriotic newspaper articles
B. demanded women’s right to vote
C. organized hospitals and worked as nurses
D. during battle, took the place of their wounded husbands
E. tried to bring an end to the fighting
D. during battle, took the place of their wounded husbands
In 1777, Washington dealt with the threat of smallpox to his army by:
A. ordering a mass inoculation
B. sending most of his soldiers home
C. placing his camp under quarantine
D. providing his soldiers with clean quarters and healthy food
E asking for a halt in the fighting
A. ordering a mass inoculation
An important American victory—\”the turning point of the war in the South\”—was at:
A. Savannah
B. Camden
C. Vincennes
D. Charleston
E. Kings Mountain
E. Kings Mountain
Benedict Arnold became notorious late in the war by:
A. recruiting slaves into the American army
B. questioning Washington’s fitness for command
C. going over to the British
D. selling weapons to Indians
E. trying to become a military dictator
C. going over to the British
The Constitution was ratified:
A. in a national referendum
B. without serious opposition
C. despite a close vote in Massachusetts
D. despite its rejection in Virginia
E. due to the support of the anti-Federalists
C. despite a close vote in Massachusetts
The convention, which assembled in May 1787, was supposed to:
A. write a new constitution
B. address the country’s financial crisis
C. revise the Articles of Confederation
D. nominate someone for president
E. discuss better trade relations with Britain
C. revise the Articles of Confederation
On the question of women’s rights, the proposed Constitution:
A. denied the vote to females
B. was surprisingly progressive for its time
C. defined women as the property of their husbands
D. accepted the advice of prominent women
E. said nothing
E. said nothing
In the lands south of the Ohio River:
A. settlement proceeded more slowly than in the Northwest
B. there was little or no resistance from the Indians as white settlers encroached on their land
C. Georgia, North Carolina, and Virginia temporarily kept their titles to the western lands
D. policy was set in the Land Ordinance of 1787
E. slavery was permanently banned
C. Georgia, North Carolina, and Virginia temporarily kept their titles to the western lands
Madison’s Virginia Plan:
A. would create a president for life
B. would create a two-house Congress
C. was most favored by the small states
D. would simply amend the Articles of Confederation
E. would abolish the state governments
B. would create a two-house Congress
The Great Compromise originated from the delegation.
A. New York
B. Massachusetts
C. Delaware
D. New Hampshire
E. Connecticut
E. Connecticut
Which of the following was NOT true of the anti-Federalists after ratification?
A. They did not resort to violence when the Constitution was ratified.
B. Many of them became leading figures in the new government.
C. They became the founders of the Whig Party.
D. Few of them wanted to see the work in Philadelphia undone.
E. They felt better about their defeat because of the inclusion of the Bill of Rights.
C. They became the founders of the Whig Party.
Shays’s Rebellion broke out in:
A. Boston
B. New York City
C. western Massachusetts
D. Rhode Island
E. Pennsylvania
C. western Massachusetts
The Newburgh Conspiracy involved:
A. General Washington’s plot to become dictator
B. a military threat to enlarge congressional powers
C. an attempt to destroy the Bank of North America
D. secret peace talks with the British
E. a revolt against Congress by the states
B. a military threat to enlarge congressional powers
The Founding Fathers viewed the most \”democratic\” branch of the government as the:
A. presidency
B. Senate
C. Supreme Court
D. cabinet
E. House of Representatives
E. House of Representatives
The phrase \”critical period\” refers to:
A. the time of the Revolutionary War
B. the summer the Constitution was written
C. America under the Articles of Confederation
D. George Washington’s presidency
E. the years of tension over British taxes
C. America under the Articles of Confederation
Most of The Federalist essays were written by:
A. James Madison
B. John Jay
C. Patrick Henry
D. Alexander Hamilton
E. Samuel Adams
D. Alexander Hamilton
The delegates who met:
A. included John Adams and Thomas Jefferson
B. tended to be elderly
C. wanted a weaker central government
D. included many participants in the Revolution
E. arrived knowing what they wanted
D. included many participants in the Revolution
An important new development came in the mid-1780s, when the United States opened trade with:
A. Japan
B. France
C. Canada
D. China
E. India
D. China
An ongoing source of American tension toward the British was:
A.British refusal to recognize America
B.British blockade of the Atlantic coast
C.British refusal to pay war damages
D.Britain’s refusal to release American POWs
E. British forts along the Canadian border
E. British forts along the Canadian border
The 640-acre sections created in the Northwest:
A.would be given to settlers for free
B.raised enough money to pay the national debt
C.would be reserved for veterans of the Revolution
D.would be sold by local banks
E. would likely be bought by land speculators
E. would likely be bought by land speculators
As the new Constitution went into effect, Founding Fathers like Franklin and Washington viewed its future with feelings of:
A. supreme confidence
B. fear and loathing
C. God’s approval
D. uncertainty
E. regret, since the Articles of Confederation were clearly better
D. uncertainty
Federalist Number 10 explains how a republic can:
A. defend itself
B. become a democracy
C. create a just society
D. pays its debts
E. be successful in a large, diverse society
E. be successful in a large, diverse society
The first of these states to ratify the Constitution was:
A. Delaware
B. New York
C. Rhode Island
D. Virginia
E. Massachusetts
A. Delaware
Which of the following was NOT part of the Northwest Ordinance?
