Geology Rocks and Minerals

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sphalerite: NM; 3.5-4 Hardness; no cleavage; dark brown–>black; light yellow streak; cubic habit; sulfuric smell
black; light yellow streak; cubic habit; sulfuric smell” alt=”sphalerite: NM; 3.5-4 Hardness; no cleavage; dark brown–>black; light yellow streak; cubic habit; sulfuric smell”>
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Mineral
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Gypsum: NM; 2 Hardness; Basal Cleavage; translucent white; white streak; scratch with fingernail
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Mineral
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Galena: Metallic; 2.5 Hardness; Cubic cleavage; light gray/silver; grey-black streak; very dense; sulfuric smell; not magnetic
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Mineral
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Augite: NM; 5.5 Hardness; Prismatic (2D cleavage); Dark green-gray; white streak; glossy; cleavage planes: 93 and 87; Chemical Formula (Ca,Na)(Mg,Fe,Al,Ti)(SiAl)2)O6
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Mineral
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Quartz: NM; 7 Hardness; Conchoidal fracture; Clear, purple; no streak; hexagonal habit; Chemical Formula: SiO2
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Mineral
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Halite: NM; 2.5 hardness; Cubic cleavage; Clear; white streak; breaks into cubes; salty taste; cubic crystal habit; Chemical Formula: NaCl
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Mineral
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Olivine: NM; 7 Hardness; Conchoidal Fracture; Green w/dark speckles; white streak; sandy texture; small crystals; Chemical Composition: (Fe,Mg)2SiO4
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Mineral
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potassium feldspar: NM (glossy); 6.5 Hardness; Cubic Cleavage; light pink; no streak; light pink with lighter white part; Chemical Formula: KAlSi3O8
potassium feldspar: NM (glossy); 6.5 Hardness; Cubic Cleavage; light pink; no streak; light pink with lighter white part; Chemical Formula: KAlSi3O8
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Mineral
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Pyrite: Metallic; 5.5 Hardness; no cleavage; bronze-gold; no streak; shiny
Pyrite: Metallic; 5.5 Hardness; no cleavage; bronze-gold; no streak; shiny
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Mineral
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Epidote: NM; 6.5 hardness; no cleavage; green, brown, black, white; no streak; shiny
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Mineral
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Kaolinite: NM; 2.5 hardness; no cleavage; white with white streak; chalk-like; Chemical Formula: Al4(Si4O10)(OH)8
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Mineral
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Azurite: NM; 2.5-4.5 Hardness; no cleavage; blue-brown (light); blue streak; non magnetic
Azurite: NM; 2.5-4.5 Hardness; no cleavage; blue-brown (light); blue streak; non magnetic
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Mineral
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Kyanite: NM; 4.5 Hardness; No cleavage; green, blue, gray; white streak; blades (blue)
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Sulfur: NM; 1.5-2.5 Hardness; no cleavage; yellow; pale yellow streak; sulfuric smell
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Element/Mineral
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Hornblende (amphibole): NM; 5.5-6.5 Hardness; prismatic cleavage at 56 and 124 degrees; dark gray; light gray streak; striations; Chemical Formula Ca2(Mg,Fe)4Al(Si2Al)O22(OH,F)2
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Mineral
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Calcite: NM; 2.9 Hardness; cubic cleavage; white and translucent; white streak; effervesces; Chemical Formula: CaCO3
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Mineral
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Talc: NM; less than 2.5 hardness; no cleavage; light tan–>white; white streak; soapy feel; scratch with fingernail
white; white streak; soapy feel; scratch with fingernail” alt=”Talc: NM; less than 2.5 hardness; no cleavage; light tan–>white; white streak; soapy feel; scratch with fingernail”>
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Mineral
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Fluorite: NM; 4.5-5.5 hardness; 4 dimensional cleavage; green, blue, white, brown; white streak
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Mineral
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Garnet: NM; 6.5 Hardness; no cleavage; some parting; dark red-black; no streak; opaque with translucent red; fractured/parting
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Biotite Mica: NM; less than 2.5 Hardness; Basal Cleavage; Bronzey-brown; green streak; brittle, comes off in sheets; peels off
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Mineral
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Tourmaline: NM, greater than 5.5 less than 6.5 hardness; poor cleavage; gray-black; black streak; waxy; non-metallic; striations
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Mineral
