Globalization in Afghanistan
GLOBALIZATION IN AFGHANISTAN
“It has been said that reasoning against globalisation is like reasoning against the Torahs of gravity” , one time said Kofi Annan who is the 7th secretary general of the United Nations. It is interesting to cognize that globalisation has become such a powerful force today that it is compared to gravitation. We hear about globalisation quiet frequently these yearss, of all time wondered what globalisation has in shop for Afghanistan, one of the popular states on the intelligence today and one of the poorest. This paper will concentrate on the findings of the affects of globalisation in Afghanistan.
After making some research on this subject I am surprised to happen out that Afghanistan has been affected by the negative forces of globalisation. Which harmonizing to the Political Counselor Ashraf Haidari saying in his address on “Transnationalism: Its Impact on South Asiatic Economy and Politics” , that the negative forces include “transnational extremists, terrorists, and drug sellers to farther destroy Afghanistan and victimise its people” ( The Embassy of Afghanistan, 2006 ) . The ground that my initial inherent aptitude was a surprised reaction to this determination is because I did non cognize that these negative forces were a consequence of globalisation, which till now I have perceived globalisation as a positive and a good force to many states.
As we have witnessed China and India being among the victors of globalisation due to their booming economic systems, Afghanistan is on the opposite side of the spectrum because there is a significant sum of corruptness involved in every corner of its administration. The leaders and the warlords of Afghanistan are profiting from the opium trade in the illicit markets around the Earth. Harmonizing to the United States Agency for International Development ‘s ( USAID ) Assessment of Corruption in Afghanistan, there has been stated that “ Thirty old ages of struggle that has weakened developing province establishments and the state ‘s societal cloth, Afghanistan ‘s dominant function in world-wide opium and diacetylmorphine production, and the enormous size and diverseness of international security, human-centered and development aid all addition Afghanistan ‘s exposure to corruption” ( USAID, 2009 ) .
As globalisation reduces inequality in many parts of the universe, it besides produces victors and also-rans of globalisation. As many people benefit from this, we have to take into consideration that those who lose from this are the 1s who live less than one dollar a twenty-four hours which doubtless globalisation is non effectual for them. Harmonizing to a World Bank Policy Research Report called Globalization, Growth and Poverty it is stated that “Many hapless states with approximately 2 billion people have been left out of the procedure of globalization.” In add-on the writers have stated some of the grounds for these states to be left out are the fact that “geographically the states landlocked and are prone to disease every bit good as by holding weak policies, establishment and administration and civil wars” . They besides province that “much of the concern about globalisation involves issues of power, civilization, and the environment” ( Collier & A ; Dollar, page 2, Year: 2002 ) .
Another writer, Carol Riphenburg, in the diary from Third Quarterly claims that “Afghanistan is out of the globalisation mainstream” ( Riphenburg, 2006 ) . She follows saying that, “Afghanistan ranks low on all three indexs of political capacity: extractive capableness, institutional credibleness, and transparency.” And that is why Afghanistan falls out of the globalisation mainstream due to those factors. ( Riphenburg, 2006 )
For the remainder of the universe globalisation includes the cyberspace, cell phones and the latest appliance communications on the day-to-day footing. And for Afghanistan, although non to undervalue that cyberspace and cell phones besides have made their manner to some of the larger metropoliss of Afghanistan such as Kabul, Mazare-Sharif and Herat, it is still far off from being portion of their day-to-day lives. It has non made their day-to-day footing modus operandis because of many factors but chiefly due to the fact that people do non hold much entree to it. Riphenburg dorsums this up by saying in her diary that “Although Kabul has every bit many as four telekiosks, housed in station offices and equipped with new computing machine terminuss and internet entree, every bit good as cyberspace coffeehouse, Afghanistan is overall on the negative side of the digital divide” ( Riphenburg, page 511, 2006 ) .
A important portion of this occurrence is that there is no electricity in many of the parts. And even if people do hold entree to the cyberspace, most of the information that is presented online is in English. Peoples would miss this information because of the inability to read or compose or merely being nonreader which is due to significant deficiency of instruction. In Riphenburg ‘s words this would be described as “Use of the cyberspace requires a instead complex set of accomplishments and engineering. At the really least, one must hold electricity, a communications line, a terminal capable of interacting across the communications lines, and a sensible eloquence in English” ( Riphenburg, 2006 ) .
Riphenburg suggest some of the solutions to break the conditions in Afghanistan which includes “Improved security, the regulation of jurisprudence, and an economically feasible option to poppy agriculture are needed advances” ( Riphenburg, page 522, 2006 ) . Although the facts mentioned throughout the paper slope towards the instability of a Afghanistan, globalisation has made at least limited affects on Afghanistan through a competition called “Afghan Star” . Afghan Star was a vocalizing completion where immature grownups could execute and demo their endowments in public. Very much alike to what we know in United States as the American Idol. There has been a docudrama made based on this competition which is described as such, “After 30 old ages of war and Taliban regulation, dad Idol has come to Afghanistan. Millions are watching the Television series ‘Afghan Star ‘ and voting for their favourite vocalists by nomadic phone. For many this is their first brush with democracy” ( Afghan Star Documentary, 2008 ) . This movie relates to globalization in many ways. The fact that people have risen from the dark and have the bravery to execute in public shows a batch in the alteration and how this is taken from the western civilization. To do this event go on there has been many engagements of cell phone companies where they would hold to SMS their ballots to the participants which is a really democratic manner of life and the beginning of globalisation.
V Afghanistan in the Globalization Era. The Embassy of Afghanistan. Washington D.C. 2006. hypertext transfer protocol: //www.embassyofafghanistan.org/news/news10.html
V Afghan Star ( The Documentary Film ) 2008. hypertext transfer protocol: //www.afghanstardocumentary.com/
5 Assessment of Corruption in Afghanistan. United States Agency for International Development ( USAID ) . January 15, 2009- March 1, 2009. hypertext transfer protocol: //pdf.usaid.gov/pdf_docs/PNADO248.pdf
V Collier, P. , Dollar D. Globalization, Growth and Poverty. World Bank Policy Research Report. Page 2. 2002. hypertext transfer protocol: //books.google.com/books? hl=en & A ; lr= & A ; id=p3D_BYtXXQcC & A ; oi=fnd & A ; pg=PR13 & A ; dq=losers+of+globalization+afghanistan & A ; ots=GG_pK-7ggp & A ; sig=nq8gB35a3GqgoUGtl5rPHBGwVk0 # v=onepage & A ; q=losers % 20of % 20globalization % 20afghanistan & A ; f=false
V Riphenburg, Carol. Afghanistan: out of the globalisation mainstream? Third World Quarterly, Vol. 27, No. 3. 2006. hypertext transfer protocol: //search.ebscohost.com.webadvisor.emmanuel.edu:2048/login.aspx? direct=true & A ; db=buh & A ; AN=20338552 & A ; site=ehost-live & A ; scope=site