A.Slavery was prohibited in the territory above the Ohio River.
B. Statehood was allowed when a territory had a population of 60,000 people.
C. Religious freedom was guaranteed in a \”bill of rights.\”
D. New states formed from the Northwest Territory had to allow Indians \”perpetual representation\” in the state governments.
E. Territorial governors were to be chosen by Congress.
D. New states formed from the Northwest Territory had to allow Indians \”perpetual representation\” in the state governments.
Washington soon learned that the best hope of beating the British was:
A. the use of guerrilla warfare
B. a long war of attrition
C. sustained attacks on British held cities
D. recruiting Indian allies
E. inventing superior weapons
B. a long war of attrition
The celebration of ______ soon became the most popular public ritual in the United States.
A. Washington’s birthday
B. Lexington and Concord
C. Independence Day
D. Christmas
E. Thanksgiving
C. Independence Day
The Marquis de Lafayette served the American cause during the war as:
A. commander of the French navy
B. Washington’s most trusted aide
C. France’s ambassador to Congress
D. leader of the attack on the British in Canada
E. chief fundraiser in Europe
B. Washington’s most trusted aide
The American victory at Saratoga resulted in:
A. a new invasion of Canada
B. serious peace negotiations with the British
C. a huge increase in the size of the Continental army
D. France’s entry on the American side
E. Dutch entry on the American side
D. France’s entry on the American side
Washington’s secretary of state was:
A. John Hancock
B. Thomas Jefferson
C. James Madison
D. Edmund Randolph
E. John Adams
B. Thomas Jefferson
In his inaugural address, President Washington emphasized:
A. his economic plans
B. party politics
C. national unity
D. relations with Britain
E. his cabinet selections
C. national unity
Neutrality in the conflict between England and France attracted Americans because:
A. of the fear that the war might spill over into the United States
B. of our commitment to supporting Spain
C. of a lucrative trade with both sides
D. of our post-Revolution pacifist nature
E. we expected England to win and did not want to provoke it into another war
C. of a lucrative trade with both sides
The Kentucky and Virginia Resolutions:
A. wiped out the Alien and Sedition Acts
B. got their authors arrested
C. supported strong federal authority in wartime
D. were drafted by Jefferson and Madison
E. called for negotiations to end the war with France
D. were drafted by Jefferson and Madison
By 1790, the Indians:
A. remained a powerful threat to western settlement
B. had become U.S. citizens
C. were largely eradicated
D. had signed away most of their lands by treaty
E. had united into a powerful western confederacy
A. remained a powerful threat to western settlement
Jay’s Treaty:
A. shut American merchants out of the West Indies
B. ended a war with the British
C. was most strongly opposed in New England
D. infuriated Republicans for its concessions to the British
E. forced Hamilton’s resignation from the cabinet
D. infuriated Republicans for its concessions to the British
When Britain and France went to war in 1793, the United States:
A. supported Britain because of its conservative government
B. supported France because of the Franco-American alliance
C. expressed neutrality, warning Americans not to aid either side
D. allied with other nations to oppose both Britain and France
E. sharply increased its military spending
C. expressed neutrality, warning Americans not to aid either side
By the mid-1790s, Americans became incensed with the British over:
A. Britain’s support for the French Revolution
B. British seizure of American merchant vessels
C. high British taxes on American imports
D. Britain’s refusal to recognize American independence
E. the British engaging in war with France
B. British seizure of American merchant vessels
The national bank proposed by Hamilton:
A. would be totally owned by the federal government
B. had unanimous support in Congress
C. was specifically authorized by the Constitution
D. would provide a stable national currency
E. was ultimately opposed by President Washington
D. would provide a stable national currency
The Whiskey Rebellion resulted in:
A. the repeal of the federal liquor tax
B. declining support for the Republicans
C. mass executions of the captured rebels
D. the sending of a massive army to western Pennsylvania
E. diminished respect for federal authority
D. the sending of a massive army to western Pennsylvania
The Judiciary Act of 1801:
A. created three new positions on the Supreme Court
B. was the first act passed by the Republicans
C. allowed federal judges to be impeached under the Sedition Act
D. was the legacy of the Federalists as they left office
E. was vetoed by President Jefferson
D. was the legacy of the Federalists as they left office
In the election of 1800:
A. Jefferson campaigned around the country
B. Jefferson was attacked as an atheist and a radical
C. Federalists enthusiastically united behind Adams
D. the parties agreed on the major issues
E. Hamilton intrigued to get Burr elected
B. Jefferson was attacked as an atheist and a radical
Just before he left office, Adams:
A. repealed Hamilton’s tax policies
B. questioned the fair outcome of the election
C. appointed John Marshall chief justice
D. destroyed his official records
E. renewed his friendship with Jefferson
C. appointed John Marshall chief justice
The Alien Act of 1798:
A. shut off immigration to the United States
