GERONTOLOGY FINAL EXAM

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A) Longitudinal Research
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What research method/design is most appropriate for looking at aging, form the life course perspective? A) Longitudinal research B) Quasi-experimental design C) Experimental design D) Panel study E) Survey analysis
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D) Ageism
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The most persistent view of aging in society reflects continuous deterioration and decline, thus forming the basis for age-based prejudice known as: A) Age grading B) Age stratification C) Age norms D) Ageism E) Age differentiation
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E) Role loss
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The transition out of social roles, such as widowhood and retirement, is referred to as: A) Unsuccessful aging B) Cognitive functioning C) Continuity theory D) Life events E) Role loss
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A) True
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“Excess disability” involves experiencing more disability than necessary because the environment in which one lives is either too challenging or not challenging enough. A) True B) False
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B) Growing market for business comprised of those over age 50
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The “gray market” refers to the: A) Consumption of goods and services during one’s retirement years B) Growing market for business comprised of those over age 50 C) Growing number of businesses that offer “senior discounts” D) Growing market for meaningful activities among people over age 50 E) None of the above
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D) Live a committed, justified life
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How should people prepare for old age, according to de Beauvoir? A) Set aside money B) Choose the place where they will retire C) Acquire hobbies D) Live a committed, justified life E) All of the above
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A) True
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Older women tend to have higher levels of religious participation and belief than do men. A) True B) False
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D) All of the above
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The main components of “successful aging” include which of the following? A) Avoiding disease and disability B) Maintaining mental and physical function C) Continuing engagement with life D) All of the above E) A and B above
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B) Normal human cells grown in tissue culture go through a limited number of cell divisions.
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The Hayflick Limit refers to which of the following processes? A) HeLa cells continue to divide and grow. B) Normal human cells grown in tissue culture go through a limited number of cell divisions. C) Aging is regulated by glandular cells, perhaps of the hypothalamus, thymus, or pituitary gland. D) Waste products and other harmful substances build up in the cells. E) None of the above
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B) False
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Although cultural stereotypes suggest that women are more biologically fragile than men, the Gompertz law indicates that women and men are equally likely to die. A) True B) False
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B) False
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The concepts of morbidity and disability can be used interchangeably—they mean the same thing when considering the compression of morbidity hypothesis. A) True B) False
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B) False
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International research on health trends in later life provides consistent results across countries. A) True B) False
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D) Intelligence applied to new tasks or the ability to come up with novel or creative solutions to unforeseen problems
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Fluid intelligence refers to: A) Intelligence accumulated from past experience and socialization B) Intelligence that is measured on a verbal and a performance scale C) Pragmatic or social judgment D) Intelligence applied to new tasks or the ability to come up with novel or creative solutions to unforeseen problems E) None of the above
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E) All of the above
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Cross-sectional studies of intelligence may reveal differences between young and old people that do not arise from age, but from characteristics of different cohorts, including which of the following? A) Young people are more familiar than old people with test taking. B) Old people show more test anxiety than young people. C) Some old people accept the prejudices of ageism and believe that intelligence declines with age. D) Young people are less cautious than old people and may be more likely to guess at the answer on tests of intelligence. E) All of the above
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A) True
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As a group, older people take longer than younger people to learn new things. A) True B) False
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A) True
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The Seattle Longitudinal Study and other research on cognitive function found that the largest average declines in intelligence come after age 60, but that intellectual decline in later life may be reversed. A) True B) False
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A) Arthritis
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Which of the following is the most prevalent chronic disease of old age? A) Arthritis B) Osteoporosis C) Parkinson’s disease D) Cancer E) Cardiovascular disease
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E) None of the above
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The lowest rate of suicide in the United States occurs among which of the following groups? A) Younger black men B) Older black men C) Young white men D) Older white men E) None of the above
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E) Both B and C
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A multidimensional functional assessment involves which of the following? A) A thorough physical exam B) A full examination of physical, mental, and social conditions C) An older adult’s economic and social resources D) Both A and C E) Both B and C
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B) False
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Dementia is characteristic of normal aging. A) True B) False