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Hematite: Metallic; 5.5-6.5 hardness; no cleavage; dark metallic gray; light brown streak; slightly magnetic
Hematite: Metallic; 5.5-6.5 hardness; no cleavage; dark metallic gray; light brown streak; slightly magnetic
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Mineral
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Corundum: NM; 9 hardness; no cleavage; brown-gray; no streak; hexagonal habit; striated ends
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Mineral
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Dolomite: NM; 2.9 Hardness; no cleavage; opaque off-white; white streak; sandy; effervesces when powdered; Chemical Formula CaMg(CO3)2
Dolomite: NM; 2.9 Hardness; no cleavage; opaque off-white; white streak; sandy; effervesces when powdered; Chemical Formula CaMg(CO3)2
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Mineral
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Graphite: Metallic; 2.5 or less hardness; no cleavage; silver; silver-black streak
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Mineral
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Plagioclase Feldspar: NM; 6 Hardness; Prismatic cleavage (angles about 90 degrees); dark gray with some green; no streak; looks like oil on water in places (oil marks); Chemical Formula: NaAlSi3O8
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Mineral
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Muscovite Mica: NM; less than 5.5 hardness; Basal Cleavage; translucent copper clear sheets; light gray streak; breaks off into thin translucent sheets; Chemical Formula: KAl2(AlSi3O17)(OH,F)2
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Mineral
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Staurolite: NM; greater than 6.5 hardness; no cleavage; dark brown; no streak; penetrating twinning; six-sided structure
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Mineral
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Chlorite: NM; greater than 6.5 hardness; excellent basal cleavage; transparent green with dark spots; clear flakes; streak is flakes; clean clear sheets
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Not on list
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Apatite: NM; 5 hardness; conchoidal fracture; lemon yellow or green; white streak; hexagonal; bubbles
Apatite: NM; 5 hardness; conchoidal fracture; lemon yellow or green; white streak; hexagonal; bubbles
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Mineral
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Gabbro: Phaneritic; Mafic; Has Augite and Plagioclase feldspar in it
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Igneous
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Pumice: Glassy/Vesicular; not felsic or mafic
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Igneous
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Breccia: Pyroclastic
Breccia: Pyroclastic
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Sedimentary
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Diorite: Phaneritic; Intermediate; Plagioclase Feldspar, Hornblende and Augite
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Igneous
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OBsidian: Glassy
OBsidian: Glassy
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Igneous
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Vesicular Basalt: Vesicular; Mafic; Plagioclase feldspar, hornblende and Augite
Vesicular Basalt: Vesicular; Mafic; Plagioclase feldspar, hornblende and Augite
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Igneous
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Rhyolite: Aphanitic (fine grained); Felsic; Potassium Feldspar and quartz
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Igneous
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Granite: Phaneritic; Felsic; Potassium Feldspar and quartz
Granite: Phaneritic; Felsic; Potassium Feldspar and quartz
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Igneous
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Porphyritic Andesite: Porphyritic; Intermediate; Plagioclase feldspar
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Igneous
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Basalt; Aphanitic; Mafic; Olivine and Pyroxene
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Igneous
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Peridotite: Phaneritic; Ultramafic; Olivine and pyroxene
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Not on list
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Pegmatitic Granite: Phaneritic; Felsic; Potassium Feldspar and quartz
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Igneous
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Oolitic Limestone: Sedimentary; sand-size particles; bioclastic–> calcite; oolites; effervesces
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Sedimentary
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Siltstone/Mudstone; Sedimentary; Mud-sized particles; silicates and quartz
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Sedimentary
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conglomerate: Sedimentary; gravel-sized particles; detrital–> siliciclastic; rock pieces
siliciclastic; rock pieces” alt=”conglomerate: Sedimentary; gravel-sized particles; detrital–> siliciclastic; rock pieces”>
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Sedimentary
