Glencoe World History Chapter 20 – Section 1 & 2 – Flashcards

question
Sir Henry Bessemer
answer
Patented a new process for making high-quality steel efficiently and cheaply known as the Bessemer Process
question
New Products of Industrial Prosperity
answer
1) lighter, stronger steel contributed to new buildings and machines and engines 2) Electricity as a new form of energy - heat, light and motion 3) Telephone 4) Radio Waves that could cross the Atlantic 5) Streetcars and subways 1880s 6) Steam and hydro power 7) combustion engine
question
Thomas Edison
answer
United States - created the light bulb. Formed the Edison Electric Company in NYC.
question
Joseph Swan
answer
Great Britain - created a light bulb
question
Alexander Graham bell
answer
Invented the first Telephone in 1876
question
Guglielmo Marconi
answer
Sent first radio waves across the Atlantic in 1901
question
Orville and Wilbur Wright
answer
Made the first fixed wing plane at Kitty Hawk, NC in 1903.
question
Karl Marx
answer
Wrote the Communist Manifesto in 1848 with Friedrich Engels because they were appalled at the horrible conditions in the factories and they blamed industrial capitalism.
question
Marx believed
answer
that all of world history was a series of class struggles. The oppressor (those in control of land, raw materials, money etc.) were in constant opposition to the oppressed (those who had nothing)
question
Bourgeoisie
answer
the middle class - the oppressers
question
proletariat
answer
the working class = the oppressed
question
Dictatorship
answer
a government in which a person or small group has absolute power
question
Marx wanted to create
answer
A classless society that abolished economic differences and social classes
question
Social Democratic Party (SPD)
answer
Emerged in Germany in 1875 - a socialist party formed by working class leaders based upon Marx's ideas. Wanted to improve conditions and and pass laws to help the working class. Advocated revolution. Not very successful
question
Second International
answer
A merging of socialist parties across Europe. 1889
question
Pure Marxists
answer
Wanted violent revolution
question
Revisionsists
answer
rejected revolution and wanted mass political parties to work together to seek reforms.
question
Trade Unions
answer
Worked for evolutionary (not revolutionary) change. got workers to unify so that wages and hours could be negotiated for the whole group.
question
Strike
answer
an important tool of the union movement. A union call for workers to stop work in order to pressure employers to meet demands for higher wages or improved factory conditions.
question
Growing Urban Populations
answer
1) no jobs in the country meant more and more people moved to urban areas to get jobs in factories 2) City populations increase quickly and by large numbers Between 1800 and 1900, London grew from 960,000 to 6,500,000
question
Health and Sanitation
answer
City growth required improved health and sanitation toward the second half of the 19th century so more people could live close together and survive. 1) created boards of health to improve housing quality 2) City medical officers and building inspectors were authorized to inspect dwellings for publich safety hazards 3) Building regulations required running water and internal drainage systems for new buildings 4) Need for fresh water led to sewage systems, dams and reservoirs, aqueducts and tunnels to keep water fresh and move soiled water away.
question
Cholera
answer
A deadly desease caused by filthy living conditions and dirty water
question
the Wealthy Elite
answer
Only 5% of the population were wealthy and controlled 30 to 40% of the wealth. Industrialists, banker, merchants, joined the landed aristocracy.
question
Diverse Middle Classes
answer
Upper middle class included lawyers, doctors, architects, engineers, accountants, chemists. Comfortable middle class/lower middle class - shopkeepers, traders and prosperous farmers
question
White Collar Workers
answer
sales people, bookkeepers, operators, secretaries
question
Middle Classes Believed in Hard Work
answer
Especially evident in Victorian Britain
question
Women in the early 19th Century
answer
remained inferior and were dependent on men. Married women had no legal identity apart from their husbands. They could not own property or write a will.
question
Changes for Women
answer
Women began to change their status during the Second Industrial Revolution creating new jobs for women 1) There were not enough men to fill, low-paid, white collar jobs so women were hired - clerks, sales clerks, secretaries, typists 2) Expanstion of government created more jobs for telephone operators, secretaries, education and social services.