B. banned noncitizens from holding public office
C. led to a crackdown on Republican journalists
D. was aimed especially at French and Irish Republicans
E. was inspired by public anger over the Jay’s Treaty terms
D. was aimed especially at French and Irish Republicans
Washington’s farewell address:
A. praised the emerging party system
B. urged greater involvement in Europe
C. was soon forgotten since Washington was a poor speaker
D. was pessimistic about the nation’s future
E. opposed permanent alliances
E. opposed permanent alliances
In regard to religion, the Constitution:
A. makes the United States a Christian nation
B. reflects the atheism of the Founding Fathers
C. prohibits the states from having official churches
D. expresses hostility toward religion
E. prevents Congress from establishing an official religion
E. prevents Congress from establishing an official religion
Madison decided to support Hamilton’s debt proposals in return for an agreement to:
A. give more money to the original bondholders
B. make the states pay their own debts
C. cut taxes
D. limit future federal spending
E. relocate the nation capital southward
E. relocate the nation capital southward
The Treaty of Greenville was an agreement between the United States and:
A. Britain
B. France
C. Spain
D. Indians on the northwest frontier
E. Canada
D. Indians on the northwest frontier
Opposition to Hamilton’s excise tax on whiskey was strongest among:
A. merchants
B. Federalists
C. veterans
D. frontier farmers
E. churchgoers
D. frontier farmers
The election of 1800 did all of the following EXCEPT:
A. elevate Jefferson to the presidency
B. mark the first time an opposition party came to power
C. show the emergence of a more democratic politics
D. bring slaveholding Republicans into power
E. cause Federalist rioting in the streets of the capital
E. cause Federalist rioting in the streets of the capital
In early 1789, the new Congress gathered in the national capital, which was:
A. Philadelphia
B. New York City
C. Boston
D. Washington, D.C.
E. Baltimore
B. New York City
The party led by Madison and Jefferson that opposed Hamilton was the:
A. Republicans
B. Anti-Federalists
C. Unionists
D. Federalists
E. Constitutionalists
A. Republicans
Under President Adams, a war between the United States and France:
A. was an undeclared naval conflict
B. was ended by the XYZ affair
C. halted partisan divisions
D. ended in American victory
E. led to French attacks on the U.S. coast
A. was an undeclared naval conflict
In regard to land policy, Hamilton and the Federalists:
A. wanted to reserve western lands for Indians
B. favored high land prices that would slow western settlement
C. believed land should be free for anyone promising to farm it
D. proposed that settlement be banned west of the Appalachians
E. believed a lottery should determine who could buy western land
B. favored high land prices that would slow western settlement
The Sedition Act was aimed primarily at:
A. foreign immigrants
B. anti-war Federalists
C. Republican newspaper editors
D. French spies
E. draft evaders
C. Republican newspaper editors
The preferred crop of pioneers on the Wilderness Road was:
A. corn
B. cotton
C. tobacco
D. wheat
E. potatoes
A. corn
The Tonnage Act of 1789:
A. placed higher tonnage duties on foreign vessels
B. singled out the British for especially punitive treatment
C. treated all vessels entering American ports equally
D. became the chief source of revenue for the federal government
E. lowered prices Americans would pay for imports
A. placed higher tonnage duties on foreign vessels
The politician involved in partisan attacks on John Adams while he served as Adams’s vice president was:
A. Alexander Hamilton
B. Thomas Jefferson
C. John Jay
D. James Madison
E. Aaron Burr
B. Thomas Jefferson
Madison and Jefferson objected to the national bank primarily because:
A. they believed in a strict interpretation of the Constitution
B. they felt it was not powerful enough to meet the nation’s financial needs
C. it would cost the government too much money
D. it would be located in New York rather than Virginia
E. too many of Hamilton’s friends had acquired bank stock
A. they believed in a strict interpretation of the Constitution
Alexander Hamilton’s basic vision of America was to make it:
A. a vibrant capitalist power
B. a democratic model for the world
C. a mighty empire like ancient Rome
D. committed to limited government and social equality
E. an example of racial tolerance and diversity
A. a vibrant capitalist power
Thomas Jefferson was all of the following EXCEPT:
A. an aristocrat from Virginia
B. skilled and educated in a wide range of subjects
C. Washington’s Secretary of State
D. an admirer of small farmers
E. a staunch advocate of urbanization
E. a staunch advocate of urbanization
The Bill of Rights did all of the following EXCEPT:
A. safeguard freedoms such as press, speech, and assembly
B. appease some initial critics of the Constitution
C. constitute the first ten amendments to the Constitution
D. protect against \”cruel and unusual\” punishment
E. settle all questions about federal versus state authority
E. settle all questions about federal versus state authority
By 1790, America:
A. had fewer than a million people
B. reached from the Atlantic to the Appalachians
C. remained a predominantly rural society
D. was free of significant regional differences
E. was confident of success under its new constitution
C. remained a predominantly rural society
The Tenth Amendment to the Constitution:
A. protected the right to bear arms
