Geography Chpt 8

Flashcard maker : Lily Taylor
An individual’s activity space is primarily affected by
age, mobility, and opportunity
When the effort involved in travel exceeds the willingness to travel, the principle in operation is
critical distance
The most effective and usual means of accumulating information affecting spatial interaction is
personal contact
The concept of place utility refers to
the perception of opportunities and attractiveness
Hierarchical diffusion of an innovation
is enhanced by effective communication of specialized information
Among the reasons for migrating, push factors
encourage relocation away from original residence areas
People are often inclined to settle in areas of known natural hazards because
specific hazards don’t occur with great frequency
The “home town” mental map developed by an individual
includes awareness of routes and reference points
The migration field for any locale is
usually fairly stable spatially over time
A diffusion process that follows an S-shape curve indicates that the innovation
first spread slowly, then more rapidly until saturation occurred
The concept of activity space is useful for better understanding that each human
has a territory with which he/she is most familiar
A local campaign to promote a new product is most likely to result in a pattern of diffusion affected by
Mobility is LEAST affected by
number of interpersonal contacts
Which one of the following is/are NOT a barrier to interaction?
When a product or an idea disperses outward from a center of origin, the process is known as
contagious diffusion
Which one of the following is a diffusion process?
hierarchical diffusion
Distance decay implies that
short-distance contacts are more likely than long-distance contacts
A classification of objects into categories so that each category has an increasingly higher status is called
a hierarchy
Barriers to the flow of information give rise to
directional biases
Studies of the perception of natural hazards reveal that
a high-hazard areas are often desireable places in which to live
Which one of the following is a push factor?
dissatisfaction with current job
The value that an individual places on each known, potential migration site is called
place utility
The larger the differential between present circumstances and perceived opportunities, the
more that people are willing to spend on moving
Areas that dominate a locale’s in- and out-migration patterns constitue the
migration field
Hierarchical migration implies that a person moves from
a smaller city to a larger city
Willingness to defend home ground is called
none of the above
The generation of new ideas is commonly fostered by
interchange among specialists
The impressions that people have from observation about the environment of local or distant areas is called
environmental perception
The term diffusion refers to a pattern of
Within the United States, directional biases favor information flows between
East and West
The spread of travel agencies, first to larger cities and then to smaller population centers, is an example of
Rural to urban migration in Third World countries frequently reflects
misperceptions and misinformation
Spatial diffusion would most likely be used to explain distribution of
a new technology
Mental maps most characteristically show
impressions about places
The claim of an area as home ground and the defensive measures taken to defend it have specific reference to the term
The spread of AIDS in a region is an example of
contagious diffusion
Determination of the critical distance can be affected by
cost, effort, and time
The area in which people move about and carry on their daily activities is known as
activity space
In the journey to work in North America, the major factors that plays a role in the determination of critical distance appears to be
time required in getting to work
Which one of the following is considered a pull factor in regard to migration?
amenities of living in Australia
Which one of the following major recent international migration steams is correctly paired with its chief fundamental cause?
from Mexico to the United States-economic
The tendency for people to migrate from smaller to larger places is called
hierarchical migration
T/F:Territoriality is the spatial expression of one’s mental map.
T/F:A migration field is formed by totaling the activity spaces of a number of people.
T/F:Spatial diffusion declines rapidly with distance. With migration behavior, one expects places close to one another to have a greater rate of migration than places far from one another.
T/F:New inventions and innovations are usually the result of isolated contemplation.
T/F:Environmental perception refers to our personal awareness and beliefs about place and space.
T/F:People’s perception of the world usually tends to exaggerate the importance of nearby areas.
T/F:Channelized migration is primarily an ethnic characteristic.
T/F:Migration decisions most realistically are viewed as the outcome of both push and pull influences.
T/F:A hierarchical routing of information flows displays the effect of distance decay.
T/F:We form place opinions and perceptions only on the basis of personal experience.
T/F:Hierarchical diffusion is flow from larger to smaller centers; hierarchical migration is movement from smaller to larger centers.
T/F:People with limited knowledge of opportunities elsewhere are more apt to migrate than are those in full possession of detailed place utility data.
T/F:Most migration decisions are based upon assessments of alternate economic opportunities.
T/F:Without exception, the more crowded an area, the greater the number of effective interactions between people.
T/F:Current migration paths in the United States clearly show hierarchical movement.

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