Grade 12 Chemistry: Organic Chemistry Terms

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Isomer
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compounds with the same chemical formula but a different arrangement in space and a different structure which can cause different properties
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Saturated Compound
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compound with only one single carbon-carbon bond
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Unsaturated Compound
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compound with at least one double or triple carbon-carbon bond
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Cis-Isomer
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groups of interest are on same side as double bond
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Trans-Isomer
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groups of interest are on opposite side of double bond
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Markovnikov’s Rule
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when adding a hydro-halogen or water to an alkene, the hydrogen always goes to the side with more hydrogens on it and the halogen or OH goes to the side with less hydrogens (“the rich get richer”)
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Addition Reaction
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reaction where atoms from one molecule are added to another molecule to form a single molecule
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Substitution Reaction
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reaction where one functional group is replaced by another
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Dehydration Reaction
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reaction involving removal of a hydrogen atom and hydroxyl group from reactant producing a slightly smaller molecule and water
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Esterfication
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reaction of carboxylic acid and alcohol to form an ester and water
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Condensation
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two molecules combine to with water as a byproduct
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Thermoset
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plastics that can be heated and formed, but do not melt
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Thermoplastics
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plastics that can be heated and moulded
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Addition Polymer
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very long organic molecule formed as a result of addition reactions between monomers with unsaturated carbon-carbon bonds
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Condensation Polymer
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very long organic molecule formed as a result of condensation reactions between monomers and two functional groups
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Monomer
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small molecules that make up polymers
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Alkane
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saturated hydrocarbon
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Alkene
Alkene
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hydrocarbon that has at least one carbon-carbon double bond (___ene)
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Alkyne
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hydrocarbon that has at least one carbon-carbon triple bond (___yne)
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Phenyl Group
Phenyl Group
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benzene ring that behaves as a substituent in an organic compound (phenyl___)
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Cyclic Alkane
Cyclic Alkane
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hyrdocarbon where main structure consists of a chain of carbon atoms joined to form a closed ring (cyclo___)
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Alkyl Halide
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alkane in which one or more hydrogen atoms have been replaced with one or more halogen atoms (fluro___, chloro____, etc)
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Alcohols
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organic compound that has a hydroxyl functional group (____ol or if there’s something more important, hydroxy___)
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Ethers
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organic compound with an oxygen atom between two carbon atoms in a chain (shortchainOXYlongchain)
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Aldehydes
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organic compound containing a carbonyl group at the end of the parent chain (___al)
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Ketone
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organic compound containing a carbonyl group bonded in the middle of the parent chain (___one)
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Carboxylic Acid
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weak organic acid with at least one carboxyl group on the end of parent chain (____oic acid)
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Esters
Esters
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organic compound with a carboxyl group bonded to a second oxygen, which is bonded to a carbon atom (no hydrogen on O, branchYL __oate)
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Amines
Amines
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organic compound related to ammonia that contains a nitrogen atom bonded to one or more alkyl groups on each molecule (as a branch: amino-____, at end: N-____amine)
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Amides
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organic compound that contains a carbonyl group bonded to a nitrogen atom (___amide)

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