B. guaranteed certain civil rights for African Americans
C. guaranteed free speech and the right of assembly
D. prohibited the national government from interfering in the religious beliefs or practices of any citizen
E. said that powers not specifically given to the national government remained with the states or the people
E. said that powers not specifically given to the national government remained with the states or the people
Daniel Boone led settlers into:
A. Ohio
B. Indiana
C. Arkansas
D. Alabama
E. Kentucky
E. Kentucky
Jefferson’s election in 1800:
A. continued the Federalist domination of the U.S. government
B. had to be settled by the House of Representatives
C. was assured when Aaron Burr agreed to withdraw as a candidate for president
D. was assured when George Washington announced his support of Jefferson just three weeks before the election
E. ended party divisions
B. had to be settled by the House of Representatives
The Virginia and Kentucky Resolutions argued that:
A. states could decide if laws were unconstitutional
B. taxes imposed by Congress were unconstitutional
C. immigrants should be expelled from the country if they were not loyal to the American cause
D. the \”freedom of speech\” clause in the Bill of Rights did not apply to purely political rhetoric
E. new Western states should be admitted as quickly as possible
A. states could decide if laws were unconstitutional
Pinckney’s Treaty resulted in:
A. American ownership of the Mississippi River
B. expulsion of the Indians from the Southwest
C. American trade access to Spanish New Orleans
D. Spain’s withdrawal from Florida
E. the right of Americans to settle in Texas
C. American trade access to Spanish New Orleans
The first Supreme Court:
A. had nine members
B. was picked by Congress
C. was led by chief justice John Adams
D. required its justices to serve on circuit courts as well
E. limited its justices to six-year terms
D. required its justices to serve on circuit courts as well
In regard to state debts, Hamilton proposed that:
A. they be canceled
B. the federal government take them over
C. they be paid off by an income tax
D. creditors get back only half their money
E. the British be forced to pay them
B. the federal government take them over
The attitude of the Federalists toward western land sales was produced by their desire to:
A. get the West settled as quickly as possible
B. collect more revenue so that tariffs could be reduced
C. protect their political base in the East
D. protect the interests of settlers over those of wealthy speculators
E. increase the size of the national debt
C. protect their political base in the East
Hamilton’s plan to fund the national debt at its full face value would most benefit:
A. farmers
B. military veterans
C. speculators
D. Congressmen
E. Southerners
C. speculators
Edmond Genet:
A. came to the United States to escape the revolutionary excesses of the French Revolution
B. encouraged Americans to attack Spanish territory on the frontier
C. quickly won the sympathy of Alexander Hamilton and the Federalists
D. was deeply involved in the XYZ affair
E. became a leading member of the Republican Party
B. encouraged Americans to attack Spanish territory on the frontier
One key element of Hamilton’s program to encourage manufacturing was his proposal for:
A. a cut-off of trade with Britain
B. high protective tariffs
C. government-owned factories
D. importation of cheap foreign labor
E. government colleges for industrial education
B. high protective tariffs
All of the following were liabilities for Adams when he ran for reelection EXCEPT:
A. his pursuit of peace with France
B. Hamilton’s questions about his fitness for office
C. disapproval of the Alien and Sedition Acts
D. evidence he enriched himself in office
E. suggestions that he was a monarchist
D. evidence he enriched himself in office
As a result of Jay’s Treaty:
A. the United States and Britain became military allies
B. the border with Canada was adjusted in favor of America
C. all American trade with the British West Indies was legalized
D. duties on most items imported from Britain were cut in half
E. the British agreed to evacuate their northwest posts by 1796
E. the British agreed to evacuate their northwest posts by 1796
The emergence of political parties:
A. was anticipated by the writers of the Constitution
B. was strongly encouraged by President Washington
C. resulted from a division between monarchists and republicans
D. brought the United States to the brink of civil war
E. reflected basic philosophical differences between Jefferson and Hamilton
E. reflected basic philosophical differences between Jefferson and Hamilton
The 1796 presidential election:
A. was the nation’s first partisan election
B. was free of personal attacks
C. resulted in a landslide win for John Adams
D. showed Washington’s loss of popularity
E. was a total loss for Thomas Jefferson
A. was the nation’s first partisan election
In his debate with Jefferson over the national bank’s constitutionality, Hamilton:
A. emphasized states rights
B. strictly interpreted the Constitution
C. used the doctrine of implied powers
D. emphasized the Tenth Amendment
E. had Madison’s support
C. used the doctrine of implied powers
In response to Shays’s Rebellion, Thomas Jefferson:
A. was horrified
B. wanted to hang its leaders
C. was silent
D. resigned from the government
E. said occasional revolts were necessary
E. said occasional revolts were necessary
In the final years of the Revolutionary War, ______ emerged as the most influential figure in the government.
