Herman and Chomsky Propaganda Model Essay

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Introduction
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-A framework for \”understanding and analysing how the mainstream media works and why it performs the way it does\” -Agenda-setting power of the media in the hands of wealthy elites rather than raw news -H&C have five filters that news goes through before it is published -Content of news suits higher socio-economic groups
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1a. Size, Ownership and Profit Orientation of the Mass Media Theory
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-Mainstream media is made up of large conglomerates, all are tied to the stock market -Media ownership usually in hands of wealthy elites = news content will suit them
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1b. Size, Ownership and Profit Orientation of the Mass Media Examples
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1. CBS and NBC owned by Westinghouse and GE who are both huge multinationals with heavy involvement in weapon production and nuclear power = press neutrality on these issues are compromised 2. Rupert Murdoch dislike of Labor government over NBN which would allow quick downloading of movies and data that would threaten Murdoch’s Foxtel- Paul Sheehan 3. In US 2012 election 4 Republican candidates that Murdoch media endorsed had been commentators on Fox News
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2a. Advertising Theory
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– Media requires advertising to function, whilst companies require media for advertising -Corporations are unlikely to advertise in outlets with opposing values -Results in a corporate friendly media who are dependant on $ -Non central publications don’t get funding = they die= media remains centralised and monotone
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2b. Advertising Examples
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-1999 British Telecom threatened to withdraw advertising from Daily Telegraph following a number of critical articles- journalist responsible was suspended -Chrysler corporation needed to be \”alerted in advance\” for editorial content that may be seen as provocative or controversial -1992 Study of 150 news editors found 90% said advertisers tried to interfere, with 70% trying to stop news stories full stop
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3a. Sourcing Mass Media News Theory
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-24 hour news cycle demands information is relevant and reliable -Turn to authoritative news sources with press departments -Agenda is able to be set by elite groups
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3b. Sourcing Mass Media News Examples
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-Robert McChesney Professor at Uni of Illinois \”what those people say is news. Their perspectives are automatically legitimate\” -Lewis, Williams and Franklin found 54% of stories across 4 major British newspapers contained material provided by PR departments -Also found 75% of material was replicated into other stories from different agencies = no time to find own content = monotone news -Miller notes journalists have become \”passive recipients of spin-doctored news\” -McChesney authoritative statements are \”automatically legitimate\”
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4a. Flak Theory
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-Negative responses to media -Maximum traction gained by individuals with power and resources -Flak can result in loss of advertising, readership and public support
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4b. Flak Examples
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-Global Climate Coalition made up of Exxon, Texaco and Ford used to rubbish credibility of those who ran global warming stories (very powerful, lots of $$$) -Eddie Obeid sues Fairfax for defamation in 2006- later turns out to be true he was corrupt, considerable flak at the time for bad journalism
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5a. Anti-Communism/ Anti-Terrorism Theory
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-Originally about communism, can be terrorism these days -Anti-terrorist sentiment can be used to reinforce ideas of democracy, freedom and government policies -Such a prevalent issue makes it flexible and adaptable
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5b. Anti-Terrorism Examples
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-GWB \”either you are with us, or you are with the terrorists\” -Creation of dichotomy – Environmental activist group Reclaim The Streets branded as \”eco-terrorists\” in 1999 -Reagan with Contra-Iran scandal said you support US sale of arms to rebels or you are weak on communism 1983
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6. NAFTA Case Study
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-Ratified in 1993, although 62% of Americans were opposed -Created agreement between North American countries for trade -1st Filter: Profits come from increased trade- media conglomerates involved in other industries -2nd Filter: Advertisers benefit from diversifying US trading options -3rd Filter: media supporting govt. initiative = using loads of govt. sources -4th Filter: Flak due to interests of govt. and corporations, unlikely to cop any significant flak from big players

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