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C) Combining insurance with health care providers and facilities in a unified network to control costs
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“Managed care” refers to which of the following? A) Age-based rationing of health care to control costs B) Hiring managers to oversee health care providers in various hospital departments to control utilization of services C) Combining insurance with health care providers and facilities in a unified network to control costs D) Avoiding unneeded care or treatment that prolongs dying E) Using cost-benefit analysis to select the most cost effective treatment options
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D) All of the above
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Which of the following factors is responsible for rising health care costs? A) Increasing longevity B) Increasing intensity of services C) Fraud, waste, and abuse D) All of the above E) A and B above
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A) True
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Callahan argues that it is acceptable to withhold treatment from older persons, but it is unacceptable to collaborate with patients who want help in ending their lives. A) True B) False
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A) True
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Ubel argues that health care rationing is already a widespread practice in the United States and elsewhere, even outside of managed care organizations. A) True B) False
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D) Exchange theory
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Which of the following theories of aging is best applied to patterns of caregiving over the life span? A) Disengagement theory B) Activity theory C) Continuity theory D) Exchange theory E) Conflict theory
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B) Medicaid
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The major public payer of care in nursing homes is ______. A) Medicare B) Medicaid C) Families D) Social Security E) None of the above
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D) All of the above
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Critics of paying family members to provide care do so for which of the following reasons? A) Family responsibility for caregiving would diminish. B) The quality of the caregiving experience for care recipient and caregiver would decrease. C) Public expenditures would increase. D) All of the above E) A and B above
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B) False
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While divesting of one’s assets to qualify for Medicaid is legal, Strauss and Lederman argue that it is an unethical practice. A) True B) False
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E) All of the above
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Which of the following are risk factors for elder abuse? A) Psychopathology, especially alcohol and substance abuse B) Family history of violence C) Social isolation D) Care giving burdens E) All of the above
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E) A and B above
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Which of the following protective functions may result when health professionals assist caregivers in recognizing the limits of their own health, identifying supportive services, and sharing caregiving responsibilities among available family members? A) It may prevent elder abuse or neglect that might have been triggered by caregiver burden. B) It may protect the caregiver from mistreatment or abuse. C) It may assist professionals in balancing autonomy and beneficence. D) All of the above E) A and B above
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B) False
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The majority of perpetrators of elder abuse are strangers to the victims. A) True B) False
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A) True
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A competent patient may refuse interventions even if a health professional confirms that the patient is being mistreated. A) True B) False
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C) Oregon
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Which state was the first in the U.S. to make physician-assisted suicide legal? A) Hawaii B) Massachusetts C) Oregon D) All of the above E) A and B above
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E) All of the above
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Which of the following reflect public concerns about assisted dying? A) The possibility of medical error B) The potential for abuse C) The roles played by financial interests in prolonging or shortening life D) The possibility of a “slippery slope” down a path of moral decay E) All of the above
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E) A and B above
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According to Kass, which of the following reasons are used to support physician-assisted death? A) The right to control one’s body and life; freedom and autonomy B) When the patient’s life is deemed no longer worth living, usually because of great pain, a terminal condition, an irreversible coma, advanced senility, or extreme degradation C) Once a patient is diagnosed with a terminal illness, the physician is no longer obligated to heal D) All of the above E) A and B above
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A) True
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U.S. common law holds that people have a right to accept or reject medical treatment. A) True B) False
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E) All of the above
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Social class position in old age is influenced by which of the following? A) Occupation B) Income C) Property D) Education E) All of the above
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A) The feminization of poverty
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The greater likelihood of poverty among women in old age is called which of the following? A) The feminization of poverty B) The sex ratio C) The crossover phenomenon D) The aging poverty phenomenon E) Economic jeopardy
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B) more, lower
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Older people tend to have ______ wealth than younger people and ______ incomes compared to other adults in the United States. A) more, higher B) more, lower C) less, higher D) less, lower
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B) False
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Income tends to increase after retirement because of the increasing value of home equity as a proportion of assets. A) True B) False
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B) A numerical measure of the number of persons in the labor force compared to the number of persons not in the labor force.