question
The Marriage Ideal - Middle Class
answer
In the 19th Century as earning potential grew, the man was viewed as the wage earner outside the home. Women would care for the family. However, as eocnomic conditions improved women gave birth to fewer children aided by increase in education and the introduction of birth control.
question
The Family Ideal - Middle Class
answer
Family was the center of middle class life. With fewer children and better living conditions there was more time for child care and domestic leisure. Working women were able to contribute to the economic survival of the family.
question
Working Class Childhood in the 1900's
answer
Child care was provided by older siblings and relatives for working parents. Daughters worked until they got married. Childhood in a working class was over between 9 and 10 as children began to get odd jobs to help the family income.
question
Working Class Early 20th Century
answer
As wages improved, more and more working class families could afford to live with only one wage earner. Wives could stay home and care for children. Children could stay in school. Working class families could afford consumer products such as sewing machines, stoves etc,
question
Feminism
answer
the movement for women's rights.
question
Beginnings of Feminism
answer
Began with the fight for women to own property.
question
Amalie Sieveking
answer
German nursing pioneer who founded the Female Association for the Care of the Poor and Sick
question
Florence Nightingale
answer
British nurse famous for her work in the Crimean War (1853 - 1856)
question
Clara Barton
answer
Nurse in the US Civil War. Helped transform nursing into a profession of trained, middle class, "women in white."
question
Suffrage
answer
1840's and 1850's - The women's fight for the right to vote - since voting could improve women's overall position in society. This right was not granted until after the upheaval of WWI
question
Emmaline Pankhurst
answer
Founded the Women's Social and Political Union in 1903.
question
Public Education
answer
Western nations made a commitment to public education because: 1) Industrialization required more skilled workers (who could read, add etc) to fill factory jobs 2) Political - voters needed to be educated to understand national issues 3) Nationlism - a way to instill patriotism
question
Literacy
answer
The ability to read
question
Signs of Political Democracy in Western Europe
answer
1) Universal male sufferage laws were passed (all males could vote) 2) Prime Minister was responsible to a legislative body and not a king 3) Mass political parties formed
question
MInisterial responsibility
answer
Prime Minister was responsible to a legislative body and not a king
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question
Sir Henry Bessemer
answer
Patented a new process for making high-quality steel efficiently and cheaply known as the Bessemer Process
question
New Products of Industrial Prosperity
answer
1) lighter, stronger steel contributed to new buildings and machines and engines 2) Electricity as a new form of energy - heat, light and motion 3) Telephone 4) Radio Waves that could cross the Atlantic 5) Streetcars and subways 1880s 6) Steam and hydro power 7) combustion engine
question
Thomas Edison
answer
United States - created the light bulb. Formed the Edison Electric Company in NYC.
question
Joseph Swan
answer
Great Britain - created a light bulb
question
Alexander Graham bell
answer
Invented the first Telephone in 1876
question
Guglielmo Marconi
answer
Sent first radio waves across the Atlantic in 1901
question
Orville and Wilbur Wright
answer
Made the first fixed wing plane at Kitty Hawk, NC in 1903.
question
Karl Marx
answer
Wrote the Communist Manifesto in 1848 with Friedrich Engels because they were appalled at the horrible conditions in the factories and they blamed industrial capitalism.
question
Marx believed
answer
that all of world history was a series of class struggles. The oppressor (those in control of land, raw materials, money etc.) were in constant opposition to the oppressed (those who had nothing)
question
Bourgeoisie
answer
the middle class - the oppressers
question
proletariat
answer
the working class = the oppressed
question
Dictatorship
answer
a government in which a person or small group has absolute power
question
Marx wanted to create
answer
A classless society that abolished economic differences and social classes
question
Social Democratic Party (SPD)
answer
Emerged in Germany in 1875 - a socialist party formed by working class leaders based upon Marx's ideas. Wanted to improve conditions and and pass laws to help the working class. Advocated revolution. Not very successful
question
Second International
answer
A merging of socialist parties across Europe. 1889
question
Pure Marxists
answer
Wanted violent revolution
question
Revisionsists
answer
rejected revolution and wanted mass political parties to work together to seek reforms.
