Glossary of Argument Terms and Fallacies

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Ad Hominem
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Latin for \”against the man.\” FALLACY refers to specific diversionary tactics of switching the argument from the issue to character or other speaker
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Ad Populum (bandwagon appeal)
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FALLACY occurs when evidence boils down to \”everybody’s doing it, so it must be a good thing to do.\”
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Appeal to False Authority
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FALLACY occurs when someone who has no expertise to speak on issue is cited as an authority
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Argument
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A process of reason inquiry; a persuasive discourse resulting in a coherent and considered movement for the claim to a conclusion
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Backing
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in the Toulmin model, backing consists of further assurances or data without which the assumption lacks authority
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Begging the Question
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FALLACY where a claim is based on evidence or support that is in doubt
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Circular Reasoning
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FALLACY where the writer repeats the claim as a way to provide evidence
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Claim
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A.k.a. an assertion or a proposition. States the arguments main idea or position. Must be ARGUABLE!
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Claim of Fact
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asserts that something is true or not true
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Claim of Policy
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proposes a change
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Claim of Value
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argues that something is good or bad, right or wrong
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Classical Oration
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five-part argument structure used by classical rhetoricians. (introduction, narration, confirmation, reputation, conclusion)
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Introduction
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Introduces the reader to the subject under discussion
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Narration
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provide factual information and background material on the subject at hand or establishes or the subject is a problem that needs addressing
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Confirmation
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The major part of the text, includes the proof needed to make the writers case
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Refutation
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addresses the counter argument
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Conclusion
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satisfying close
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Closed Thesis
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statement of the main idea that previews the major points the writer intends to make
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Deduction
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logical process whereby one reaches a conclusion by starting with a general principle and applying it to a specific case
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Either/Or (false dilemma)
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FALLACY where the speaker presents to extreme options as the only possible choices
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Faulty Analogy
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FALLACY that occurs when an analogy compares two things that are not comparable
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First-hand Evidence
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based on something the writer knows
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Hasty Generalization
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FALLACY where a faulty conclusion is reached because of inadequate evidence
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Induction
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A logical process where the writer reasons from particulars to universals
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Logical Fallacy
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potential vulnerabilities or weaknesses in an argument
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Open Thesis
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does not list all the points the writer intends to cover an essay
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Post Hoc Ergo Propter Hoc
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FALLACY that is incorrect to always claim that something is a cause just because it happened earlier
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Qualifier
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uses words like usually, probably, maybe, in most cases, and most likely to temper the claim making it less absolute
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Quantitative Evidence
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includes things that can be measured, cited, counted, or otherwise represented in numbers
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Rebuttal
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gives voice to possible objections
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Reservation
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explains the terms and conditions necessitated by the qualifier
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Rogerian Arguments
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based on the assumption that having a full understanding of an opposing position is essential to responding to it persuasively
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Second-hand Evidence
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assessed through research, reading, and investigation. Includes factual and historical information, expert opinion, and quantitative data
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Straw Man
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FALLACY occurs when a speaker Tuesday is a deliberately poor or oversimplified example in order to ridicule and refute and idea
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sullogiam
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logical structure that uses the major premise and minor premise to reach a necessary conclusion
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Toulmin Model
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an approach to analyzing and constructing argument created by philosopher Steven Toulmin
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Warrant
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expresses the assumption necessarily shared by the speaker and the audience

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