Glencoe World History Chapter 19 & 21

Flashcard maker : Paula Corcoran
Enclosure Movement
The process of consolidating small landholdings into a smaller number of larger farms in England during the eighteenth century.
Capital
A ready supply of money
Entrepreneurs
individuals who start new businesses, introduce new products, and improve management techniques
cottage industry
This was the way form of work of the rural classes in which the costumer would give the worker materials and the worker would create the desirable product
puddling
a process developed by Henry Cort where coke, derived from coal, was used to burn away impurities in pig iron (crud iron) to make high-quality iron
Industrial Capitalism
An economic system based on industrial production or manufacturing
Socialism
A system in which society, usually in the form of the government, owns and controls the means of production.
James Watt
A Scottish engineer who created the steam engine that worked faster and more efficiently than earlier engines, this man continued improving the engine, inventing a new type of governor to control steam pressure and attaching a flywheel.
Robert Fulton
Built the first paddle-wheel steamboat
Robert Owen
A British cotton manufacturer and Utopian socialist; believed that humans would show their natural goodness if they lived in a cooperative environment
Conservatism
A belief that limited government ensures order, competitive markets, and personal opportunity.
Principle of Intervention
The right of great powers to send armies into countries where there were revolutions in order to restore legitimate monarchs to their thrones
Liberalism
A political ideology that emphasizes the civil rights of citizens, representative government, and the protection of private property. This ideology, derived from the Enlightenment, was especially popular among the property-owning middle classes.
Universal Male Suffrage
The right of all males to vote in elections.
Multinational State
State that contains two or more ethnic groups with traditions of self-determination that agree to coexist peacefully by recognizing each other as distinct nationalities.
Congress of Vienna
Meeting of representatives of European monarchs called to reestablish the old order and establish a plan for a new balance of power after the defeat of Napoleon.
Klemens Von Metternich
The Foreign Minister of Austria; he had the most influence at the Congress of Vienna.
Bill of Rights
The first ten amendments of the U.S. Constitution, containing a list of individual rights and liberties, such as freedom of speech, religion, and the press.
Louis-Napoleon
Was not only the first president of the French Republic (for two terms), but was also the last emperor. As emperor, he was called Napoleon III and he was the nephew of Napoleon Bonaparte.
German Confederation
consisted of 38 sovereign states recognized by the Vienna settlement, and was dominated by Austria and Prussia; the confederation had little power and needed the consent of all 38 states to take action.
Militarism
A political orientation of a people or a government to maintain a strong military force and to be prepared to use it aggressively to defend or promote national interests
Kaiser
German word meaning \”emperor\”, used for German kings in late 1800s and early 1900s
Plebiscite
A direct vote in which a country’s people have the opportunity to approve or reject a proposal
Emancipation
Freeing of slaves
Abolitionism
The doctrine that calls for the abolition of slavery
Secede
Withdraw from an organization or communion
Giuseppe Garibaldi
Italian patriot whose conquest of Sicily and Naples led to the formation of the Italian state (1807-1882)
Otton Von Bismarck
Conservative prime minister of Prussia; architect of German unification under Prussian king in 1870; utilized liberal reforms to attract support for conservative causes. (p 551)
Queen Victoria
Queen of Great Britain and Ireland and empress of India from 1837 to 1901 (1819-1901)
Romanticism
19th century artistic movement that appealed to emotion rather than reason
Secularization
The process by which religious beliefs, practices, and institutions lose their significance in sectors of society and culture.
Organic Evolution
change of organisms over geologic time.
Natural Selection
process by which individuals that are better suited to their environment survive and reproduce most successfully; also called survival of the fittest
Realism
(philosophy) the philosophical doctrine that physical object continue to exist when not perceived
Ludwig Van Beethoven
German composer of instrumental music (especially symphonic and chamber music)
Louis Pasteur
French chemist and biologist whose discovery that fermentation is caused by microorganisms resulted in the process of pasteurization (1822-1895)
Charles Darwin
English natural scientist who formulated a theory of evolution by natural selection (1809-1882)
Charles Dickens
English writer whose novels depicted and criticized social injustice (1812-1870)
Imperialism
A policy in which a strong nation seeks to dominate other countries politically, socially, and economically.
