GEOL TEST3 hawkins

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In 79 CE, the citizens of Pompeii in the Roman Empire were buried by pyroclastic debris derived from an eruption of
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Mt Vesuvius
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The smokey cloud that rises from the vent of an actively erupting volcano is composed of
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fine volcaniclastic debris (ash) suspended in the air
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Basaltic lavas that solidify at their surface (before ceasing to flow) fracture irregularly, producing a sharp-surfaced lava rock named
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a’a’
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Pahoehoe
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All of the above -forms when basaltic lava flow ceases flowing and solidifies simultaneously -has a smoother texture than a’a’ -is easier to walk on than a’a’ is
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Mafic lavas are distinguished by
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low viscosity
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Hawaiian-style effusive eruptions are a greater threat to property than to human life
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true
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Of the three primary forms of surface volcanoes, ___________ consist of alternating layers of tephra and solidified lava
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stratovolcanoes
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Of the three primary forms of surface volcanoes, ___________ are sometimes referred to as \”composite volcanoes.\”
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stratovolcanoes
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All volcanic eruptions pass through the crater at the volcanic summit
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false
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Of the three primary forms of surface volcanoes, __________ have the most gently sloping sides, due to the low viscosity of the basaltic lava that form them
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shield volcanoe
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Mt. Fuji in Japan is an example of a
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stratovolcanoe
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The Hawaiian island chain is an example of a(n)
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hot-spot island chain
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Which national park is home to a large volcanic caldera formed through a very large explosive eruption 640,000 years ago?
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Yellowstone
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Hot-spot volcanoes
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all of the above -can arise from the ocean floor -can arise on continents -may arise in the interior of lithospheric plates
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Iceland formed where it is today because of the presence of
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the mid-Atlantic ridge and a hot spot
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The hot-spot track associated with the Hawaiian islands and emperor Seamounts
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shows that the pacific plate has been moving northwest for the last 30 million years
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Large-scale volcanic eruptions can cause a drop in global temperatures
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true
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Geologists who specifically study earthquakes are called
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seismologists
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Earthquakes are a result of
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lithospheric-plate movement
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A surface along which rock on opposed sides is offset by earthquake-induced slip is called a
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fault
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If during an earthquake a hanging wall slides upward relative to a footwall, the fault is termed _______________ if the fault is steep (closer to vertical than horizontal)
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reverse
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If a fault is nearly vertical in orientation and the two walls of rock on opposite sides slide past one another horizontally, the fault is termed
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strike slip
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If during an earthquake, a hanging wall slides upward relative to a footwall, the fault is termed ____________ if the fault is shallow (much closer to horizontal than vertical)
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thrust
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If during an earthquake, a footwall slides upward relative to a hanging wall, the fault is termed
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normal
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Body waves include
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both S- and P- waves
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A coiled spring would be useful in illustrating a ___________ wave
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surface
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Which type of seismic wave has the highest velocity
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P-wave
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Earthquake waves that pass through the interior of Earth are termed
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body waves
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Surface waves
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produce most of the damage to buildings during earthquakes
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The key to finding the location of an earthquake’s epicenter is measuring the
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difference between the time that the P- wave arrives and the time that the S- wave arrives at the seismometer station
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The point within Earth where an earthquake takes place is termed the
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focus
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The point on Earth’s surface directly above the point where an Earthquake occurs is termed the
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epicenter
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How many seismic stations are necessary to find the epicenter of an earthquake?
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3
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Vertical motion seismographs record earthquakes through the production of a squiggly diagram called a
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seismogram
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Which earthquake intensity scale assesses the effect of an earthquake on humans and human-made structures?
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Mercalli scale
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Earthquakes are likely to occur along
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All of the above (convergent, divergent, and transform)
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A tsunami is
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an earthquake-generated sea wave that can sometimes destroy coastal cities thousands of kilometers from its source
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Medium- and deep-focus earthquakes occur along
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convergent-plate boundaries only
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Sandy substrate is susceptible to ___________ during an earthquake
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liquifaction
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Normal, reverse, and thrust are all examples of __________ faults
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dip-slip
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Motion along all faults is either strike slip or dip slip; combinations of these two types of displacement are never found together in a single fault
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false
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A fold shaped like a right side up bowl is a(n)
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syncline
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A fold shaped like an upside down bowl is a(n)
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anticline
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On a geologic map, if the contacts between sedimentary rock units form a bull’s eye pattern of concentric circles, with the youngest unit in the center, the underlying structure is a(n)
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basin
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On a geologic map, if the contacts between sedimentary rock units form a bull’s eye pattern of concentric circles, with the oldest unit in the center, the underlying structure is a(n)
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dome
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On what date did Mt St. Helens erupt?
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May 18, 1980
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The statue-like remains from the people of Pompeii are
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casts

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