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The support ratio, or dependency ratio, refers to: A) The proportion of the federal budget that is devoted to age-based entitlement programs B) A numerical measure of the number of persons in the labor force compared to the number of persons not in the labor force. C) A measure of the life-time contributions of older persons to the economy D) None of the above E) All of the above
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C) 50
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Peterson projects that by the 2030s, ______ percent of the adult population of the nation’s industrialized countries will have approached the eligibility age for publicly financed retirement. A) 10 B) 25 C) 50 D) 75 E) None of the above
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D) We must cut public resources to older adults to help younger people and avert conflict between generations.
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Which of the following statements reflects the “new victim blaming” mentality described by Minkler? A) Younger workers should be willing to contribute a larger proportion of taxes to support older cohorts. B) While poverty rates among older Americans have dropped, about 10 percent of elders still fall below the poverty level. C) Minority workers are very supportive of Social Security and Medicare. D) We must cut public resources to older adults to help younger people and avert conflict between generations. E) None of the above
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A) True
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Thurow argues that means-tested benefits for older adults would be opposed by young and old alike. A) True B) False
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B) The surplus money is used to buy U.S. Treasury notes.
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What happens to the surplus payroll taxes generated by Social Security? A) The surplus money is deposited into individual workers’ personal savings accounts. B) The surplus money is used to buy U.S. Treasury notes. C) The surplus money is deposited into supplemental retirement accounts for current beneficiaries. D) The surplus money is deposited into the General Fund. E) None of the above
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E) A and B above
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To address the effect of earnings inequality on Social Security, Diamond and Orszag propose which of the following solutions? A) Raise the maximum taxable earnings base B) Reduce benefits for relatively high wage earners C) Create personal savings accounts to enable workers to have more control over their Social Security taxes D) All of the above E) A and B above
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A) True
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Social Security was never intended to be the sole source of income for people in retirement. A) True B) False
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A) True
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The Social Security Act of 1935 was a response to the Great Depression at a time when only 5% of the U.S. population was over age 65. A) True B) False
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D) 1986
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Mandatory retirement was abolished by law in ______. A) 1964 B) 1969 C) 1972 D) 1986 E) 1996
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D) All of the above
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Freedman is baffled that older Americans don’t do more volunteering for which of the following reasons? A) Many older people want to be more involved. B) Social ties and community engagement have been linked to better physical and mental health. C) Older adults vote at a higher rate than any other age group. D) All of the above E) A and B above
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B) False
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A majority of workers in the United States are covered by pension plans. A) True B) False
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B) False
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Caro, Bass, and Chen argue that chronological age is a strong predictor of performance in physical and mental activities. A) True B) False
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B) About one-quarter
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Boomers make up what proportion of the U.S. population? A) About one-half B) About one-quarter C) About one-eighth D) About one- third
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A) True
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Boomsday depicts conflict between members of different generational cohorts over economic resources and social programs. A) True B) False
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B) The movement of the huge boomer cohort from childhood through adulthood and into old age
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What does the analogy “like watching a pig move through a python” refer to? A) The slow progress made in ending ageism during the 20th century B) The movement of the huge boomer cohort from childhood through adulthood and into old age C) The impact in on society in 2011 when most members of the huge boomer cohort begin to receive Social Security benefits D) The resistance of most Americans toward retirement planning
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B) False
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According to Goldsmith, the boomer crisis predicted by the “catastropharians” can’t be avoided—it is inevitable. A) True B) False
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C) $7 trillion
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The 50-plus segment of the U.S. population controls three-quarters of the total net worth and financial assets of the country, or more than _______. A) $3 billion B) $7 billion C) $7 trillion D) $9 trillion E) None of the above
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D) Both A and B
