GOVT 2305: Chapter 13 – The Presidency
In United States v. Nixon, the Supreme Court…
…required Nixon to turn over secret tapes to Congress. The president complied with the order and was forced to resign from office. The case was seen as a blow to presidential power, but in actuality, the ruling recognized the legal validity of executive privilege for the first time. Executive privilege is the claim that confidential communications between a president and close advisers should not be revealed without the consent of the president.
The last time Congress exercised its constitutional power to declare war was in…
…1941. Congress had not declared war since December 1941, but since then, American military forces have been deployed around the world under the orders of the president. The War Powers Resolution states that the president can send troops into action abroad only by authorization of Congress, or if American troops are already under attack or serious threat.
An executive order is…
…a rule or regulation issued unilaterally by the president, with the status of a law.
The president’s expressed powers include all of the following except…
…partisan. The powers are 1) Military (Article II Sec. 2), 2) Judicial (Article II Sec. 2), 3) Diplomatic (Article II Sec. 2), 4) Executive (Article II Sec. 3), 5) Legislative (Article I Sec. 7).
The Office of Management and Budget is important because…
…its personnel are an integral part of virtually every conceivable presidential responsibility, such as overseeing regulatory proposals, reporting on agency activities, and preparing the national budget.
The National Security Council is composed of all of the following except the…
…Speaker of the House. The NSC is a presidential foreign policy advisory council composed of the president, the vice president, the secretary of state, the secretary of defense, and other officials invited by the president.
The formal group of presidential foreign policy advisers, established in 1947, is called the…
…National Security Council.
According to the text, what are the three most common ways for a president to expand his base of power?
Party support, popular mobilization, and administrative control. In the first instance, presidents may create or strengthen partisan institutions that can exert influence in the legislative process and can help implement their programs. In addition, presidents may use popular appeals to create a mass base of support that will allow them to dominate their political foes, a tactic called “going public.” Third, presidents may seek to bolster their control of established executive agencies or to create new administrative institutions and procedures that will reduce their dependence on Congress and give them a more independent governing and policy-making capability.
The office of the presidency was established by ___________ of the Constitution.
Article II. Section 1 explains how the president is to be chosen, while Sections 2 and 3 outline the powers and duties of the president.
When are the president’s partisan ties most important?
In dealing with Congress on legislative matters.
What is the primary constitutional task of the vice president, besides succeeding the president in case of death, resignation, or incapacitation?
To cast tie-breaking votes in the Senate. The vice president exists for two purposes only: to succeed the president in case of death, resignation, or incapacity and to preside over the Senate, casting a tie-breaking vote when necessary.
The president has the power to appoint which of the following positions?
Cabinet secretaries. The Cabinet is composed of the secretaries, or chief administrators, of the major departments of the federal government. Cabinet secretaries are appointed by the president with the consent of the Senate.
Which first lady was the first to seek and win public office on her own?
Hillary Clinton. She won a seat in the U.S. Senate in 2000 and then ran for president in 2008.
What did the framers mean to accomplish by indirect election of the president?
To make the president responsible to state and national legislatures. With the adoption of a scheme of indirect election through an electoral college, with electors to be selected by the state legislatures (and close elections to be resolved in the House of Representatives), the framers hoped to achieve a “republican” solution: a strong president responsible to state and national legislators rather than directly to the electorate.
The Environmental Protection Agency was created in 1970 by…
…an executive order.
The turning point in American politics toward a president-centered government came about during the administration of…
…Franklin Roosevelt. For a long period, even as the national government began to grow, Congress was careful to keep a tight rein on the president’s power. The real turning point in the history of American national government came during the administration of Franklin Delano Roosevelt. Since FDR and his “New Deal” of the 1930s, every president has been strong whether or not he was committed to the goal of a strong presidency.
When Dwight Eisenhower sent federal troops into Little Rock High School in 1957, it demonstrated that…
…the president may make unilateral use of the emergency powers to protect states against domestic disorder.
______ powers are specifically established by the language of the Constitution.
The power to declare war is given to ______ under the Constitution.
Both houses of Congress.
A signing statement is a(n)…
… announcement the president makes about his interpretation of a congressional enactment he is signing into law.
The ______ asserted that the president could send American troops into action abroad only in the event of a declaration of war or other statutory authorization by Congress, or if American troops were attacked or directly endangered.
War Powers Resolution of 1973.
The first lady is an important resource for the president in his capacity as…
…the head of state. Because they are generally associated exclusively with the head-of-state aspect of America’s presidency, presidential spouses are usually not subject to the same sort of media scrutiny or partisan attack as that aimed at the president.
Which president began the era of greater presidential control over the budgeting process?
Franklin Roosevelt, with his proposal of the “New Deal.”
After the president and vice president, which office is next in the line of succession?
The Speaker of the House.
Which of the following statements about presidential pardons is false?
George Washington declared amnesty to all Americans who fought for the British during the War for Independence.
In undertaking the campaign against the Taliban in 2001, George W. Bush…
…sought and received congressional authorization for the bombing but not a declaration of war.
Why is the president’s State of the Union address important?
It is an opportunity for the president to set the legislative agenda by initiating proposals and directing public attention to the executive’s goals.
Which executive agency has the least discretion, as a result of very detailed congressional legislation?
The Internal Revenue Service.
The rise of the national convention was important because it…
…gave the presidency a mass popular base that would eventually support and demand increased presidential power.
What is required for Congress to override a presidential veto?
Two-thirds of both houses of Congress.