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Greywacke Sandstone: sedimentary; Mud/sand sized particles; silicates
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Sedimentary
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Bituminous Coal: no particle size; carbon and organics; layered; shiny in spots; light
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Sedimentary
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Micrite Limestone: Sedimentary; mud sized particles; calcite; effervesces
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Sedimentary
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Dolostone: Sedimentary; mud-size particles; dolomite; effervesces when powdered
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Sedimentary
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Chert: Sedimentary; no particle size; microcrystalline; silicates; conchoidal fracture
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Sedimentary
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Fossilliferous Limestone: Sedimentary; sand-size particles; carbonate and calcite; shells/fossils
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Sedimentary
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Rock Gypsum: Sedimentary; no particle size; Gypsum
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Mineral
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Arkose Sandstone: Sand-size particles; feldspars and silicates
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Sedimentary
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Shale: mud-size particles; silicates; layered
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Sedimentary
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Coquina: gravel size particles; calcite and shell fragments; effervesces
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Sedimentary
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Ironstone: sand size particles; Hematite; iron-rich; red streak
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Mineral
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chalk: mud-size particles; calcite; effervesces
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Quartzite: metamorphic; non-foliated; fine–> coarse grained; quartz; sandy–> grains don’t come off; parent rock: Sandstone
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Serpentinite: Non foliated; microcrystalline; green; glassy; conchoidal fracture; serpentine; Parent Rock: Basalt, Gabbro, Ultramafic igneous rocks
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chlorite/green schist: foliates: schist-like; quartz; shiny; schistocity; scaly; Parent Rock: mudstone, shale, slate, phyllite
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Gneiss: Foliated, banded; quartz; banding, color alternating layers, coarse-grained; Parent Rock: Granite
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Anthracite Coal: Non-Foliated; fine-grained; Light, glassy, conchoidal fracture; Parent Rock: Peat, Lignite, Bituminous Coal
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Hornfels: Non-Foliated; Microcrystalline; hard, dark, sparkly; contact metamorphism; Parent Rock: Any Rock
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Phyllite: Foliated; Schist-like; dark, hard, shiny, phyllitic texture; Parent Rock: mudstone, shale, slate
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Soapstone: Non-foliated; microcrystalline; soft, can scratch with fingernail; Parent Rock: Basalt, Gabbro, Dolostone, Ultramafic igneous rocks
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Slate: Foliated; no visible grains; shingle-like; flat, slatey, breaks into sheets, cleavage; Parent Rock: Mudstone or Shale
Slate: Foliated; no visible grains; shingle-like; flat, slatey, breaks into sheets, cleavage; Parent Rock: Mudstone or Shale
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Amphibolite: Foliated or Non-foliated; medium–> coarse-grained; glossy black; blade-like crystals; Parent Rock: Basalt, Gabbro, Ultramafic igneous rocks
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Muscovite/Mica Schist: Foliated; medium–> coarse-grained; schist-like; porphyroblasts–> staurolite; Parent Rock: mudstone, shale, slate
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Albite White,tan, or cream feldspar Hardness:6-6.5 Specific gravity:2.6-2.63 Streak:white Color: many eps. White Group: silicates Crystal shape: monoclinic
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Almandine H:6.5-7.5, S.G:4.31. Color deep purplish red. Usually found in metamorphic rock. a deep red garnet consisting of iron aluminum silicate
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Amazonite Bright green feldspar Hardness: 6-6.5 Streak: white Color: medium ESP. Green Group: silicates Crystal shape: triclinic
Amazonite Bright green feldspar Hardness: 6-6.5 Streak: white Color: medium ESP. Green Group: silicates Crystal shape: triclinic
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Aragonite white, powdery variety of calcite. can often form amber-colored hexagonal crystals hardness:3.5-4 specific gravity: 2.54-2.95 streak: white color; many group: carbonates crystal shape: orthorhambic
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Bauxite a clay-like mineral, H 1-3 S.g 2-2.5 Luster: dull It is the main ore for production of aluminum. Note the obvious nodules.