question
Trade Unions
answer
Worked for evolutionary (not revolutionary) change. got workers to unify so that wages and hours could be negotiated for the whole group.
question
Strike
answer
an important tool of the union movement. A union call for workers to stop work in order to pressure employers to meet demands for higher wages or improved factory conditions.
question
Growing Urban Populations
answer
1) no jobs in the country meant more and more people moved to urban areas to get jobs in factories 2) City populations increase quickly and by large numbers Between 1800 and 1900, London grew from 960,000 to 6,500,000
question
Health and Sanitation
answer
City growth required improved health and sanitation toward the second half of the 19th century so more people could live close together and survive. 1) created boards of health to improve housing quality 2) City medical officers and building inspectors were authorized to inspect dwellings for publich safety hazards 3) Building regulations required running water and internal drainage systems for new buildings 4) Need for fresh water led to sewage systems, dams and reservoirs, aqueducts and tunnels to keep water fresh and move soiled water away.
question
Cholera
answer
A deadly desease caused by filthy living conditions and dirty water
question
the Wealthy Elite
answer
Only 5% of the population were wealthy and controlled 30 to 40% of the wealth. Industrialists, banker, merchants, joined the landed aristocracy.
question
Diverse Middle Classes
answer
Upper middle class included lawyers, doctors, architects, engineers, accountants, chemists. Comfortable middle class/lower middle class - shopkeepers, traders and prosperous farmers
question
White Collar Workers
answer
sales people, bookkeepers, operators, secretaries
question
Middle Classes Believed in Hard Work
answer
Especially evident in Victorian Britain
question
Women in the early 19th Century
answer
remained inferior and were dependent on men. Married women had no legal identity apart from their husbands. They could not own property or write a will.
question
Changes for Women
answer
Women began to change their status during the Second Industrial Revolution creating new jobs for women 1) There were not enough men to fill, low-paid, white collar jobs so women were hired - clerks, sales clerks, secretaries, typists 2) Expanstion of government created more jobs for telephone operators, secretaries, education and social services.
question
The Marriage Ideal - Middle Class
answer
In the 19th Century as earning potential grew, the man was viewed as the wage earner outside the home. Women would care for the family. However, as eocnomic conditions improved women gave birth to fewer children aided by increase in education and the introduction of birth control.
question
The Family Ideal - Middle Class
answer
Family was the center of middle class life. With fewer children and better living conditions there was more time for child care and domestic leisure. Working women were able to contribute to the economic survival of the family.
question
Working Class Childhood in the 1900's
answer
Child care was provided by older siblings and relatives for working parents. Daughters worked until they got married. Childhood in a working class was over between 9 and 10 as children began to get odd jobs to help the family income.
question
Working Class Early 20th Century
answer
As wages improved, more and more working class families could afford to live with only one wage earner. Wives could stay home and care for children. Children could stay in school. Working class families could afford consumer products such as sewing machines, stoves etc,
question
Feminism
answer
the movement for women's rights.
question
Beginnings of Feminism
answer
Began with the fight for women to own property.
question
Amalie Sieveking
answer
German nursing pioneer who founded the Female Association for the Care of the Poor and Sick
question
Florence Nightingale
answer
British nurse famous for her work in the Crimean War (1853 - 1856)
question
Clara Barton
answer
Nurse in the US Civil War. Helped transform nursing into a profession of trained, middle class, "women in white."
question
Suffrage
answer
1840's and 1850's - The women's fight for the right to vote - since voting could improve women's overall position in society. This right was not granted until after the upheaval of WWI
question
Emmaline Pankhurst
answer
Founded the Women's Social and Political Union in 1903.
question
Public Education
answer
Western nations made a commitment to public education because: 1) Industrialization required more skilled workers (who could read, add etc) to fill factory jobs 2) Political - voters needed to be educated to understand national issues 3) Nationlism - a way to instill patriotism
question
Literacy
answer
The ability to read
question
Signs of Political Democracy in Western Europe
answer
1) Universal male sufferage laws were passed (all males could vote) 2) Prime Minister was responsible to a legislative body and not a king 3) Mass political parties formed
question
MInisterial responsibility
answer
Prime Minister was responsible to a legislative body and not a king
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