Racism
Discriminatory or abusive behavior towards members of another race
Protectorate
A nation whose independence is limited by the control of a more powerful country
Indirect rule
Colonial government in which local rulers are allowed to maintain their positions of authority and status
Direct rule
Colonial government in which local elites are removed from power and replaced by a new set of officials brought from the mother country
King Mongkut
Ruler of Thailand who was able to keep out colonial control
King Chulalongkorn
Mongkut’s son that also prevented Thailand from being colonized.
Commodore George Dewey
A commodore during the Spanish-American War who captured the Philippines and Guam.
Emilio Aguinaldo
Leader of the Filipino independence movement against Spain (1895-1898). He proclaimed the independence of the Philippines in 1899, but his movement was crushed and he was captured by the United States Army in 1901. (p. 743)
Annexed
To take control of
Indigenous
Native to a particular area
Muhammad Ali
Leader of Egyptian modernization in the early nineteenth century. He ruled Egypt as an Ottoman governor, but had imperial ambitions. His descendants ruled Egypt until overthrown in 1952.
David Livingstone
Most important missionary and explorer of Africa in Victorian period, Scottish, went back and forth from Africa over 30 years, abolitionist, 1871 disappeared but was living among Africans, found by Sir Henry Morton Stanley
Henry Stanley
British-American explorer of Africa, famous for his expeditions in search of Dr. David Livingstone. He helped King Leopold II establish the Congo Free State.
Zulu
The people of modern South Africa whom King Shaka united beginning in 1818.
Sepoys
Indian troops who served in the British army
Viceroy
Governor of a country or province who rules as the representative of his or her king or sovereign
Kanpur
Site of indin massacre of 200 defenseless British women and children
Indian National Congress
A movement and political party founded in 1885 to demand greater Indian participation in government. Its membership was middle class, and its demands were modest until World War I. Led after 1920 by Mohandas K. Gandhi, appealing to the poor
Mohandas Gandhi
A philosopher from India, this man was a spiritual and moral leader favoring India’s independence from Great Britain. He practiced passive resistance, civil disobedience and boycotts to generate social and political change.
Rabindranath Tagore
Who was the Indian author who was also a social reformer, spiritual leader, educator, philosopher, singer, and painter?
Creoles
People who had Spanish or Portuguese parents but were born in Latin America.
Peninsulares
Spanish-born, came to Latin America; ruled, highest social class
Mestizos
People of Native American and European descent
Caudillos
The way that many Latin American army leaders controlled new nations, as dictators
Cash Crops
Crops grown for a profit
Jose de San Martin
South American general and statesman, born in Argentina: leader in winning independence for Argentina, Peru, and Chile; protector of Peru
Simon Bolivar
The most important military leader in the struggle for independence in South America. Born in Venezuela, he led military forces there and in Colombia, Ecuador, Peru, and Bolivia.
Monroe Doctrine
President James Monroe’s statement forbidding further colonization in the Americas and declaring that any attempt by a foreign country to colonize would be considered an act of hostility
Antonio Lopez de Santa Anna
Was a Mexican general and dictator, who dominated Mexican politics for a quarter of a century. He was elected president, but didn’t serve; instead he overthrew the government and established himself as a dictator. He commanded the Mexican army that stormed The Alamo during the Texas Revolution of 1835 and 1836 and killed all 187 defenders, but he was shortly afterward defeated and captured by Sam Houston’s Texans.
Benito Juarez
Mexican national hero; brought liberal reforms to Mexico, including separation of church and state, land distribution to the poor, and an educational system for all of Mexico

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