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Barite H 3-3.5 S.G. 4.3-4.6 Streak: White, Color: white or colorless mineral (BaSO4). Can be bluish, yellow, brown or reddish. A heavy mineral that can be recognized by its specific gravity (SG). Quartz is harder and not as heavy
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Bornite Cu5FeS4 H 3.0, S.G. 5.06-5.08 Streak: gray-black Luster: metallic This beautiful purplish iridescence helps to identify this copper mineral . Sometimes called peacock ore. Untarnished bornite is golden colored a mineral consisting of sulfides of copper and iron that is found in copper deposits
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Celestite usually a soft, translucent white or blue hardness:3-3.5 specific gravity:3.96-3.98 streak:white color;light group:sulfates crystal shape:othorhombic
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Chalcopyrite Metallic. H = 3.5 – 4. Streak: dark gray. Color bright silvery gold, tarnishes bronze, brassy gold or iridescent blue-green and red; brittle; No cleavage. Forms dense masses or elongate tetrahedrons.
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Copper H: 2.5-3, S.G 8.94, Streak: Black, Luster: Metallic. Native copper looks how we think copper should look. Major deposits of native copper in Keweenaw Peninsula in Michigan.
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Diamond native crystalline carbon that is the hardest known mineral, that is usually nearly colorless, that when transparent and free from flaws is highly valued as a precious stone, and that is used industrially especially as an abrasive; also : a piece of this substance
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Goethite hardness:5-5.5 specific gravity:3.3-3.4 streak:orange-brownish color:black-brown light group:hydroxides crystal shape:othorhombic
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Gold a soft yellow malleable ductile (trivalent and univalent) metallic element
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Lepidolite Hardness:2.5-4 Heft: 2.8 Color:Pink, lilac, purple Streak: white, grey Breakage: cleavage in two directions Luster: nonmetallic (vitreous) Other:small crystals and flaky
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Magnetite Metallic. H = 6 – 6.5. Streak: dark gray. Color silvery gray to black; opaque; forms octahedrons; tarnishes gray. No cleavage; Attracted to a magnet and can be magnetized.
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Malachite Formula: Luster: NM Hardness: 3.5-4 Streak: Green Specific Gravity: 3.6-4.0 Properties/Cleavage: Opaque green. Forms laminations, coatings or masses. No cleavage. Effervesces with HCI. Mineral Class: Carbonate Uses: Gemstone, Ore of copper.
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Opal NM. H = 5 – 5.5. Streak: white. Colorless to white, orange, yellow, brown, blue, gray, green, or red; may have play of colors (opalescence); cleavage absent. Conchoidal fracture.
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Rhodonite Composition: Manganese silicate, sometimes with some calcium, iron, and magnesium Color: Red, pink, orange-red, and brownish-red. Massive specimens often have black veins running through them. Some Rhodonite specimens tarnish black or brown upon exposure to air. Streak: colorless Hardness: 5.5-6
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Silver a soft white precious univalent metallic element having the highest electrical and thermal conductivity of any metal
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Sodalite hardness:5.5-6 spec. gravity:2.14-2.4 streak:colorless color:many esp. blue group:silicates crystal system: cubic
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Topaz This mineral and gemstone is the birthstone for the month of November. It is a silicate mineral of aluminum and fluorine, and comes in a variety of colors, from blue to straw yellow. Name this, with a rank of 8 on the Mohs Scale.
Topaz This mineral and gemstone is the birthstone for the month of November. It is a silicate mineral of aluminum and fluorine, and comes in a variety of colors, from blue to straw yellow. Name this, with a rank of 8 on the Mohs Scale.
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Tremolite hardness: 5-6 specific gravity: 2.9-3.2 streak:whute color:many esp. white group:silicates crys. system:monoclinic
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Ulexite Almost always white, and looks like a densely-packed bundle of white threads. It’s opaque in one direction, and conducts light in the other. It’s fiber-optic abilities gave it the nickname “T.V. rock”.
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