A. Robert Morris
B. John Adams
C. Benjamin Franklin
D. George Washington
E. Alexander Hamilton
A. Robert Morris
Under the Articles of Confederation western lands would be:
A. divided up among the existing states
B. free of slavery
C. recognized as belonging to the Indians
D. owned by the national government
E. extended to the Pacific
D. owned by the national government
One serious economic problem under the Articles of Confederation was:
A. a scarcity of good farmland
B. the differing tariff policies of the states
C. the impossibility of obtaining credit
D. excessively high income taxes
E. low wages caused by an oversupply of labor
B. the differing tariff policies of the states
The great majority of the Founding Fathers rejected:
A. federal taxation
B. religion
C. property requirements for voting
D. division of federal and state authority
E. rule by the people
E. rule by the people
After the Revolutionary War, American trade with Britain:
A. was illegal
B. was limited to the West Indies
C. resumed
D. was minimal
E. was unrestricted
C. resumed
The Federalist argued that:
A. the size and diversity of the large new country would make it impossible for any one faction to control the government
B. the Constitution was necessary to prevent one faction from taking control of the nation
C. a republican form of government could not work in a nation as large as the United States and therefore the Constitution was necessary
D. the Constitution would promote control of the government by one faction, which would be good for the nation
E. if the Constitution failed, the country could always go back to the Articles of Confederation
A. the size and diversity of the large new country would make it impossible for any one faction to control the government
The Northwest Ordinance of 1787:
A. banned slavery in the Northwest
B. made Ohio and Indiana states immediately
C. established colonies in the Ohio Valley
D. denied self-government to that region
E. provided for joint occupation of that area with the British
A. banned slavery in the Northwest
Shays’s Rebellion was led by:
A. merchants
B. factory workers
C. bankers
D. indebted farmers
E. ambitious politicians
D. indebted farmers
The president’s powers were limited by all of the following EXCEPT:
A. he would be chosen by popular vote
B. he could not declare war
C. Congress could override his vetoes
D. he could be impeached
E. he could be convicted and removed from office
A. he would be chosen by popular vote
The Great Compromise:
A. was negotiated by Benjamin Franklin
B. showed the South’s determination to protect slavery
C. listed the explicit powers of Congress
D. created a four-year term for president
E. settled the question of congressional representation
E. settled the question of congressional representation
The United States departed from the colonial policies of Great Britain by:
A. promising equal statehood to all unsettled western territory
B. prohibiting national control of trade with other nations
C. promising citizenship for all western Indians
D. prohibiting the movement of slaves between states, except for sale
E. requiring all taxes to be approved by the voters
A. promising equal statehood to all unsettled western territory
America contended with Spain over:
A. freedom to navigate the Mississippi
B. trade with Spain’s colonies
C. ownership of Florida
D. Spain’s cruel treatment of Indians
E. discrimination toward Catholics in America
A. freedom to navigate the Mississippi
The Constitutional Convention met in:
A. New York
B. Washington, D.C.
C. Philadelphia
D. Boston
E. Albany
C. Philadelphia
Which of the following was NOT part of the Northwest Ordinance?
A. Slavery was prohibited in the territory above the Ohio River.
B. Statehood was allowed when a territory had a population of 60,000 people.
C. Religious freedom was guaranteed in a \”bill of rights.\”
D. New states formed from the Northwest Territory had to allow Indians \”perpetual representation\” in the state governments.
E. Territorial governors were to be chosen by Congress.
D. New states formed from the Northwest Territory had to allow Indians \”perpetual representation\” in the state governments.