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Consumers who fall into the “older-old” age category are often concerned about which of the following issues? A) Financial security B) Failing health C) Assisted living D) Both A and B E) Both B and C
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A) True
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With the 25- to 44-year-old population now shrinking, companies will increasingly need to reach older age groups in order to be successful. A) True B) False
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B) False
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There is clear empirical support for the efficacy of brain fitness training programs for significantly improving brain health. A) True B) False
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B) 90%
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What percentage of older adults surveyed in multiple studies conducted by AARP say that they’d prefer to remain in their own homes and “age in place”? A) 50% B) 90% C) 100% D) 25% E) None of the above
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C) Implicit or indirect methods of rationing that limit access to the health care system, such as through case management
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Backdoor rationing” refers to which of the following? A) Rationing health care on the basis of age without public acknowledgment of the practice B) Implementing a waiting list to replace a market system for allocating some types of medical care C) Implicit or indirect methods of rationing that limit access to the health care system, such as through case management D) Setting up special committees to decide which patients will have access to certain services E) None of the above
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B) False
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According to Ubel, we should be concerned with effectiveness analysis rather than rationing so that everyone has access to the same services. A) True B) False
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A) True
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The National Cash and Counseling Demonstration and Evaluation project found large increases in the satisfaction levels of consumers and caregivers who participated in consumer-directed programs. A) True B) False
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E) All of the above
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Which of the following reflect public concerns about assisted dying? A) The possibility of medical error B) The potential for abuse C) The roles played by financial interests in prolonging or shortening life D) The possibility of a “slippery slope” down a path of moral decay E) All of the above
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D) All of the above
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Minkler argues that the logic behind the concept of generational equity is flawed for several reasons, including which of the following? A) It assumes the all older Americans are financially secure. B) It assumes that only older adults are served by governmental programs, including Social Security and Medicare. C) It assumes that minority workers will have to contribute larger proportions of their income to support the white older baby boom generation, thereby fueling resentment toward older adults. D) All of the above E) A and B above
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C) $25,000
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The income threshold for taxing Social Security benefits is ______. A) $5,000 B) $19,999 C) $25,000 D) $29,999 E) None of the above
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A) True
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While life expectancy has increased by more than 50 percent since 1900, the period of time spent in retirement has increased even more dramatically. A) True B) False
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A) True
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Ekerdt argues that in newly retired individuals, the work ethic is transformed into a “busy ethic” and an “ideology of pensions.” A) True B) False
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C) Seventy-seven million people retiring during a time of economic crisis
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In the story, Boomsday, what does the “perfect economic storm” refer to? A) The Great Depression of the 1930s B) The mortgage lending crisis that began in 2008 C) Seventy-seven million people retiring during a time of economic crisis D) All of the above E) None of the above
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A) True
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Boomsday depicts conflict between members of different generational cohorts over economic resources and social programs. A) True B) False
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B) When illness is pushed further into old age
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“Compression of morbidity” refers to which of the following processes? A) The acceleration of the inverse relationship of morbidity and mortality B) When illness is pushed further into old age C) An increase in the maximum life span D) Whenever the natural life span is exceeded E) None of the above
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B) False
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Olshansky agrees with de Grey (“We will be able to live to 1,000”) that with sufficient resources devoted to research, we can find a cure for aging. A) True B) False
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E) All of the above
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Findings from recent research on the aging brain suggest which of the following might be true? A) The brain retains its capacity for making new memories. B) The brain is more flexible than once thought. C) Some aging changes in the brain are reversible. D) Older brains process information in a different way than younger brains. E) All of the above
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D) 1986
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Mandatory retirement was abolished by law in ______. A) 1964 B) 1969 C) 1972 D) 1986 E) 1996

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