Anti-Federalist leaders:
A. often were better organized and prepared than their Federalist opponents
B. tended to be younger than their Federalist counterparts
C. had been the chief proponents of a stronger central government at the Constitutional Convention
D. wanted a Bill of Rights to protect individuals from the new government
E. tended to be wealthier than their Federalist opponents
D. wanted a Bill of Rights to protect individuals from the new government
After Shays’s Rebellion:
A. Massachusetts was governed by martial law
B. farmers throughout America were watched by local committees of safety
C. England prepared for the possibility of resuming the war
D. there were numerous calls promoting a stronger central government
E. was attended by delegates from each state
D. there were numerous calls promoting a stronger central government
Under the proposed constitution, members of the Senate would:
A. serve two-year terms
B. be chosen by state legislatures
C. be appointed by state governors
D. be chosen by popular vote
E. be men of substantial wealth
B. be chosen by state legislatures
Shays’s Rebellion:
A. spread to several northern states
B. was supported by George Washington and other elite figures
C. was repressed by state militia
D. resulted in massive bloodshed and property destruction
E. made Americans more fearful of strong central government
C. was repressed by state militia
The convention’s most gifted political philosopher and the man who emerged as its central figure was:
A. Alexander Hamilton
B. George Washington
C. Benjamin Franklin
D. Patrick Henry
E. James Madison
E. James Madison
The Constitution addressed slavery by:
A. referring numerous times to \”slaves\” or \”slavery\”
B. stating that the African slave trade could not be banned before 1808
C. requiring that all slaves count toward a state’s congressional representation
D. making it legal in every state
E. requiring that slaves have full legal protections
B. stating that the African slave trade could not be banned before 1808
In the case of Marbury v. Madison, the Supreme Court chief justice who established the principle of judicial review was:
A. Albert Gallatin
B. John Jay
C. John Pickering
D. John Marshall
E. John Quincy Adams
D. John Marshall
The Louisiana Purchase was made possible by:
A. Jefferson’s threat to take the land by force
B. Britain’s support of the U.S. effort
C. NapolĂ©on’s disastrous setback in Haiti
D. the fact that France offered it for free
E. the political backing of the Federalists
C. NapolĂ©on’s disastrous setback in Haiti
Jefferson’s policy and political successes were shown when ______ became a Republican.
A. Thomas Pickering
B. John Quincy Adams
C. Daniel Boone
D. Aaron Burr
E. Alexander Hamilton
B. John Quincy Adams
Which war hawk loudly proclaimed that his state of Kentucky was ready to march on Canada and acquire its lucrative fur trade?
A. Felix Grundy
B. Henry Clay
C. John Randolph
D. John C. Calhoun
E. Andrew Jackson
B. Henry Clay
The British attack on Baltimore’s Fort McHenry:
A. resulted in the destruction of the British fleet
B. made a national hero of Andrew Jackson
C. increased support for the war in New England
D. resulted in a bombardment that did not force the fort’s surrender
E. resulted in an embarrassing American defeat
D. resulted in a bombardment that did not force the fort’s surrender
The Shawnee leader, Tecumseh:
A. worked to unite Indians in a vast confederacy
B. was probably the greatest Indian preacher
C. befriended western settlers
D. attacked British Canada
E. won a battle when Americans attacked his capital
A. worked to unite Indians in a vast confederacy
In the early nineteenth century, the fastest growing segment of the population was:
A. immigrants
B. free blacks
C. Indians
D. slaves
E. women
B. free blacks
The Louisiana Purchase was a problem for Jefferson because:
A. the cost was too high for the United States to pay
B. acquisition of new Indian lands was contrary to his principles and beliefs
C. the territory was ideal for slavery, which he opposed
D. he believed that the Constitution did not give authority to acquire new land
E. it would be hard to defend it against the Spaniards
D. he believed that the Constitution did not give authority to acquire new land
The Essex Junto was:
A. a group of New Englanders who supported the Louisiana Purchase
B. the name given to Republican supporters of Aaron Burr
C. an extremist group of Federalists in New England who developed the idea of secession from the Union
D. the primary supporter of Jefferson’s Embargo Act
E. Jefferson’s most trusted group of political advisers
C. an extremist group of Federalists in New England who developed the idea of secession from the Union
As the War of 1812 started, one strength of the United States was:
A. a large standing army
B. a small but war-tested navy
C. a surplus in the federal budget
D. the national bank’s stabilization of the economy
E. President Madison’s genius as commander-in-chief
B. a small but war-tested navy
The Treaty of Ghent:
A. guaranteed American shipping rights
B. gave the British access to the Mississippi River
C. recognized the clear U.S. victory
D. ended the war
E. gave the United States part of Canada
D. ended the war
Jefferson showed his commitment to limited government by:
A. cutting military spending
B. selling the national bank
C. ending the tariff
D. abolishing the post office
E. canceling the national debt
A. cutting military spending
The naval battle on Lake Erie resulted in:
A. the death of Tecumseh
B. American control of Canada
C. the end of British naval supremacy
D. Commodore Perry’s glorious victory
E. a British invasion of New York
D. Commodore Perry’s glorious victory
In the case of Marbury v. Madison, the Supreme Court:
A. showed its commitment to states’ rights
B. ruled that Marbury should occupy his judicial position
C. made itself the government’s most powerful branch
D. proved it was not influenced by politics
E. declared a federal law unconstitutional
E. declared a federal law unconstitutional
In the early 1800s, the United States engaged in a naval conflict with:
A. France
B. North African pirates
C. Britain
D. Spain
E. Canadian smugglers
B. North African pirates
Aaron Burr’s treason trial featured:
A. John Marshall’s insistence upon a rigid definition of treason
B. Burr’s dramatic confession
C. Jefferson’s testimony on behalf of the prosecution
D. charges that the jury had been bribed
E. three witnesses of overt acts of treason
A. John Marshall’s insistence upon a rigid definition of treason
Lewis and Clark’s expedition:
A. gave the United States a claim to Oregon
B. was a spectacular failure
C. fought against Spaniards in Texas
D. encountered no friendly Indians
E. concluded that the West was uninhabitable
A. gave the United States a claim to Oregon
At the Hartford Convention, delegates:
A. voted to secede from the Union
B. proposed a series of constitutional amendments to limit Republican influence in government
C. denounced New England merchants who had traded with the British during the war
D. voted to join the Republican party
E. offered generous peace terms to the British
B. proposed a series of constitutional amendments to limit Republican influence in government
In the Battle of Tippecanoe:
A. British forces defeated a larger American army
B. American forces defeated a larger British army
C. American frontiersmen battled Spanish settlers in Florida
D. the hope of an Indian confederation to protect their hunting grounds was ended
E. William Henry Harrison was shamefully defeated by the Indians
D. the hope of an Indian confederation to protect their hunting grounds was ended
Aaron Burr’s conspiracy:
A. involved a plot to assassinate Jefferson
B. brought his conviction for treason
C. involved the Federalists
D. aimed to give him a private western empire
E. caused his removal as vice president
D. aimed to give him a private western empire
Jefferson’s Embargo Act:
A. forced a change in British policy
B. was effectively enforced by the navy
C. had widespread public backing
D. sought to stop all American exports
E. ended Jefferson’s presidency on a successful note
D. sought to stop all American exports
Western settlers and politicians believed war with Britain might enable:
A. a monopoly of the fur trade
B. expansion to the Pacific
C. the conquest of Canada
D. an alliance with Tecumseh
E. an alliance with Napoléon
C. the conquest of Canada
As a result of the War of 1812, President Madison:
A. ran for a third term
B. was even more committed to limited government
C. learned the value of some Federalist policies
D. is recognized as a great president
E. switched parties
C. learned the value of some Federalist policies
Jefferson’s response to British and French interference with American shipping was:
A. an effort to woo France into an alliance
B. an effort to woo Britain into an alliance
C. what he called a policy of \”peaceable coercion\”
D. to ignore the matter and continue trading with both
E. to shift the American economy toward industrialization
C. what he called a policy of \”peaceable coercion\”
The Leopard’s attack upon the Chesapeake:
A. resulted in an American victory
B. occurred on the Great Lakes
C. created war fever in the United States
D. brought an official British apology
E. ended the British practice of impressment
C. created war fever in the United States
The War of 1812:
A. made the United States a world power
B. strengthened the Federalists
C. was the deadliest in U.S. history
D. gave the United States its first colonies
E. generated intense patriotic pride
E. generated intense patriotic pride
Between 1800 and 1840, the nation’s most dramatic population expansion occurred:
A. west of the Appalachians
B. in New England
C. in Atlantic seaports
D. in the Deep South
E. beyond the Mississippi
A. west of the Appalachians
Thomas Jefferson’s inaugural address reflected:
A. his strong partisan desire to oppose the Federalists now that he was in office
B. his desire to adopt Federalist principles now that he was in office
C. an affirmation of educational elitism and commitment to continued governmental formality
D. a tone of simplicity and conciliation
E. his hopes for a new war to unify the country
D. a tone of simplicity and conciliation
The British invasion of the mid-Atlantic coast in 1814 resulted in:
A. their capture of Baltimore
B. their defeat by American militia
C. the capture and burning of Washington, D.C.
D. Madison’s resignation as president
E. the U.S. decision to sue for peace
C. the capture and burning of Washington, D.C.
The British defeat at New Orleans is best explained by:
A. their attack upon a strong defensive position
B. Andrew Jackson’s military genius
C. their loss of energy in the southern heat
D. the sharpshooting of the Americans
E. prior awareness that a peace treaty had been signed
A. their attack upon a strong defensive position
Jefferson sent Lewis and Clark to:
A. make peace with the Indians
B. establish a settlement in Louisiana
C. capture California
D. spread Christianity westward
E. map and explore well beyond the Mississippi
E. map and explore well beyond the Mississippi
The greatest support for the declaration of war in 1812 came from:
A. the New England area
B. the areas in which commerce and international trade were a primary occupation
C. the manufacturing centers
D. the agricultural regions from Pennsylvania southward and westward
E. the Old Republicans
D. the agricultural regions from Pennsylvania southward and westward
All of the following are true of the Louisiana Purchase EXCEPT:
A. it was Jefferson’s greatest achievement as president
B. the United States acquired an immensity of new territory
C. it was easily approved by the Senate
D. it was clearly constitutional
E. it soon led to further territorial acquisitione
D. it was clearly constitutional
The Hartford Convention illustrated deep opposition to the war in:
A. the South
B. New England
C. New York
D. the West
E. Congress
D. New England
President Jefferson’s cabinet:
A. included no one from New England
B. was marked for its mediocrity
C. shared his objective of destroying the Federalists
D. included Madison as secretary of state
E. never actually met
D. included Madison as secretary of state
As a result of the competing British and French \”paper blockades,\” American shippers:
A. stayed at home
B. ran the risk of capture
C. got Jefferson to strengthen the navy
D. armed their merchant vessels
E. paid bribes to the British and French navies
B. ran the risk of capture
Who said, \”We are all Republicans—we are all Federalists\”?
A. Alexander Hamilton
B. Thomas Jefferson
C. George Washington
D. James Madison
E. John Adams
B. Thomas Jefferson
Jefferson’s inauguration was notable for:
A. its sharp partisan tone
B. the impassioned delivery of his speech
C. its being the first in Washington, D.C.
D. the luxurious surroundings
E. its immediate call to arms
C. its being the first in Washington, D.C.
The \”Old Republicans,\” led by John Randolph:
A. were mostly from northern and middle states
B. were staunch nationalists
C. were very closely allied with the Whigs
D. supported Thomas Jefferson
E. supported an agrarian society
E. supported an agrarian society
The 1804 presidential election resulted in:
A. a comeback for the Federalists
B. Aaron Burr’s duel with Alexander Hamilton
C. Jefferson’s landslide reelection
D. the rise of a powerful third party
E. months of confusion over the actual winner
C. Jefferson’s landslide reelection
The nature of work was transformed for numerous Americans by:
A. government regulations
B. the growing factory system
C. free land in the West
D. advances in education
E. scientific farming methods
B. the growing factory system
To avoid the problems associated with political parties running multiple candidates for the presidency, Congress:
A. outlawed multiple party candidates
B. called for a constitutional convention to deal with this issue
C. changed the qualifications for president
D. passed the Twelfth Amendment providing that electors use separate ballots to vote for a president and a vice president
E. made popular vote the method by which presidents would be chosen
D. passed the Twelfth Amendment providing that electors use separate ballots to vote for a president and a vice president
Thomas Jefferson believed that a large federal debt would:
A. mean high taxes and public corruption
B. be a national \”blessing\”
C. help bankers and investors in the United States make money from the federal government
D. be easily paid off in fifty years
E. cause another revolution
A. mean high taxes and public corruption
The most notable aspect of the British assault upon Baltimore was:
A. the complete destruction of Fort McHenry
B. the large number of civilian casualties
C. the length of the siege that followed
D. its inspiration for the eventual national anthem
E. the superb performance of the U.S. Navy
D. its inspiration for the eventual national anthem
At Horseshoe Bend, Andrew Jackson won a smashing victory over the:
A. Cherokees
B. Shawnees
C. British
D. Spaniards
E. Creeks
E. Creeks
President Madison’s attempts to deal with British and French interference with American trade:
A. were far more effective than Jefferson’s
B. showed his belief in peace at any price
C. boosted the domestic economy
D. revealed that Napoléon could be trusted
E. led to war with the British
E. led to war with the British
In the Essex case:
A. a British court ruled that enemy goods were subject to seizure even if shipped through neutral ports
B. a French gunboat that ran aground in North Carolina was burned
C. the American navy seized and improperly searched a British ship
D. certain provisions of Pinckney’s Treaty were violated
E. Britain explained why its impressment of American sailors was legal
A. a British court ruled that enemy goods were subject to seizure even if shipped through neutral ports
To President Jefferson, one major incentive to purchase Louisiana was to:
A. gain the support of the Federalists
B. secure American access to the Mississippi River and New Orleans
C. spend some of the surplus money in the Treasury
D. prove that the United States had become a world power
E. acquire new ports on the Pacific
B. secure American access to the Mississippi River and New Orleans
In the aftermath of the War of 1812:
A. Americans took decisive action against the Barbary pirates in the Mediterranean
B. the Barbary pirates defeated the small U.S. Navy and forced President Madison into an expensive settlement
C. the U.S. government paid tribute to the Barbary pirates to avoid an additional war with them
D. America and the Barbary states reached a peaceful settlement concerning shipping rights off the Barbary Coast
E. the United States, Britain, and France combined to defeat the Barbary pirates
A. Americans took decisive action against the Barbary pirates in the Mediterranean

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